POST-ROMAN BRITAIN

 

A Tentative Chronology Based Upon Published Sources

 

 

VOLUME I

 

CHRONOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

This work consists of :

Volume I: a chronology concentrating on Britain in the post Roman period up to the year 737, just after the death of the Venerable Bede, and

Volume II, an analysis based upon that chronology.

The dates in the chronology have been extracted fron the views of scholars and writers publishing major works on the period, but not so far from scholarly journals.  The works from which the chronology have been extracted are listed in the bibliography at the end of this volume.

No claim is made in this volume for the veracity of any of the dates.  Disagreements between sources are indicated.  The volume serves at the very least to indicate the need for scholarly work on the chronology of the period and the still wide disagreements over very many of the dates cited.

This work was undertaken in reaction to the trend in scholarship of the period that, largely since the late 1970s, has denied the validity of all sources for the period save for:

Saint Gildas ap Caw’s De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae.

The Venerable Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

Parts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Some continental chroniclers.

A very few charters at the end of the period.

Archaeology.  

The effect of the denial of any validity of other evidence has been to:

Remove the possibility of all but a very limited narrativehistory of something like 300 years of the history of Britain.

Eradicate all but a very few personalities from the history of that period.

Reduce the history of that period to a recital of archaeological discoveries.

Skew the history of the period in favour of the Anglo-Saxon victors of the struggle for the island, in particular to accept the very partial view of the history of that period put forward by the Venerable Bede.

Prevent any searching analysis of the political, religious and societal changes in the period.

The evidence currently largely discounted in studies of the period consists of:

Chronicles: the Annales Cambriae; the Irish Annals; Scottish Annals.

Vitae of the saints of Britain, Ireland, Scotland and Brittany.

Genealogies of the princely families of Britain, Ireland, Scotland and Brittany.

British clerical compositions including the Bonedd y Saint and similar collections in Ireland and Scotland.

Literature.

Whilst there is a purist logic in denying the validity of the sources in Paragraph 6 (for all individually are suspect in content and very late in date), the difficulty with such an approach lies in its failure to give a logical explanation for the existence of the sources so discounted. They can with good conscience be discounted if they are untrue, but if they are untrue, they must have been made up. If they were to have been made up, unless they had been created by authors with access to the entire range of sources available to us now, and with the power to coordinate all the accounts of the matters they address, they would not make sense when they are placed together.  We should expect to find in such fictional accounts at least a moiety of inconsistencies, clashes and demonstrable falsehoods.  We do not find such a moiety of inconsistencies.

As the analysis in these two volumes indicates, there are, in fact, remarkably few inconsistencies in any combined account of the period which attempts to take all sources into account.  There are mistakes, occasional falsehoods, some lapses and misinterpretations in many of the sources, much warping caused by the passage of time and the lack of later understanding of what was recounted.  What we find, however, indicates that in most of the discounted sources we find useful and consistent information.

Therefore, whilst it may be rational to do so, it is not, in my view, reasonable to discount entirely the sources listed above. 

The inclusion in consideration of a full range of sources leaves us the problem of the collation and interpretation of the evidence they provide.  This volume is an attempt to go some way to giving an initial answer to the former need. Interpretation, sadly, calls for historical and linguistic skills beyond those of the present compiler. Nevertheless, the analysis presented here indicates that there will be benefit in an attempt at such assessments. 

It is perhaps worthy of note here that military intelligence procedures are designed to cope with similar problems of the reliability of source and of the information itself, particularly in contexts of the presence of large amounts of seemingly unassessible information.  They cope by:

Grading sources, giving greater weight in an assessment to sources whose reliability has been proved independently and lesser weight to sources whose reliability is unknown or low, but not discounting even the weakest source unless absolute unreliability can be proved.

Grading information, giving greater weight to information that is corroborated independently or which matches information obtained elsewhere, and, again, not discounting even the most suspect information unless absolute unreliability can be proved.

Searching for coincidences and patterns in all the information available.

Watching for links and connections in all the information available.

Seeking to establish the motivation of the source of allthe information available.

Establishing cause and effect between all information available.

Forming the simplest and most probable picture from allthe information available.

 It is the view of the compiler of this volume that, were such a graded approach to be employed, the sorts of analysis here attempted would produce useable results. Furthermore, the picture so achieved would, to some better degree than is done now, recognise the contribution of the men and women of our islands of three centuries of its history and, with varying degrees of reliability, restore that contribution to us.   

This chronology and analysis are drawn up on the basis that the British considered that their country, Britannia, stretched from Alt Clut and Manau Gododdin in the north as far south as Cornubia, and that their world and culture encompassed the regions around it: from Alba / Pictland in the north, through Hibernia in the west to Armorica and Galicia in the south.

ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTES ON THE ORGANISATION OF THE TEXT

Abbreviations

AC – Annales Cambriae

ASC – Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

AU – Annals of Ulster

B / b – born

C – circa or Century

CP – Charles Plummer, Baedae Opera Historica

D / d - died

DOC - Daibhi O Croinin

Fl / fl - floruit

GA – Geoffrey Ashe

HB – Nennius, Historia Britons

IA – Irish Annals

JEF - James E. Fraser 

JEL – Sir J.E. Lloyd

JM – John Morris

KH – Katherine Hughes

LA – Leslie Alcock

MA – Mike Ashley

PCB – Peter C. Bartrum

R / r- ruled

TMC - T.M. Charles-Edwards

WSK – Ann Williams, Alfred P. Smyth and D.P. Kirby

Organisation of the Text

Events of the same year are organized geographically, north followed by south, west by east, as the chronology is not known, separated by a -.

Square brackets indicate sources or alternative views.

Bold black text is used for dates, green text indicates that which is almost certainly conjectural or mythical, red text indicates personal comment.

For convenience only, the two Dumnonias are referred to as Dumnonia (for the principality on the British mainland) and Damnonia (for Domnonée, the principality in Armorica).  Cornwall is referred to as Cornubia and Cornuaille for the principality in Armorica.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

Alcock, Leslie, Arthur’s Britain; Cadbury Camelot.

 

Ardrey, Adam, Finding Arthur.

 

Ashe, Geoffrey, The Quest for Arthur’s Britain; The Discovery of King Arthur; Camelot and the Vision of Albion; King Arthur’s Avalon.

 

Ashley, Mike, King Arthur: The Man and the Legend Revealed.

 

Baker, John T., Cultural Transitions in the Chilterns and Essex Region 350 AD to 650 AD.

 

Barber, Chris, King Arthur: The Mystery Unravelled.

Barber, Richard, King Arthur in Legend and History.

Bartrum, Peter C., A Welsh Classical Dictionary: People in History and Legend up to about A.D. 1000.

Bede, the Venerable, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum.

Birley, Anthony R., The Roman Government of Britain.

 

Bowen, E.G., Saints, Seaways and Settlements.

 

Carney, James, The Problem with Patrick.

 

Chadwick, Nora K., Studies in the Early British Church: Studies in Early British History; Celt and Saxon: Early Brittany.

 

Chambers, E.K., Arthur of Britain.

 

Charles-Edwards, T.M., Wales and the Britons, 350-1064.

Collingwood, R.G., and J.N.L. Myers, Roman Britain and the English Settlements.

Cooper, David, Badon and the Early Wars for Wessex, circa 500 to 710.

Crichton, Robin, On the Trail of Arthur.

 

Dark, Ken, Britain and the End of the Roman Empire; Civitas to Kingdom.

 

Davies, Wendy, An Early Welsh Microcosm.

 

Dobbs, M.E., The History of the Descendants of Ir.

Eagle, Bruce, From Roman Civitas to Anglo-Saxon Shire: Topographical Studies on the Formation of Wessex.

 

Ellis, P. Beresford, Celt and Saxon.

 

Fleming, Robin, Britain After Rome.

Fraser, James E., From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795

Frere, Shepherd, Britannia.

Gibbon, Edward, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

 

Gildow, Christopher, The Reign of Arthur.

 

Haarer, F.K., ed., AD 410; The History and Archaeology of Late and Post Roman Britain.

 

Halsall, Guy, Worlds of Arthur.

 

Haslehurst, R.S.T., The Works of Fastidius.

 

Hodgkin, Thomas, The Barbarian Invasions.

Hughes, Kathleen, The Church in Irish Society 400-800 in Daibhi O Croinin, A New History of Ireland.

Hunter-Blair, Peter, The World of Bede; Northumbria in the Days of Bede; Anglo-Saxon England; Roman Britain and Early England.

Huttin, Ronald, Witches, Druids and King Arthur.

Johnson, S., The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore; Later Roman Britain.

 

Jones, Michael E., The End of Roman Britain.

 

Lacy, Norris J. and Geoffrey Ashe, The Arthurian Handbook.

 

Laycock, Stuart, Britannia: The Failed State; Warlords.

 

Liversidge, Joan, Britain in the Roman Empire.

 

Lloyd, Sir J.E., A History of Wales, Volume 1.

 

MacNeill, Eioin, Phases of Irish History.

 

Malmesbury,William of, Gesta Regum Anglorum in The Kings Before the Norman Conquest.

 

Maund, Kari, The Welsh Kings.

 

Mayr-Harting, Henry, The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England.

 

Moffat, Alistair, Arthur and the Lost Kingdoms;The Sea Kingdoms.

 

Morris, John, The Age of Arthur; Londinium; Arthurian Period Sources, especially Volume 3: Persons

 

Musset, Lucien, The Germanic Invasions.

 

Nennius, Historia Brittonum.

 

O Croinin, Daibhi, A New History of Ireland;  Prehistoric and Early Ireland.

 

O’Rahilly, T.F., The Two Patricks.

 

Perowne, Stewart, The End of the Roman World.

 

Piette, Gwenno, Brittany: A Concise History. 

 

Pryor, Francis, Britain AD.

 

Ramirez, Janina, Power, Passion and Politics in Anglo-Saxon England: The Private Lives of Saints.

Reno, Frank D., The Historic King Arthur.

 

Richmond, I.A., Roman Britain.

 

Saklatvala, Bela,  Arthur, Roman Britain’s Last Champion.

Salway, Peter, Roman Britain.

Snyder, Christopher, Exploring the World of Arthur.

Stenton, Sir Frank, Anglo-Saxon England.

Stevens, C.E., ‘The British Sections of the Notitia Dignitatum’, in Arch. Journ. XCVII  (1940).

Stirling, Simon Andrew, The King Arthur Conspiracy.

Thomas, Charles, Britain and Ireland in Early Christian Times.

 

Treharne, R.F., The Glastonbury Legends.

 

Victory, Sean, The Celtic Church in Wales.

 

Wacher, John, Roman Britain.

 

White, Richard, ed., King Arthur in Legend and History.

 

White, Roger, Britanna Prima.

 

Wickham, Chris, The Inheritance of Rome.

Wikipedia – for estimates based on regnal lists of Celtic kings and the lives of saints.

Williams, Ann, Alfred P Smyth & D.P. Kirby, A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain.

 

Young, Simon, AD 500.

BRITISH CHRONOLOGY TO 737

 

1STCENTURY BCE / BC

 

8 BC – 9 AD (12 BC – 5 AD) C. Marcius Censorinus & C. Asinius Gallus - C. Poppaeus Sabinus & Q. Sulpicius Camerinus  - Crimthann Nia Nair High King of Ireland.

1ST CENTURY CE/ AD

9-14 C. Poppaeus Sabinus & Q. Sulpicius Camerinus - Sex. Pompeius & Sex. Appuleius - Cairbre Cinnchait or Caitchenn / Cat Head / Hard Head High King of Ireland [other has 55-60].

 

14 – 36 Sex. Pompeius & Sex. Appuleius - Sex. Papinius Allenius & Q. Plautius (January -June); C. Vettius Rufus & M. Porcius Cato (July–December) - Feradach Finnfechtnach / Fearadhach Fionnfeachtnach / Fair-blessed High King of Ireland [other has 5-25].

 

36 – 39 Sex. Papinius Allenius & Q. Plautius (January -June); C. Vettius Rufus & M. Porcius Cato (July–December) - C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus II & L. Apronius Caesianus (January); Q. Sanquinius Maximus & Cn. Domitius Corbulo (February-September); A. Didius Gallus & Cn. Domitius Afer (September -December) - Fiatach Finn mac Dáire, King of the Uliad, High King of Ireland[other has 25-28].

 

39 – 56 C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus II & L. Apronius Caesianus (January); Q. Sanquinius Maximus & Cn. Domitius Corbulo (February-September); A. Didius Gallus & Cn. Domitius Afer (September -December) 39 - Q. Volusius Saturninus & P. Cornelius Scipio -Fiacha Finnolach High King of Ireland[other has 28-55].

43 Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus III & L. Vitellius I (January –February); Sex. Palpellius Hister & L. Pedanius Secundus (March –July);

A. Gabinius Secundus & N.N. (August –September); Q. Curtius Rufus & Sp. Oppius (October –December) – Roman conquest of southern Britain.

56 – 76 Q. Volusius Saturninus & P. Cornelius Scipio - Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VII & T. Caesar Vespasianus V - Elim mac Conrach, King of Ulster, High King of Ireland[other has 60-80].

70 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus II & T. Caesar Vespasianus - Roman conquest of northern Britain.

76 – 106 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VII & T. Caesar Vespasianus V - L. Ceionius Commodus & Sex. Vettulenus Civica Cerialis - Túathal Techtmar / The Legitimate High King of Ireland[other has 80-100].

C 90 British Claudia Rufina and husband Aulus Pudens, with daughter Pudentiana, friends of Martial, possibly converts of Saint Paul in Rome [PCB has 68 Saint Paul mentions Pudens and Claudia plus Linus in his Epistle to Timothy.  Pudens may be Pudens son of Pudentius with inscription at Chichester].

2NDCENTURY CE / AD

C2 Irish Gangani already settled in Llyn/Lleyn Peninsula [Pliny’s Geographyplaces them in south western Ireland and the Lleyn Peninsula – ‘the promontory of the Gangani’; Maund – a fort in Britain owned by the sons of Liathain, the Ui Liathain; Nennius – the sons of Lethan]. 

106 – 110 L. Ceionius Commodus & Sex. Vettulenus Civica Cerialis - M. Peducaeus Priscinus & Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus - Mal mac Rochride, King of the Ulaid, High King of Ireland[other has 100-104]

110 – 119 M. Peducaeus Priscinus & Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus - Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus III & P. Dasumius Rusticus - Fedlimid Rechtmar / The Lawful / Legitimate / Passionate / Furious or Rechtaid / Judge / Lawgiver High King of Ireland[other has 104-113].

119 – 122 Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus III & P. Dasumius Rusticus - M' Acilius Aviola & L. Corellius Neratius Pansa - Cathair Mór High King of Ireland[other has 113-116].

122 – 157 M. Acilius Aviola & L. Corellius Neratius Pansa - M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus & M. Metilius Aquillius Regulus Nepos Volusius Torquatus Fronto - Conn Cétchathach / Of the Hundred Battles High King of Ireland [other has 116-136].

123 Q. Articuleius Paetinus L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus - Hadrian builds Wall.

138 Kanus Iunius Niger & C. Pomponius Camerinus - Antonine occupation of lowlands and building of Wall.

152 M. Acilius Glabrio & Cn. Cornelius Severus M. Valerius Homullus - Antonine wall abandoned.

157 – 165 M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus & M. Metilius Aquillius Regulus Nepos Volusius Torquatus Fronto - M. Gavius Orfitus & L. Arrius Pudens - Conaire Cóem / The Beautiful High King of Ireland [other has 136-143].

 

165 – 195 M. Gavius Orfitus & L. Arrius Pudens - P. Iulius Scapula Tertullus Priscus Q. Tineius Clemens - Art mac Cuinn / Son of Conn / Art Óenfer  / One Man / Lone / Solitary / Only Son High King of Ireland. [others have 143-173 and C 220-250 – Art Aenfer / The Solitary, son of Conn Cedcathach, High King of Ireland].

Late C2 Lucius Artorius CastusPraefectus Legionisof Legio VI Victrix at Eboracum [MA has 181].  [Chambers and MA have C140-197 a Roman officer in Britain, brings 5,500 Sarmatian cavalry to Bremetennacum / Ribchester].

183 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus IV & C. Aufidius Victorinus II - [MA] VI Valeria Victrix Legion pushes Caledonii back over border.

C 185 Triarius Maternus Lascivius & Ti. Claudius M. Ap. Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus - [MA] Lucius Artorius Castus made dux and campaigns in Armenia (other has Armorica].

193-197 Q. Pompeius Sosius Falco & C. Iulius Erucius Clarus Vibianus - T. Sextius Magius Lateranus L./C. Cuspius Rufinus - Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus,military commander in Britain, declared Augustus in Britain twice, first under Emperor Commodus who tried but failed to dismiss him, and on second occasion after fall of Pertinax 196 takes troops to Gaul where he is takes Gallic and one Spanish legion but not the Rhine troops.  He is killed at Lugdunum / Lyons by the Emperor Septimius Severus.

195-225 P. Iulius Scapula Tertullus Priscus & Q. Tineius Clemens - Ti. Manilius Fuscus II & Ser. Calpurnius Domitius Dexter - Lugaid Mac Con High King of Ireland [other has 173-203].

Before 200 Ti. Claudius Severus Proculus & C. Aufidius Victorinus - [Ashe; Treharne has early C3; other has 208] Tertullian claims Christianity has conquered areas of Britain not accessible to Rome.

3RDCENTURY CE / AD

207 L. Annius Maximus & L. Septimius Severus Aper - [MA] British ?rebellion; Emperor Septimius Severus and sons Caracalla / Bassianus and Geta attempt conquest of Caledonia but fail [Crichton has 208-210; JEF denies the intent, and describes the sttelemnt put in place after the ravaging of Miathae, Caledones and Picts of Fortriu].

210-220 M. Acilius Faustinus & A. Triarius Rufinus - Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus III & P. Valerius Comazon II – Regulbium / Reculver fortified.

211 Hedius Lollianus Terentius Gentianus & Pomponius Bassus - Emperor Septimius Severus dies at Eboracum / York, succeeded by son Caracalla who divides Britain into two provinces, Superior with capital at Londinium / London, Inferior at Eboracum / York.

225-226 Ti. Manilius Fuscus II & Ser. Calpurnius Domitius Dexter - Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus II C. Aufidius Marcellus II - Fergus Dubdétach / Black Tooth, King of the Ulaid, High King of Ireland [other has 203-204].

226-266 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus II & C. Aufidius Marcellus II - Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus VII & Sabinillus - Cormac mac Airt / Son of Art / Cormac ua Cuinn / Grandson of Conn / Cormac Ulfada / Long Beard High King of Ireland [other has 204-244].

Before 250 Imp. Caesar C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus III & Q. Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Caesar– [other has 239] Origen refers to British Christians.  [Treharne] Gallic Christians reach Ynis-witrin / Glaestingaburg / ?Avalon / Isle of Glass / Isle de Voire / Glastonbury from the west.

C 254-266 Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus II & Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus - Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus VII & Sabinillus– Cormac Mac Art, son of Art the Solitary, son of Conn of a Hundred Battles, High King of Ireland, expels the Desi / Déisi / Deisi / Déssi Muman tribe of County Waterford / Bregia in Meath. Led by Eochaid Almuir / Ewein Mac Artchorp / Art Corb; they settle in Demed / Demetia / Dyfed [Carney in DOC has C 430;LA has C 270; other has 277; MA has 320-350 fl Artchorp / Cyngar of the Desiand 350-380 fl Eochaid Almuir / Ewein; 434 Ambrosius / Gwledig Emrys / Embreis Guletic, settles Desi in Wales / Dinas Emrys].  Nennius mentions Uí Liatháin in Demetia.

 

266-267 Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus VII & Sabinillus - Eochaid Gonnat / Gunnat / Wounding? High King of Ireland [other has 244-245].

 

267-284 Ovinius Gaius Julius Aquilius Paternus & Arcesilaus - Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus II & Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Numerianus Augustus - Cairbre Lifechair / Lover of the Liffey High King of Ireland [other has 245-272].

270 Flavius Antiochianus II & Virius Orfitus -280s – forts of the Litus Saxonicum/ Saxon Shore built. 

276-282 Imp. Caesar M. Claudius Tacitus Augustus II & (Fulvius?) Aemilianus II- Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus V & Victorinus– Emperor Probus settles Burgundians and Vandals, defeated on the Rhine, in Britain [Hodgkin has 277].

280-281 (Lucius Valerius?) Messalla & (Vettius?) Gratus - Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus IV & Junius Tiberianus – Bonosus, naval officer in charge of Rhenish Fleet, son of a British teacher of rhetoric and a Gaulish mother but born in Hispania, tries to set up seat of Celtic provinces at Colonia Agrippina / Cologne when the Germans burn his fleet, but is crushed by Probus and hangs himself.

284-285 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus II & Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Numerianus Augustus - Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus III & Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus - Fothad Cairpthech / Chariot Fighter and Fothad Airgthech Ingenious / Plundering Joint High Kings of Ireland[other has 272-273].

285 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus III & Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus– Successful operations in Britain [Chadwick – on the coast] lead to Emperor Diocletian taking title Britannicus Maximus.  

-

First outbreak of bacaudae in Armorica under Amandus and Aelianus, suppressed by Maximian.

285-286 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus III & Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus - M. Iunius Maximus II & Vettius Aquilinus – Marcus Aurelius Carausius, native of Menapia in the Low Countries, appointed by Co-Emperor Maximianus Herculaeius commander of the Classis Britannica/ British Fleet based in Portus Itius / Gesoriacum / Bononia / Boulogne defending Channel against Frankish and Saxon raiders, destroys Frankish and Saxon pirates in the North Sea who have been raiding Armorica and Belgica.

285-322 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus III & Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus - Petronius Probianus & Amnius Anicius Iulianus - Fiacha Sraibhtine High King of Ireland [other has 273-306].

286 M. Iunius Maximus II & Vettius Aquilinus – Marcus Aurelius Carausius declares himself Augustus in Britain [PCB has 286-293] and hires Frankish mercenaries.

287-288 Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus III & Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus I - Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus II Pomponius Ianuarianus – Marcus Aurelius Carausius takes Classis Britannicato Britain.

293 Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus V & Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus IV – Caesar Constantius takes Bononia / Boulogne. Marcus Aurelius Carausius murdered by finance minister Allectus [PCB has 293]. 

296 Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VI & Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar II – Emperor Constantius Chlorus recovers Britain for the Empire and his 2IC Asclepiodotus kills Allectus in battle near Farnham or Calleva Atrebatum / Silchester.  He fights Picts, Hibernii and Scotti and declares himself Redditor Lucis Aeterna(Restorer of the Eternal Light).

297 Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus V & C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar II – name Picti first used for the Priteni of Caledonia, the tuatha Cruthin in Pro restaurandis (or instaurandis) scholis (For the Restoration of Schools), a panegyric by Eumenius. 

-

Franks settled in the empty fields of the Arvii and the Treveri.

From C 299 Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VII & Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VI – Saxon / lower Elbe pottery types found in garrisons in Britain in eastern areas, near Saxon Shore forts and country houses; the gentiles[or perhaps from 296with Constantius Chlorus?].

Before 300 Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar III & C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar III – naval base set up in Bristol Channel, a fort built at ?Tamium / ?Bovium / Cardiff and some villas fortified.

 

4THCENTURY CE / AD

C 300 Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar III & C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar III – British migration commences to Armorica / Brittany and Gallaecia / Galicia [JM has C 388 first British migration to Armorica].  

-

Diocletian divides Britain into four provinces: Inferiordivided into: Britannia Secundanorth of Humber / Mersey with capital Eboracum / York governed by a praeses; and Flavia Caesariensiswith capital at Lindum / Lincoln governed by a praeses; Superiorsplit: Britannia Prima in the west with capital Corinium / Cirencester governed by a praeses; Maxima Caesariensiswith capital Londinium / London governed by a consularis. London made diocesan capital with seat of Vicarius.  Dux Britanniarumgiven control of northern forces. 

After 303 Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VIII & Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VII – In Emperor Diocletian’s persecution of Christians, Saints Alban / Albanus of Verulamium [GM has ‘Amphibalus’ as the Christian hidden by Alban], and Aaron and Julius of Isca Augusta / Caerleon martyred and churches destroyed [AS has 283; Bede has 305; other has Aaron and Julius killed in 304; JR has possible death in Decius's persecution 249-251 or that of Valerian 253-260; WSK has under Septimius Severus C209, Decius 254 or Diocletian C305; JM suggests 209].  

 

305 Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar V & C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar V – Emperor Constantius Chlorus campaigns in the north against Picts.

306 Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus VI & Imp. Caesar C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VI – Emperor Constantius Chlorus dies at Eboracum / York.  His son Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus/ Constantine proclaimed Emperor by the troops.

314 C. Caeionius Rufius Volusianus II & Petronius Annianus– Bishop Restitus of Londinium / London, Bishop Eborius of Eboracum / York and Bishop Adelfius of Lindum Colonia / Colonia Lindensium / Lincoln [PCB has or Glevum or Camulodunum] attend Council of Arles, which gives computation dates for Easter to British church [PCB adds Sacerdos, a presbyter, and Arminius, a deacon].

322-326 Petronius Probianus & Amnius Anicius Iulianus - Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus VII & Flavius Iulius Constantius Caesar - Colla Uais High King of Ireland[other has 306-310].

325 Valerius Proculus & Sex. Anicius Paulinus – Council of Nicaea lays down rules for Easter dating avoiding Passover day. 

326-356 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus VII & Flavius Iulius Constantius Caesar - Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus VIII & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar - Muiredach Tirech High King of Ireland [JM has 325; other has 310-343].

 

C 330 Flavius Gallicanus & Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus – Eusebius makes cryptic reference to apostles to Britain in his Ecclesiastical History.

337 Flavius Felicianus & Fabius Titianus – Constans and Constantius II become Emperors. ​

-

First mention of Picts and Scots allying to raid Britain.  ​Saxons on continent threaten Rhine frontier.

 

340 Septimius Acindynus & L. Aradius Valerius Proculus Populonius – Ambrosius the first Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

341 Antonius Marcellinus & Petronius Probinus – Aconius Catullinus ?Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

342 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus III & Flavius Iulius Claudius Constans Augustus II – Fabius Titianus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 350).

342/343 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus III & Flavius Iulius Claudius Constans Augustus II/ M. Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus & Flavius Romulus - [BS] treaty with Picts and Scots settling them in Britain.

343 M. Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus & Flavius Romulus – Emperor Constans visits Britain in the Classis Britannicain the winter; settlement of German laeti?  British bishops attend Council of Sardica and support Saint Athanasius against the Arians.

350 Flavius Sergius & Flavius Nigrinianus – Flavius Magnus Magnentius, native of Gaul, commander of the Herculian and Jovian imperial guards, elevated Augustus by troops at Autun, who kill Emperor Constans. Britannia, Gaul, Italy, Africa and Hispania support Magnentius.  Constantius II instigates the Alemanni to cross Rhine and lay waste to Gaul.

 

C 350 Flavius Sergius & Flavius Nigrinianus – Scotti / Irish from Leinster settle in Mona / Anglesey in Ordovices lands.  [BS] Scots and Picts raid Britain; Magister MilitumFlavius Lupicinus sent from Gaul to suppress them successfully [other has 360]. [Chadwick citing Wheeler] rebuilding and reoccupation of Segontium. 

-

Irish Mansuetus is Bishop of Tullum Leucorum / Toul.  

-

 Saxons on continent threaten Rhine frontier.

 

350-353 Flavius Sergius & Flavius Nigrinianus - Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus VI & Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar II - Saxons settled in Gaul by Magnentius.

351Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus & Gaiso - Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus defeated by Constantius II at Battle of Mursa Major in Pannonia.

353 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus VI & Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar II - Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus commits suicide after losing Battle of Mons Seleucus in Gaul [Yeates quoting Ammianus Marcellinus has 353-354.  

-

Constantius II instigates a purge in Britain under primicerius notariorum/Notary / Secretary Paulus Catena / Paul the Chain.  [MA] VicariusFlavius Martinus tries to assassinate Paul but fails, so kills himself.  

-

Brief usurpations of Carausius II [354-358] and Cenceris / Genceris.  

-

Troops in Britain now under strength and underpaid.  

-

Constantius II tries to enforce Arianism.  

-

Vulcacius Rufinus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum for the first term (to 354 when his ? relative Constantius Gallus falls from grace with Emperor Constantius II).

354 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus VII & Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar III - Gaius Ceionius Rufius Volusianus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 355).

355 Flavius Arbitio & Q. Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus Mavortius – Julian becomes Caesar.  

-

Honoratus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 357). 

-

[JM] Muiredach Tirech High King of Ireland dies.

 

356-357 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus VIII & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar - Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus IX & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar II – Cáelbad / Cáelbhadh / Caolbhadh High King of Ireland [other has 343-344].

357 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus IX & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar II – Flavius Florentius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 360 when he abandons his post at accession of Julian as Augustus and flees to Constantius II).

357-362/365 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus IX & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar II - Flavius Valentinianus Augustus & Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus - Eochaid Mugmedón High King of Ireland [JM has 356; other has 344-351]. 

358 Censorius Datianus & Neratius Cerealis – [Yeates quoting Zozimus] ships built at mouth of Rhine to export grain from Britannia.

C 358 Censorius Datianus & Neratius Cerealis - [BS; MA has 360] Scots and Picts in alliance raid Britain. 

358-359 Censorius Datianus & Neratius Cerealis - Flavius Eusebius & Flavius Hypatius – Hilary Bishop of Pictavum / Poitiers writes against Arianism to British Bishops in De Synodis.

 

359 Flavius Eusebius & Flavius Hypatius – Emperor Julian enlarges Classis Britannicaat Bononia / Boulogne and uses it to ferry British troops to the Rhine.  

-

[Yeates] Grain exported from Britain to the continent. 

-

At Council of Ariminium / Rimini, Constantius II tries to enforce Arianism; all but three of the British Bishops refuse his offer to pay their expenses.

 

360 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus X & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar III– [TCM] Scotti and Picti break treaties and attack Britain.  Classis Britannicaused to ferry troops under Lupicinus from Bononia / Boulogne to Rutupiae / Richborough.  

-

Nebridus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 361). 

C 360-390 Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus X & Flavius Claudius Iulianus Caesar III - Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus IV Flavius Neoterius - [MA] fl Freawine of the West Saxons, Beornic of Bernician Angles, Saebald of the Deiran Angles, Tytmon of the East Angles, Gesecg of the East Saxons, Wermund of the Mercians, Finn of the Lindsey Angles.

 

361 Flavius Taurus & Flavius Florentius – Emperor Constantius II dies.  Julian becomes Emperor.  

-

Palladius banished to Britain.

 

363 Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus IV & Flavius Sallustius – Emperor Julian murdered, succeeded by Jovian.  

-

Sallustius is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

364 Flavius Iovianus Augustus & Varronianus – Picts and Scotti raid Britain.  [TCM] Picts, Saxons, Attacotti and Scotti attack Britain.  Ammianus Marcellinus mentions Saxons.

-

Emperor Jovian dies, succeeded by Emperor Valentinian I, who sends forces to Britain. Valens becomes Emperor in the East.  

365 Flavius Valentinianus Augustus & Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus – Vulcacius Rufinus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum for second term (to 368).

365-376 Flavius Valentinianus Augustus & Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus -Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus V & Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus - Crimthand Mór mac Fidaig / Great Fox, Son of Woodsman, King of Munster, High King of Ireland [other has 351-368].

 

366 Flavius Gratianus & Dagalaifus – Damasus becomes Bishop of Rome.

 

367 Flavius Lupicinus & Flavius Iovinus – The Great Conspiracy: the garrison of Hadrian’s Wall rebels and lets Picts from Caledonia (Dicalydones and Verturiones), Attacotti / Atecotti and Scotti break through the Wall.  Saxons land from Germania [Yeates has 365]. [TCM] Some Franks also attack Britain, but most Saxon and Frankish attacks are in Gaul.  The Irish High King Crimthann, who has authority over Irish as far as the Channel, marries a Saxon wife, mother of Niall of the Nine Hostages. Nectaridus, ? the Comes Maritime Tractus/ Count of the Maritime Area, killed.  Coast of Gaul raided. Emperor Valentinian I campaigning against the Alamanni on the Rhine. Dux BritanniarumFrank Fullofaudes captured in north of Britannia.  Roman outposts north of Hadrian’s Wall abandoned. Revolt of Valentinus. Count Theodosius (Hodgkin has 368 and appointed Dux Britanniarum] and his son, the future Emperor Theodosius, and Flavius Magnus Maximus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig, now a junior officer, land at Rutupiae / Richborough, march to Londinium / London and rename it Augusta. [or 368] Classis Britannicaat Bononia / Boulogne used to ferry troops from there to Rutupiae / Richborough.  

368 Flavius Valentinianus Augustus II & Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus II – Count Theodosius makes Dulcitius new Dux Britanniarum/ Duke of the Britains and Civilis is appointed Vicarius/ Vicar.  Hadrian’s Wall recovered. Lookout stations built along northeast coast.  Forts beyond the wall abandoned and the Areani, units of scouts, disbanded [Hodgkin has arcani]. [Storr] Car Dyke built south from Lindum Colonia to Peterborough.

369 Valentinianus Galates & Flavius Victor - Valentinus of Valeria executed by Civilis. Count Theodosius creates new (northern?) province of Valentia, governed by a consularis. Praefecti gentiumestablished to rule beyond the wall [as happens elsewhere, eg in Africa, C 370-380]. [JM] Theodosius creates border dynasties.  [MA] Quintilius Clemens (? grandfather of Coroticus) appointed to rule the Damnonii on the Clyde.  Paternus son of Tacitus ? grandfather of Cunedda, appointed to rule the ? southern Votadini [this becomes Bryneich / Bernaccia around Yeavering Bell]; Catellius Decianus appointed to rule the northern Votadini in Manau Gododdin in Lothian to Stirling and the lower Forth, with capital at Traprain Law. 

 

370 Flavius Valentinianus Augustus III & Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus III – Emperor Valentinian I disperses Saxons on the lower Rhine.  He sends Alamanni King Fraomar as tribune with a unit to Britain to ? Valentia.  

371 Flavius Gratianus Augustus II & Sex. Claudius Petronius Probus – Maximinus (witch-hunter for Valentinian I and brother of exiled criminal and then British rebel Valentinus) Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 376, when purged by Gratian).

-

[Yeates has 371-372] Alypius Vice-Governor of Britain.

 

372 Domitius Modestus & Flavius Arinthaeus – Saint Martin made Bishop of Civitas Turonum / Caesarodunum  / Tours.

373 Flavius Valentinianus Augustus IV & Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus IV – Saint Ambrose of Mediolanum / Milan, son of a praetorian prefect and a Governor in northeast Italy, made Bishop of Mediolanum / Milan.

 

375 Post consulatum Gratiani Augusti III et Equiti – Emperor Valentinian I dies on the Danube countering the Goths.  Gratian and Valentinian II succeed in the west.

 

C 375-415 Post consulatum Gratiani Augusti III et Equiti- Flavius Honorius Augustus X & Flavius Theodosius Augustus VI - [MA] fl Corath / Cyndwr / Kyndeyrn, successor of Eochaid Almuir of Desi.  

-

Irish Mansuetus Bishop of Tullum Leucorum / Toul dies.  

 

376 Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus V & Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus – Flavius Claudius Antonius (to 377), poet and tutor of the Emperor Gratian, and Decimus Magnus Ausonius (to 378) Co-Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

378 Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus VI & Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus II – Battle of Adrianople lost to the Visigoths and Valens Emperor of the East killed.

-

Date of last minted coin found in Dumnonia. 

-

Siburius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 382), the last pagan to hold the office and the first since the death of the Emperor Julian.

C 378 Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus VI Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus II – new floor in forum of Isca Dumnonorum / Caer Penhuelgoit / Exeter.   

 

378-384 Flavius Iulius Valens Augustus VI & Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus II - Flavius Ricomer & Flavius Clearchus - [IA] [JM has 379] Nial / Niall Noigialach / of the Nine Hostages High King of Ireland. [JM has 378 Crimthann High King of Ireland dies; others have 376-405 and 368-395 Niall Noígíallach / Of the Nine Hostages of the Uí Néill, High King of Ireland]. 

 

379 Decimius Magnus Ausonius & Q. Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius - [JM] Gratian enthrones Theodosius I, son of Count Theodosius, Emperor in the East.  

 

380 Flavius Gratianus Augustus V & Flavius Theodosius Augustus – Pelagius goes to Rome to teach. 

-

Flavius Magnus Maximus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig, native of Galicia, assigned to Britain. 

C 380 Flavius Gratianus Augustus V & Flavius Theodosius Augustus – Constantine / Custennin Fawr / the Great, ‘son’ of Magnus Maximus, made ‘King of North Wales’.  

C 380s - [Ellis] British settlers move to Galicia via Ireland.

381 Flavius Syagrius & Flavius Eucherius - Flavius Magnus Maximus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig defeats the Picts [TMC has this in 382, PCB in 383] and [TMC] usurps power.

 

382 Flavius Claudius Antonius & Flavius Afranius Syagrius – Flavius Mallius Theodorus, ally of Stilicho, Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 383).

 

C 382 Flavius Claudius Antonius & Flavius Afranius Syagrius – Flavius Magnus Maximus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig establishes Damnonii at Alt Clut / Alcluyd / Dumbarton and establishes Antonius Donatus Gregorius / Anwn Dynod as Protector of Demetia [others have C357 and C381 - Antonius Donatus appointed by Flavius Magnus Maximus to rule tribes in south-west Scotland and Selkirk – the Selgovae and the Novantes.  See 410 for relationship to Vortigern].  

 

383 Flavius Merobaudes II & Flavius Saturninus – [PCB] Flavius Magnus Maximus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig / Gwledig, earlier a Christian, organises the defence of western Britain, causing many of the dynasties there to count him as a founder, then crosses to Gaul and usurps throne of Emperor Gratian, who is defeated at Paris and his Comes Domesticorum, Frankish King Mallobaudes / Mellobaudes, is killed [PCB says Merobaudes’s treachery led to death of Gratian at Lyon, where he had fled].  [Hodgkin] He lands at mouth of Rhine with Andragathius commanding his cavalry. Legend has him marrying Elen ferch Eudaf ap Caradog / Elen Luyddog / of the Hosts, daughter of Eudaf Hen / Outham Senis of Segontium / Aber Seint / Caer Saint in Arfon with three sons: Saint Peblig, Custennin and Owain Finddu. The Valle Crucis pillar has a daughter, Severa, who married Vortigern [PCB b 355 has genealogies also have a son Annun / Anthun / Antoniusand connect him with the Isle of Man or Galloway].  Elen’s brothers Cynan / Kenan / Conanus Meriadocus and Adeon / Gadeon / Gadean / Gadvan / Gadiawn / Kadeaun / Cadvan / Kadien / Kadiawn / Beli accompanied Maximus to Gaul.  Other tradition has Maximus founding Caer Sallog / Caernarfon, Caerfyrrdin and Caer Alun / Haverford. The Seguntienses / Seguntiaci are shown in the Notitia Dignitatum as a garrison in the Balkans near Aquileia. Elen and Cynan in a triad saying they led a host to Llychlyn / Llydaw / Armorica and never came back.  [MA] Maximus first marries Ceindrech ferch Rheiden, descendant of Cadwallon, and has sons Victor and Owain Finddu; and marries second Elen Llwddog, daughter of British chieftain Eudaf Hen / Octavius ap Caradog, and has five children, including Constantine and Severa.  

-

Magnus Maximus takes troops from Britannia to Gaul, first taking Armorica and placing Conan Meriadoc / Cynan / Conanus / Conan prince [ruler?] of Dumnonia in charge there as first ruler of the British in Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais / [MA has him as son of Eulaf Hen / Octavius ap Caradog but says this is not Cynan Meriadoc but Cynan ap Eudaf, who is joined by brother Gadeon. MA has C 425-455fl Cynan Meriadoc 1struler of Armorica / Llydaw.Chadwick has Cynan born C360 [PCB has Cynan ap Eudaf Hen / Cynan Meiriadog born 330.Other has 385-386Magnus Maximus settles some British in Armorica and Gallaecia / Galicia]. 

-

Spain, Africa and Italy acknowledge Magnus Maximus.

C 383 Flavius Merobaudes II & Flavius Saturninus – Some Welsh forts occupied until this time, including Segontiacum / Caernarvon, as well as Mamucium / Mancunium / Manchester and Bremetennacum / Ribchester in Lancashire.  

-

[Stevens] End of up-to-date Notitia Dignitatum due to removal of troops in the west, including at Segontiacum (the unit Seguntienses moves to Illyricum).  Troops replaced by native militia.  

-

Last silver coins minted in Augusta / London are the gold solidiand silver siliquae of Magnus Maximus 383-387.

 

384 Flavius Ricomer & Flavius Clearchus - Flavius Magnus Maximus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig Augustus in the West (Britannia and Gaul) with capital at Augusta Treverorum / Treves / Trier and his son Victor as Co-emperor.  Wife Empress Elen becomes a devotee of Saint Martin. 

-

Flavius Bauto unsuccessfully supports the restoration of the Altar of Victory in the Senate; Saint Ambrose persuades Valentinian II to reject the demand. 

 

C 384 Flavius Ricomer & Flavius Clearchus – Evodius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to386).

385 Flavius Arcadius & Augustus Flavius Bauto–Flavius Bauto, Magister Militum, ruler of the Franks, dies, replaced by Flavius Arbogastes as Magister Peditum.  

C 385-386 Flavius Arcadius Augustus & Flavius Bauto- Flavius Honorius & Flavius Euodius-  Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig campaigns against Picts and Scots. 

-

[MA:Patern / Padern / Coel Hen fl to 415].

 

387 Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus III & Eutropius – [PCB] Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig invades Italy and takes Rome, causing Valentinian II to flee to Theodosius in the East; Maximus’s fleet cruises the Adriatic.  He banishes a heretic to the Isles of Scilly.

C 387 Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus III & Eutropius- Conan Meriadoc / Conanus / Conan prince of Dumnonia first ruler of the British in Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais dies [other has ?421] succeeded by son Erbin, who becomes ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais, and is half-nephew of Gadion / Gradion / Gadeon / Cadfan ruler of Dumnonia, half-brother of Cynan Meriadoc. [JM has Conan Meriadoc 383]. 

 

388 Magnus Maximus Augustus II (alone) - [PCB] Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus / Maximianus / Macsen Wledig defeated by Emperor Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in Pannonia, Maximus’s brother Marcellinus is defeated in the Noric Alps, Maximus falls back and is executed at Aquileia, where he had taken refuge and is stormed. Wife Elen returns to Britain with daughter Severa who marries Vortigern and settles in Arfon becoming a Saint.  [PCB quotes the Valle Crucis pillar that Guarthigirn married Sevira, daughter of the Emperor Magnus Maximus, and had a son Britu / Brydyw, ancestor of the Kings of Powys.  Adeon / Gadeon returns home and is father Ystradwel, of wife of Coel Hen].  Magister PeditumArbogastes kills Victor, son of Magnus Maximus, at Treveri / Trier.

-

Valentinian II appointed Augustus in the West with Flavius Arbogast as Magister Peditum.  

-

The Franks plunder Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium / Cologne and occupy the lower Rhine.  

 

389 Flavius Timasius & Flavius Promotus – Constantinianus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

390 Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus IV & Flavius Neoterius – Saint Ambrose refuses communion to Emperor Theodosius I for massacring 3,000 people in Thessalonica; the Emperor does penance.  

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Neoterius, an Aryan supporter, Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

C 390 Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus IV & Flavius Neoterius – Gadion / Gradion / Gadeon / Cadfanruler of the Dumnonii / of Dumnonia dies succeeded by son Guoremor / Gwrfawr / Vorimorus [other has C 380 Guitol / Gwidol ap Gradlon / Gradion, ‘son of the King of the Bretons’ [Gradion Mawr of Vannetais], ‘brother of Salaun I ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais’, becomes ruler of Damnonia / Dumnonee in Armorica. 

-

[JM]? Offa King of Angel.  

C 390-400 Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus IV & Flavius Neoterius- Flavius Stilicho & Aurelianus- [Chadwick] Caractacus / Caradawc ap Llyr Marini, ruler of Gwent born.

C 390-420 Flavius Valentinianus Iunior Augustus IV & Flavius Neoterius - Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III - [MA] fl Wecta of Kentish line, Wig of the West Saxons, Gechbrond of Bernician Angles, Saefugl of Deiran Angles, Trygils of the East Angles, Antsecg of the East Saxons, Offa of the Mercians, Friodulf of Lindsey Angles.

 

391 Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus & Q. Aurelius Symmachus – Flavius Arbogast promoted Magister Militum in Praesenti and takes control in west for Emperor Valentinian II at Vienna / Vienne as Emperor Theodosius returns to the East.

 

392 Flavius Arcadius Augustus II & Flavius Rufinus– Emperor Valentinian II tries to dismiss Arbogast but is found hanged in his chambers.  [Other has Rhine armies depose Emperor Valentinian II; other has 393]. Arbogast nominates Eugenius as Emperor.

 

392-394 Flavius Arcadius Augustus II & Flavius Rufinus - Virius Nicomachus Flavianus (alone) – [TMC] Possible withdrawal of soldiers to support Emperor Eugenius.

393 Flavius Theodosius Augustus II & Flavius Eugenius Augustus – Arbogast campaigns against Franks on the Rhine and restores Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium / Cologne.  

-

Eugenius and Arbogast re-open pagan temples and restore Altar of Victory in the Senate.

393-394 Flavius Theodosius Augustus II & Flavius Eugenius Augustus - Virius Nicomachus Flavianus (alone)– [TMC] Paladius in Rome.

 

394 Virius Nicomachus Flavianus (alone) – Emperor Theodosius I defeats Arbogast and Emperor Eugenius at the Battle of Firigidus [other has defeating the Rhine armies] reuniting the Empire for the last time, killing Eugenius and leaving Arbogast, a fugitive, to commit suicide. His son, Arigius, establishes a hereditary countship at Treveri / Trier.

 

395 Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius & Anicius Probinus - Emperor Theodosius I dies/retires, succeeded by Arcadius in the East, Honorius in the West, the latter controlled by regent, Magister MilitumFlavius Stilicho. Aelia Eudoxia, daughter of Flavius Bauto, Magister Militum, ruler of the Franks, marries Emperor Arcadius.

-

Claudian celebrates Stilicho’s victories over the Saxons. 

-

Niall of the Nine Hostages High King of Ireland raids western Britain and [GA] sacks Deva / Chester and Isca / Caerleon.  

395-406 Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius & Anicius Probinus- Flavius Arcadius Augustus VI & Anicius Petronius Probus – Victorinus and Chrysanthus at some point are Vicar (vices agens praefectorum praetorio) Britanniae.

C 395 – [other has post 431] foundation ofCor Tewdws / Bangor Tewdws / College or Chief University of Theodosius at Llantwit Major in the region of Gorfynedd in Cernyw.  It is believed to have been the oldest established school in Britain. 

 

396 Flavius Arcadius Augustus IV & Flavius Honorius Augustus III – Saint Victricius, Bishop of Rotomagus / Rouen, visiting Britain, sent by continental bishops to end a dispute, summons synod of British bishops to introduce the reforms of Saint Martin of Civitas Turonum / Caesarodunum  / Tours, perhaps leads to founding of Saint Albans and Whithorn monasteries and Church of Saint Martin at Canterbury.  

-

Hilarius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

396/397 Flavius Arcadius Augustus IV & Flavius Honorius Augustus III /  Flavius Caesarius & Nonius Atticus – Theodorus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

396-398 Flavius Arcadius Augustus IV & Flavius Honorius Augustus III- Flavius Honorius Augustus IV & Flavius Eutychianus – Stilicho fights the Saxons, Picts and Scotti, perhaps unsuccessfully [GA has C399; Collins & Breeze have 398-401; JEF has ?C400].  He orders repairs Hadrian’s Wall [other has 400]. 

-

Sea wall of Londinium / London repaired or built.  

-

Scotti settle in the Isle of Man. 

397 Flavius Caesarius & Nonius Atticus – [JR] Saint Ninian / Niniavus / Nynia / Ninia / Niniau / Nynnio, son of ‘a British King’, moves to found Saint Martin’s church, the Candida Casa / White House, at Whithorn / Witerna in area of King Tuduvallus / Thuvahel / Tudvael / Tudval ab Ednyfed [PCB says modern view is that he was Bishop of Whithorn C500-550 and King was Tudwal Tudclyd father of Rhydderch Hael. Yeates quotes Bede as 565].  

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Saint Martin of Civitas Turonum / Caesarodunum  / Tours dies. [JM has Saxon raid].  

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Flavius Vincentius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 400)

 

399 Eutropius & Flavius Mallius Theodorus – Saint Anastasius I Pope (to 401).

 

C399 Eutropius Flavius Mallius Theodorus – Notitia Dignitatum has Comes Litoris Saxonici Per Britaniamcommanding the forts of the Saxon Shore from Rutupiae / Richborough [where the 2ndAugusta Legion is now stationed - but see 407, 415 & 428], moving from Isca / Caerleon; the Dux Britanniarum commanding the north, and each fort containing a numerus commanded by a praepositus; and Vir Spectabilis Comes Britanniarum commanding the Roman field army in Britain.  [Bury - Comes Britanniarum established as a commander of Comitatenses/ field force in Britain 410-420].

5THCENTURY CE / AD

 

400 Flavius Stilicho & Aurelianus - Goth Magister Militum Gainas ejected from Constantinople and his troops massacred; he dies later at hands of the Huns.  

 

C 400 Flavius Stilicho & Aurelianus– [MA] fl Talorc King of the Picts.  

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[PCB] Demetius / Ednyfed / Ednyued / Iutnimet / Nimet / Nyfed ap Anwn / ab Annun’ / Antoni / son of Antonius Donatus Gregorius, Decurion/ Magistrate of the Demetae / Demetia ap Macsen Wledig, b 380.  [Other has C373 – Ednyfed ruler of the Demetae].  

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Vorimorus / Guoremor / Gwrfawr / Morfawr [MA has fl 395-425, son of Gadeon fl 370-395, grandson of Eudaf fl 340-370], ruler of the Dumnonii / Dumnonia dies succeeded by son Tutwal / Tudwal, husband of daughter of Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus [MA has fl 425-455]. 

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Erbin ruler of British in Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais dies succeeded by son Gradion / Gradlon Mawr / The Great, who also rules Cornuaille. MA also has 460-480 fl Gradlonus / Grallo / Gradlon successor to Cynan Meriadoc ruler of Armorica.  Chadwick has Grallon ruler of Cornuaille C500; PCB has Grallo / Grallon / Gradlonus / Gradlonus Magnus / Gradlun Mur / Gradilon prince of Cornuaille, one of the three great luminaries and pillars of Cornuaille.  He quotes French scholars to say 470/475/480/485-505/510/520].

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Claudius Claudianus’s In Eutropium: ‘The Saxon is conquered, the sea tranquil – Britain is safe.’

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Aengus Builg / Bolg, King of the Corco Laigde in southwest Munster, father-in-law of Corcc, King of Munster, ? holds Eubonia / Anglesey.  

400-410 Flavius Stilicho & Aurelianus - Post consulatum Honorii Augusti VIII et Theodosii Augusti III – Forts along north Wales coast at Segontium / Caernarfon, Caer Cybi and Canovium / Caerhun, and at ?Tamium / ?Bovium / Cardiff, abandoned.

400-700 Flavius Stilicho & Aurelianus - ? – Cooler, wetter climate in Europe leads to advance of glaciers and coastal flooding.

401 Flavius Vincentius & Flavius Fravitta (Fravitus) – Stilicho withdraws troops to fight Alaric and the Visigoths who are for the first time in Italy [SJ - Claudian says a legio from northern Britain; ?XX from Deva / Chester.  Other has this withdrawn under Constantine III; perhaps ? VI Victrix from Eboracum / York; Gibbon has VI from York; Hodgkin has 402 Stilicho withdraws 20th Legion from Chester for his campaign in Rhaetia].  

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Saint Innocent I Pope (to 417)

C 401 Flavius Vincentius  & Flavius Fravitta (Fravitus) – Andromachus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

To C402 Flavius Arcadius Augustus V & Flavius Honorius Augustus V - Caius Posthumus Dardanus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum for first term.

402 Flavius Arcadius Augustus V & Flavius Honorius Augustus V – [MA] last Roman coins enter Britain. [Cool] Last Roman bronze coins enter Britain; Western Empire mints almost totally cease production of bronze and silver coins [Other has 395 bronze nummi coinage production ceases in the western Empire].  British begin to clip coinage to create debased copies, circulating till ?C6 [other has 404-407– clipping of coinage commences in Britain; other has 410-420 period of clipped silver siliquae]. 

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Petronius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 404). 

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[TMC] Emperor Honorius moves his seat to Ravenna [Eagles has 404].

404 Flavius Honorius Augustus VI  & Aristaenetus – Romulianus Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 405).

405 Flavius Stilicho II & Flavius Anthemius – Petronius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum ?for second term (to 408).  

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Roman forces on the Rhine withdrawn to face Goth Radagaisus in Italy.  Rhine defended by the Franks.  Alans, Suevi and Vandals cross the frozen Rhine near Mainz.

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[TMC] Emperor Honorius encourages provincials to take up arms against barbarians.

C 405 Flavius Stilicho II & Flavius Anthemius – Clotri succeeds Gloitgwyn as ruler of Demetae.  [Chadwick] Saint Germanus becomes Dux Armoricani et Nervicani vice Exuperantius. 

405 – 428 Flavius Stilicho II & Flavius Anthemius - Flavius Felix & Flavius Taurus  - Nath Í mac Fiachrach / Feradach Dathí / The Swift, King of Connacht, High King of Ireland [other has 395-418; other has 409 Irish High King Niall Noigiallach / of the Nine Hostages killed by Eochu mac Enna Cennselaig in the Channel; IA has 411, JM has 405; Ellis has 405 and Isle of Wight; other has 445; other has 452]. 

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Barbarians reach Pas de Calais.

C 405 – 435 Flavius Stilicho II & Flavius Anthemius - Flavius Theodosius Augustus XV & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus IV - [MA] fl Aeda Brosc / Ewein the Stout successor to Corath of the Desi. [Other has C382 the Desi / Deisi / Déssi in Demetia now under Aed Brosc].

406 Flavius Arcadius Augustus VI & Anicius Petronius Probus – Roman armies revolt in Britannia and Gaul.  

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[RW] Last Roman Vicarius/ Vicar of Britain a Gaul, Victorinus, successor to Chrysanthus.  

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Officer Marcusmade Imperator by soldiers in Britain but refuses to cross to Gaul. [or 404?; Ellis has 405; TMC has in the summer, followed in October by Gratian; other has 407 Briton Gratian / Gratianus / [GM] Gracianus Municeps made Imperatorin Britain, lasts 4 months then killed].  

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Amalgaid mac Fiachrae becomes King of Connacht.

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[TMC] Emperor Honorius issues law encouraging provincials and even slaves to take up arms against the brabarians.

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Alans, Vandals and Suevi cross the frozen Rhine [TMC] on the last day of the year and devastate Gaul; ? allowed by Stilicho to counter usurpers.  

406-408 Flavius Arcadius Augustus VI & Anicius Petronius Probus - Anicius Auchenius Bassus Flavius Philippus – Theodosian gold coins continue to arrive in Britain in some numbers but are the last.

406-410 Flavius Arcadius Augustus VI & Anicius Petronius Probus - Post consulatum Honorii Augusti VIII et Theodosii Augusti III – Pelagius writes commentary on the Epistles of Saint Paul.

407 Flavius Honorius Augustus VII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus II – British Emperor Marcus killed by his soldiers. Flavius Claudius Constantine III / Bendigeit / Custennin ap Selyf / Blessed Constantine declared Imperator [BS] at Calleva Atrebatum/ Silchester [TMC in February], crosses to Gaul with remaining field army.  His generals Iustinianus and the Frank Nebiogastes are defeated in an attack from Italy by the Goth Magister Militum Sarus, who besieges Constantine III in Valentia / Valence, but is repulsed by Constantine III’s generals, the Frank Ediovinchus / Edobich and the Briton Gerontius / Geraint.  Constantine III restores the Rhine frontier, the last exercise of Roman power there.  

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2nd Augusta legion removed from Isca / Caerleon to Cardiff and Rutupiae / Richborough, but leaving a detachment in Isca / Caerleon. 

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[MA for 410] Eugenius / Owain Finddu / Black Lips, ‘Chief Officer of the Island of Britain’,  ‘son’ of ‘High King’ Magnus Maximus becomes Protector of Cernyw / Glywyssion / Glywyssiog / Glwyssing / Glywysg / Mid-South Wales founded in Venta Silurum / Caer Went / Ewyas, capital of the Silures lands [other 430/435], perhaps left in charge by Constantine III? [PCB] has Owain Finddu ap Macsen Wledig by Ceindrech ferch Rheiden b 355 in a triad as one of the three chief officers of Pridain.  In Life of St Cadog he is father of Nor, father of Solor, father of Glywys, father of Cadog. 

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Seat of Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum moved from Augusta Treverorum / Trier to Arelate / Arles [other has 395].

407-411 Flavius Honorius Augustus VII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus II - Flavius Theodosius Augustus IV (alone) – Silver coins of Honorius and Theodosius arrive in Britain [other has 407-408 Silver coins of Constantine III are the last western Empire silver to arrive in Britain].

Pre 408 Anicius Auchenius Bassus & Flavius Philippus – Saint Melanius the Younger and her husband Pinianus sell their estates.  Melania had "vast domains in Sicily", held land in Britain and owned grand estates in Iberia, Africa, Numidia, Mauretania and Italy. Gerontius describes one of her estates as follows: "On one side lay the sea and on the other some woodland containing a variety of animals and game, so that when she was bathing in the pool she could she ships passing by and game animals in the woods... the property [also] included sixty large houses, each of them with four hundred agricultural slaves." Thus, this one property contained 24,000 slaves.

408 Anicius Auchenius Bassus & Flavius Philippus– Scotti and a strong Saxon party raid Britain.  

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Magister Militum Flavius Stilicho executed at Ravenna. Goth Magister Militum Sarus abandons the army.  

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Constantine III makes Arelate / Arles his capital with Apollinaris his Prefect, elevates his monk son Constans to Caesar and sends him with Gerontius to take Hispania from Honorius’s supporters, Didymus and Verenianus.  

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Bacaudae attack Roman forces in Gaul.  

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Alaric besieges Rome for the 1st time. Roman army mutinies at Ticinum / Pavia.  

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Limenius Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum assassinated at Ticinum / Pavia.  Apollinaris Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

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Emperor Arcadius dies, succeeded by Theodosius II in the East.  

408-409 Anicius Auchenius Bassus & Flavius Philippus - Flavius Honorius Augustus VIII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus III – Pelagian ‘Sicilian Briton’ in Rome [Haslehurst says is Bishop Fastidius] writes Tractatus de Divitiis.

C 408-431 Anicius Auchenius Bassus & Flavius Philippus- Anicius Auchenius Bassus & Flavius Antiochus – [Chadwick] fl Palladius the Deacon Bishop of Ireland– son of Exuperantius, Duxof Armorica?

409 Flavius Honorius Augustus VIII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus III – [Hodgkin] Chronicon Imperiale has Hac tempestate prae valetudine Romanorum vires funditus attenuatae. Britanniae Saxonum incursione devastatae. [TMC] Britain and Gaul suffer major incursions.  [Zosimus] ‘They reduced the inhabitants of Britain and some of the Gallic peoples to such straits that they revolted from the Roman Empire, no longer submitted to Roman law and reverted to their own customs. The Britons, therefore, armed themselves and ran many risks to ensure their own safety and free their cities from attacking barbarians. The whole of Armorica and other Gallic provinces, in imitation of the Britons, freed themselves in the same way, by expelling the Roman magistrates and establishing the government they wanted’ [other has Armoricans throw off Roman yoke ‘encouraged by the example of the insular Britons’; other has 407 Armorica declares independence from Rome; Yeates quotes Zozimus blaming Constantine’s lax government for revolt and barbarian incursions].  

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Alaric besieges Rome for the 2nd time.  

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Emperor Honorius recognises Constantine III as Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus and they become joint Consuls.  

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Suebi, Vandals and Alans who crossed the Rhine in 406, having devastated Gaul, break through Constantine’s troops in Pyrenees and enter Hispania, which they devastate to 411 [other has 407 barbarians ejected from Gaul but Suebi and Vandals settle in Spain, destroying the Alans]. 

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Heruls attack Gaul. 

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Decimus Rusticus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 411).

409-411 Flavius Honorius Augustus VIII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus III - Flavius Theodosius Augustus IV (alone) – Mint of Constantine III operates at Barcino / Barcelona issuing silver and bronze coins.

410 Post consulatum Honorii Augusti VIII et Theodosii Augusti IIINarratio de imperatoribis states: ‘Britaniae Romano nomini in perpetuum sublatae; Britain was forever removed from the Roman name.’  Gallic Chronicle of 452 states Saxons devastate British provinces [SJ has this in 408].  

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Rescript of Honorius refusing aid and telling British civitates/ cities [or Bruttium] to look to their own defence. New imperial officials not appointed to Britain.  Zozimus describes British overthrowing imperial officials.  [Nennius has 409 years after the coming of Rome; Ellis has a British council of 300 electing a High King; SJ says Zosimus places this C408]. Procopius (quoted by Gibbon) says: ‘But the Romans were no longer able to save Britain’.  

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Dumnonii expand territory to include Durotriges, taking Durnovaria / Dornwaracaester / Dorchester and Lindinis / Ilchester [other sources have after 390 and 425]

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Ivomadus, official of Constantine III, occupies Blesense (Blois).  Constantine marches on Italy but is defeated and retreats to Gaul. 

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Rome falls to Alaric, King of the Visigoths. Pelagius flees to Carthage.  

C 410 Post consulatum Honorii Augusti VIII et Theodosii Augusti III - The Sicilian Briton writes De Vita Christiana, an egalitarian tract later the cause of popular disturbances in Rome. [Ellis has C411 and the author as Bishop Fastidius; other has 411 tract de Vita Christiana published in Britain written by the Sicilian Briton].  He describes overthrow of Roman government in Britain. 

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Coroticus / Ceretic Guletic / Ceritic Guletic / Ceredig Wledig / Land Holder / Coirtech map Cynloyp / Cynllwyb map Cinhil / Quintilus map Cluim / Clemens map Cursalem ruler of Alt Clut / Aldclud / Damnonii at Dumbarton Rock[other has possibly also ruler of Goutodin / Goddodin; Ellis has 450-480; MA has Ceretic ? successor of Roman official fl 410-440/420-450; WSK has fl C450 or 480; PCB has b 410 grandfather of Dyfnwal Hen ap Cynwyd ap Ceredig Wledig]. 

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Clotrius / Clotri ap Ednyfed son of Demetius last Roman ruler of the Demetae / Demetia [PCB has no record of this man but has Clodri ap Clydwyn C440 as a name in a pedigree of kings of Dyfed.  PCB has Clydwyn as mother of Dyfnwal Hen, son of Enyfed / Nyfed.  ?Clodri may therefore have been Dyfnwal Hen’s brother].  His son Maelgwn predeceases him [PCB has no such Maelgwn].  

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Dioceses remain based on civitates, including Viroconium / Wroxeter, Vertis / Worcester, Glevum / Gloucester, Letocetum / Lichfield / Wall and Lindum / Lincoln, where a church is built in the basilica. Pagan temples widely destroyed and replaced with churches. 

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Tutwal / Tudwalruler of the Dumnonii / Dumnonia dies succeeded by son, Marcus Conomari / Conomor / Cynfawr. [MA has C450-460 fl Cynfor successor to Tudwal ruler of Dumnonia; PCB has no note on Tudwal Cynfor ap Tudwal b 390; Cunomorus named on stone near Castle Dore DRUSTAVS HIC IACIT CVNOMORI FILIUS].  

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Peasant commune established in Armorica. 

? 410-420 Post consulatum Honorii Augusti VIII et Theodosii Augusti III - Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III – Jutish laeti settled around Durovernum Cantiacorum / Caer Caint / Canterbury and Anglian laeti settled around Eboracum / Ebrauc / York. 

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[JM; MA] ?Coel Hen / the Old / Guotepauc / Godebog / Protector / Shelterer, a Catevallauni leader, married to Ystradwel, daughter of Gadeon, son of Eudaf Hen / Octavius ap Caradog? is Dux Britanniarum [PCB Coel Hen or Coel Godebog / Coel Hen ap Godebog / Guotepauc / shelterer / protector / defender ap Tegfan b 360.  The Coeling / Coelyng were his descndants in the north. He married Ystradwel or Stradweul, daughter of Gadeon ap Eudaf Hen [see 388 where he is daughter of Gadeon, brother/cousin of Elen, wife of Magnus Maximus and half-brother of Cynan Meriadoc.  Gadeon becomes prince of Dumnonia on Cynan’s death then also of Vannetais on his nephew Erbin’s death. Coel is father of Ceneu, Garbanion b 405, Dyfrwr b. 390 and daughter Gwawl ferch Coel Hen, wife of Cunedda Wledig]. [MA has Cunedda / Cunedda ap Edern / Eternus / Cunedda Wledig rules between the walls and maybe even south into Cumbria?  He marries Coel’s daughter.  Traditionally from Manau Gododdin].

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Pagenses / Powys emerges as strong civitas based on Viroconium / Wroxeter in the lands of the Cornovii under Vortigern / ? Vitalinus, son-in-law of Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, brother-in-law of Eugenius of Mid-South Wales and of Antonius Donatus Gregorius / Anwn Dynod in Demetia. [MA] Vitalinus becomes praeses/ ruler of Maxima Caesariensis, maybe as Bishop of London, 

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[MA] Ambrosius praeses/ ruler of Britannia Prima? [JM C412-425 Ambrosius the Elder].

C 410-442 Post consulatum Honorii Augusti VIII et Theodosii Augusti III - Flavius Dioscorus & Flavius Eudoxius - [Gildas; MJ] Britain suffers famine. 

411 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IV (alone) – Constantine III’s son Constans, defeated by Gerontius at Vienna / Vienne, abdicates and is executed.  [other has 409 British rebel against Constantine III and expel Roman officials of Constantine III, restoring allegiance to Honorius; other has Gerontius, in Hispania / Spain, betrays Constans, son of Constantine III, and elevates Maximus Imperator; other has 411].   Jovinus proclaimed emperor at Moguntiacum / Mainz, a puppet supported by Gundahar, King of the Burgundians, and Goar, King of the Alans, and supported by Constantine III’s Praetorian Prefect Decimus Rusticus.  Gerontius besieges Constantine III in Arles but is himself put to flight by Constantius III, who besieges Constantine III, whose Rhine troops abandon him and support Jovinus.   He surrenders, is taken to Ravenna with his son Julian and is executed on the way.  Gerontius commits suicide in Hispania.  Decimus Rusticus, Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum under Constantine III, captured by army of Honorius and executed.

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Large Saxon raid in the Channel.  

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Picts and Scotti under High King Nath-I assault the north to the Wall and ravage the Clyde. The British recover and drive off the raiders.  

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Suebi, Alans and Vandals apportion Hispania, the Suebi taking the west with a capital at Bracara / Braga.  

C 411 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IV (alone)– Homily by British Bishop Fastidius consoling wife for loss of husband indicates British government that had taken over after Emperor Honorius’s rescript has been overthrown by other British leaders [PCB quotes Gennadius Massiliensis d. C496 Fastidius, episcopus Britanniaraum, scipsit ad Fatalem [quondam] De Vita Christiana librum unum, et alium De Viduitate Servanda, sana et Deo digna doctrina / Fastidius, a bishop of the Briotns, wrote to a certain Fatalis a book on The Christian Life  and another on The Preservation of Widowhood, sound in doctrine and worthy of God; PCB suggest he fl C430].  

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Britain governed by Diocesan Council and by ‘tyrants’, illegitimate emperors and consuls.  

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North-eastern coastal watchtowers abandoned.  

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The country grows affluent.  

C 411 – 418 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IV (alone) - Flavius Honorius Augustus XII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus VIII – British Pelagian nobleman writes letters from Italy.

412 Flavius Honorius Augustus IX & Flavius Theodosius Augustus V - British monk? Coelestius arraigned in Carthage for heterodox Christian views.  

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Ex-Magister Militum Goth Sarus killed by Jovinus’s general Visigoth Ataulf while joining Jovinus; his follower kills Ataulf.  Burgundians under King Gundahar use Jovinusto set up kingdom on left bank of Rhine at Borbetomagus / Worms.  

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Caius Posthumus Dardanus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum for a second time (to 413).

413 Heraclianus & Flavius Lucius – Jovinus elevates his brother Sebastianus as co-Emperor.  King Ataulf of the Visigoths goes over to Honorius, and defeats Jovinus' troops. Sebastianus is executed. Jovinus besieged, captured in Valentia / Valence and executed by Caius Posthumus Dardanus, Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.   

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Mint at Arelatum / Arelate / Constantina / Arles ceases to issue silver and bronze coins.  Mint at Lugdunum / Lyons ceases to issue gold and silver coins and closes.  

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Vicentius is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

C 414 Flavius Constantius & Flavius Constans – Iulius is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

415 Flavius Honorius Augustus X & Flavius Theodosius Augustus VI – Pelagius aquitted by the Synod of Diospolis. 

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[Gibbon] Saint Jerome in Bethehem writes Britannia fertilis provincia tyrranorum.

C415 Flavius Honorius Augustus X & Flavius Theodosius Augustus VI-  [Stevens] Notitia Dignitatum written as unofficial record by clerk in imperial chancery and kept up to date thereafter.

 415  - 445 Flavius Honorius Augustus X & Flavius Theodosius Augustus VI - Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI & Flavius Nomus – [MA] fl Witta of Kent line, Gewis of the West Saxons, Alusa / Aloc of Bernician Angles, Soemil of Deiran Angles [Nennius: Soemil is the first to separate Deiran Angles], Rothmund of the East Angles, Swebha of the East Saxons, Angengeot of the Mercians, Frealaf of Lindsey Angles.

416 Flavius Theodosius Augustus VII & Iunius Quartus Palladius - Synod of Carthage issues decree against Pelagianism.  Pope Innocent I excommunicates Pelagius.  

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Claudius Rutilius Namatianus, on his way to Gaul, leaves at the dock (at Rome?) his charge Palladius, son of Exuperantius (the Dux Tractus Armoricani and Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum), who later becomes a monk.  

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Visigoths led by King Wallia settle in Aquitaine by imperial invitation and enter Hispania to attack barbarians there on behalf of the Empire [other has 418 Emperor Honorius grants federate status to Visigoths, settling them as foederati in Aquitaine under billeting laws, the first time this allowed].

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Flavius Julius Agricola becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 418).

417 Flavius Honorius Augustus XI & Flavius Constantius II – Pelagius writes to Pope Innocent enclosing a copy of his Libellus Fidei Suae

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[Chadwick] bacaudae outbreak in Armorica.

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Saint Zozimus Pope (to 418). 

C417-425 Flavius Honorius Augustus XI & Flavius Constantius II – Flavius Theodosius Augustus XI & Placidus Valentinianus Caesar- [Collingwood / Richmond] limited Roman reoccupation of South-east Britain, including at Rutupiae / Richborough, by imperial officials.  [BS] Gildas mentions second rescue (first being Stilicho’s) by mixed sailors and cavalry who clear seaborne raiders, seize their booty and repair defences / the wall, leaving after training Britons in arms manufacture? [ASC, GA – Imperial expedition to Britain concerning gold/cash 418].

418 Flavius Honorius Augustus XII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus VIII – [TMC] Emperor Honorius condemns Pelagius and requires his adherents to be tried and exiled.  Pope Zosimus condemns and has Pelagius expelled from Jerusalem by its bishop, John, who had sheltered him.  Pelagius moves to Egypt.  

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Saint Boniface I Pope (to 422).

419 Flavius Monaxius & Flavius Plinta – The Vandals under King Gunderic and the Suevi under King Hermeric fight at the Battle of the Nerbasius mountains; Roman forces intervene commanded by the Comes Hispaniarum Asterius, attacking the Vandals and forcing them to move to Baetica / Andalusia, leaving the Suevi as virtual possessors of the whole province. [Other has Hasdingi Vandals defeated in Hispania by a joint Roman-Suebi coalition. King Gunderic flees to Baetica, where he is proclaimed king of the Silingi Vandals].

C 420 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III– Coel Hen, Godebog / Guotepauc / Protector / Shelterer, ‘High King’ of Northern Britain / Yr Hen Ogledd / The Old North, ?last Dux Britanniarum defeated at Coylton, alongside the Water of Coyle, Ayrshire, fighting the Scotti and the Picts, trapped and drowned in a bog at Coilsfield, Tarbolton, Ayrshire [MA has by 430;other has 350-420]. Division of his territory: Saint Ceneu / Cerneu / Cenyw / Ceneus / Kenneth / Whelp [PCB has b 400, father of Maeswig Gloff, Mar, Pabo Post Prydyn and Gwrwst Ledlwm] ruler of North Britain, elder son of Coel, based at Eboracum / Ebrauc / York [MA has him ruling Valentia and Rheged; other has him C458 settling Saxons in Deira; other has 375 - 450]; Germanianus / Garbanion ap Coel / Gorbanian / Garmonion, younger son of Coel [PBC has b 405, father of Dyfnwal Moelmud], first ruler of Bernaccia / Bryneich / Berneichin southern Votadini lands with capital at Din Guaire / Din Guardi / Din Guairoi / Dinas Guoroy / Bamburgh and / or Yeavering Bell near Wooler. [MA has him called Atern / Edern / ?Aeternus [PCB - this is son of Cunedda] and Germanianus and ruling Eboracum fl 410-440/50.  Other has post 505 Predeyr? Germanianus ruler of the ?North / ?Caer-Guendoleu / Salway dies].  

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Saebald / Sibald becomes leader of the Anglian laeti in Deywr / Deira / Derenrice /Dere settled in lands of the Parisii around Eboracum / Ebrauc / York. 

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Guitol / Gwidol ap Gradlon, son of Gradlon the ‘King of the Bretons’, ruler of Damnonia / Dumnonee dies succeeded by Deroc / Deroch I. 

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Offa King of Angel dies, succeeded by Eomer. 

C420-430 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III - Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus III – Coins die out in Britain (Eagle has C430].  

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2nd settlement of Saxon laeti around Venta Belgarum / Caer Gwinntguic / Winchester. 

? 420-440 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III - Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius – Pelagius dies.

C420-496 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III - Flavius Paulus & Post consulatum Viatoris – Settlement of Saxon and Scotti laeti around Calleva Atrebatum / Caer Celemion / Silchester.

 

C420-499 Flavius Theodosius Augustus IX & Flavius Constantius III - Flavius Iohannes qui est Gibbus - Post consulatum Paulini – Anglian laeti settled in Brigante territory of Elmet / West Yorkshire and in Coritani territory of Ratae Coritanorum / Caer Lerion / Leicester.

421Flavius Agricola & Flavius Eustathius– Imperial edict banishes Pelagians from Rome.  

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Exuperantius becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 424).

 

C 421 Flavius Agricola & Flavius Eustathius– Clotrius / Clotri ap Ednyfed son of Demetius last Roman Protector of the Demetae / Demetia dies.  Desi take over rule of Demetia / Dyfed / Dyfor.  Triphun / Triphunus / Trifinus /Trufun / Tryphun / Valerian mac Aed / ? Triffyn Farfog / The Bearded / Tribunus, husband of Gweldyr, heiress of Demetia, becomes Protector.[MA 430-460– fl Tryffin / Tryphun successor to Aeda Brosc of the Desi; other has 385; PCB has b C430; father of Aergol Lawhir and perhaps of Cynan Cylched, and shows that two of his genealogies lead back to Custennin ap Macsen Wledig and another two to Constantinus magnus / imperator].

422 Flavius Honorius Augustus XIII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus X – Saint Celestine I Pope (to 432).  

-

King Gunderic of the Vandals decisively defeats a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition in Hispania led by the Roman Patricius Castinus at the Battle of Tarraco.  Gunderic creates widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean. 

C 422 Flavius Honorius Augustus XIII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus X – Roman army fights Franks in Gaul and kills King Theodemer / Theudemer and his mother Ascyla; Chlodio becomes King of the Franks.

 

422-432 Flavius Honorius Augustus XIII & Flavius Theodosius Augustus X- Flavius Aetius & Flavius Valerius – Pope Celestine banishes Pelagians from Italy and seeks to extirpate them from Britain.

 

423 Flavius Avitus Marinianus & Flavius Asclepiodotus – Emperor Honorius dies.   Castinus elevates Joannes / Johannes as Emperor of the West.  Emperor Theodosius II selects Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius, to become Emperor of the West.  

-

[Yeates quoting Gallic Chronicles] Saxon dominion [domain or territory] in Britannia. 

 

423-425 Flavius Avitus Marinianus & Flavius Asclepiodotus - Flavius Theodosius Augustus XI& Placidus Valentinianus Caesar – Usurpation of Johannes; western Empire in confusion.

C 424 Flavius Castinus & Victor - Drust son of Erp becomes King of the Picts [other has 414; MA has succeeding Talorc in 424]. 

-

Cunedda Wledig / Cunedag the Great / Dumnagual Moilmut of the Votadini, grandson of Padarn Beisrudd / Paternus of the Red Cloak (PCB has b 300 ruler of Manau Gododdin and son of Tegid / Tacitus ap Cain ap Gwrgain ap Doli ap Gwrddoli ap Dwfn ap Gwrddwfn ab Afloyd / Amguoloyt ab Amwerydd ab Onwedd [ab Peryf] ab Difwng ab Brychwain ab Owain ab Afallach ap Beli Mawr / Magnus; or, ap Iago ap Genedog / Gwyddog ap Cain ap Gwrgain ap Doli ap Gwrddoli ap Dwfn ap Gwrddwfn  ab Afloyd / Amguoloyt ab Amwerydd ab Onwedd [ab Peryf] ab Difwng ab Brychwain ab Owain ab Afallach ap Beli Mawr / Magnus], son of Aeternus / Edern, fl 440-470, husband of Coel’s daughter Gwawl, moves from Manau / Manaw Goutodin / Goddodin / Lothian, the Pictish border area of the Venicones, to become first ruler of Gwynedd / Venedotia / Guynet / Norwallia / North Wales in lands of Ordovices and Deceangli [WSK and Yeates have C450; PCB has b 370, moves with 8 sons leaving Tybion in Manau Gododdin; 2 daughters Tegeingl / Tegid and Gwen ferch Cunedda Wledig, wife of Amlawdd Wledig].  Cunedda leaves son Tybion in Manau Gododdin. [IA has 388; others have 420/445/450; Morris has 430s; Chadwick has C450; Nennius – 388- 146 years before Maelgwn rules, Cunedda moves from Manau Gododdin to lands of Ordovices and Deceangli].  [PCB has migration not before C430. Cunedda’s offspring called one of ‘The three Saintly Lineages’ of Ynys Prydein and one of ‘The Three Kindreds of Saints’. Poem 'Marwnad Cunedda' in the Book of Taliesin mentions Cunedda’s connection with Caer Weir / Durham and Caer Liwelydd / Carlisle]. 

-

Ceretic Guletic / Ceredig Wledig / Landholder / Coroticus / Coirthech, son of Cynloyp / Cynllwyb b 380, son of Cinhil / Quintilus / Quintilius, son of Cluim/ Clemens map Cursalem / Gwrsalem b 270 ap Fer b 230 ap Confer b 200, ruler of Alt Clut / Alclud / Aloo is dominant between the walls.  [PCB has b C400 / 410 Ceredig is grandfather of Dyfnwal Hen ap Cynwyd ap Ceredig Wledig].  The Coelings rule in northern Britain / Brigantia. 

After 424 - Cunedda drives the Scotti / Irish out of North and West Wales including Cetgueli / Kidwelly except for Anglesey and establishes his third son [other source has born C423] Ceretic / Corotic / Ceredig ap Cunedda as ruler of Ceredigion / Cardigan [other sources have C424-425 or 475; MA has fl 440-480; PCB has b 410, fifth son of Cunedda and father of Iusay / Usai / Usa and married to Melery ferch Brychan].  

425 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XI & Placidus Valentinianus Caesar – Emperor Theodosius II’s magister militum Alanno-Goth Ardaburius and his son Aspar kill Western Emperor Joannes / Johannes at Ravenna and place Valentinian III on the throne, with Galla Placidia, his mother, holding power.  

-

Flavius Aetius becomes Comes et Magister Militum per Gallias, defeats King Theodoric I of the Visigoths and lifts the siege of Arelate / Arles, driving the Visigoths back into Aquitania.  

-

King Gunderic and the Vandals pillage the Balearic Islands, Spain and Mauritania, sacking Carthago Spartaria / Cartagena and Hispalis / Seville. 

C425 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XI & Placidus Valentinianus Caesar – Vortigern / Guorthigirn / Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu / Vortigernus / Vertigernus / Vurtigernus / Uurtigernus / Wortigernos / Uurtigerno / Wyrtgeorn / Vortigern ap Guortheneu of Pagenses / Powys, ruler of Builth and Gwrtheyrnion and Brycheinion in the lands of the Cornovii [Chadwick has him of Cornovii or Dobunni, his lands Gwrtheyrnion / Vortigerniana in the upper Wye Valley and links him with Breton Saint Gurthiern] comes to power as king, tyrant, Emperor, Over-King, superbus tyrranus [PCB has born 365 and supreme king; Gwrtheneu = very thin; others suggest repulsive lips / gainsayer and quotes HB as saying Vortigern came to power in 425].  [Others have C409-425 or from 410? MA has fl 420-450.  MA quotes Nennius’s Dobunnic genealogies: ‘Guorthegirn Guortheneu son of Guitaul son of Guitolion of Gloui; or Vortigern son of Vitalis son of Vitalinus of Glevum / Gloui / Gloucester.’ Chambers and the Computus of Nennius say 425 in Consulates of Theodosius and Valentinian but Chambers also says 446]. His son Gwerthefyr / Gwrthefyr Fendigaid / Guorthemir / Vortimer commands the army [PCB has b 390].  

-

Rhegin appears as an independent civitas around Noviomagus / Chichester.

-

Quoit brooch style appears around Roman sites.

-

Dathi, nephew of Niall of the Nine Hostages, dies as a pirate or mercenary in Gaul.

-

Mint at Aquileia ceases to issue gold and silver coins.  Mint at Carthago / Carthage ceases to issue bronze coins and closes. 

-

Amatus is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

C425-457 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XI & Placidus Valentinianus Caesar - Flavius Constantinus & Flavius Rufus – Guoyrancgonus / Gwyrangon / Gwrangon / Gorangonus / Gwrgant / Corangon is Magistrate of Cantiacum / Ceint / Kent. 

 

?420s – ?Cornovii migrate to Dumnonia [others have 430441].

 

426 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus II - Flavius Aetius becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to C427).  

-

Clodio becomes King of the Salian Franks at Dispargum then Tournai [to 447].

 

C426 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus II – Picts raid east coast down to Norfolk. Council settles Saxons in east of Britain to defend it.  With omnes consiliarii Vortigern settles Jutish laeti in lands of Regnenses / Rhegin around Noviomagus / Chichester and Anderita / Anderida / Pevensey [other has 425].  

 

428 Flavius Felix & Flavius Taurus – [LA & MA] Jutes Hengist / Hengest and Horsa / Hors sons of Wihtgils, exiled from homeland, arrive with three keels at Ebba’s Creek / Ebbsfleet and are given by Vortigern the island of Ruoichin / Ruithin / Ruoihm / Tanet / Thanet / Fire Island as foederati under billeting laws [Nennius’s computations and his name Ruym / River Island but see 435440 and 442-445.  IA and Bede, followed by the ASC, have 449/450; Bede also has 450-457; Nennius has 40 years after overthrow of Roman rule; WSK have 449; Chambers has 449 for Adventus Saxonum, with possibility of 428; Dumville and Yeates put this date at 428].  Other laeti are settled west of Southampton Water, on Vectis / Isle of Wight and in Meonware / East Hampshire in lands of the Belgae. Reinforcements follow and are settled most numerously around Venta Icenorum / Caistor-by-Norwich, Durocobrivis / Dunstable / Luton and the oppidum at Abingdon.  Also on the road Eboracum / Ebrauc / York to Stamford / Great Casterton; on the Lindsey coast; in northeast Kent; at Camulodunum / Colchester and in the Thames estuary; at Cambridge / Castle Hill; at Dorcic / Dorchester-on-Thames; at Sandy / Caesar’s Camp; at Kempston by Bedford securing the Icknield Way; and at Portus Adurni / Portchester / Portsmouth Harbour [PCB quotes HB that ‘the Britons lived in fear for forty years’ after the death of the Emperor Magnus Maximus in 388]. 

-

Chlodio, whose Frankish kingdom includes Toxandria (lands south of the mouth of the Rhine) and the Civitas Adutuca Tungrorum / Tongeren in Limberg, extends his realm as far as Camaracum / Cambrai and the Somme, so beginning Frankish rule over an increasing number of Gallo-Roman subjects.  Flavius Aetius fights the Salian Franks, defeating King Chlodio and recovering some territory they had occupied along the Rhine, [TCM] establishing peace in Gaul that will allow Germanus to travel from it in 429.  

-

King Gunderic of the Vandals captures Hispalis / Seville but dies while laying siege to the city's church, and is succeeded by Genseric.

 

C428 Flavius Felix & Flavius Taurus – [Bury and Chambers] Notitia Dignitatum revised including British section.  

-

[JM] British Bishop Agricola, son of Bishop Severianus (the author of one of the Sicilian letters?) revives Pelagianism.  

 

428-458 / 462 Flavius Felix & Flavius Taurus- Iulius Maiorianus Augustus &  Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus / Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus & Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus II - Lóegaire / Lóeguire mac Néill of the Ui Neill, enemy of Saint Patrick, High King of Ireland [other has 418-448; Chadwick and Morris have 428; IA has 423/445; others have 427/428/429 – Loegaire, son of Niall, succeeds Nath-I who is killed in the Alps - ?in Roman employ]. Ui Neill clan becoming ascendant in Ireland.

429 Flavius Florentius & Flavius Dionysius – Palladius the Deacon sent by Pope Celestine I to fortify the British and as Bishop to the Irish Christians convert the Scotti in Ireland [other has 430-431; Saint Patrick legend has him soon returning and dying in Britain, but see 408 and 457-461; WSK has 431 following Prosper of Aquitaine].  ?Palladius lands at Arklow in Wicklow and founds three churches [Wikipedia has this in 431]. 

-

Chronicle of Prosper Tiro of Aquitaine: At request of Palladius the Deacon, ?later Bishop of Ireland [but see 430], Saint Germanus Bishop of Autissiodorum / Auxerre / Garmon ap Ridicus / Rusticus and Germanilla and Saint Lupus / Loup Bishop of Augustobona Tricassium / Troyes in northeast Gaul visit shrine of Saint Alban at Verulamium / Caer Mincip / Saint Albans to counter Pelagianism, which had been raised again in Britain by Bishop Agricola [WSK has 429].  They meet opulent bishops and normal civic life, including a man tribuniciae potestatis.  They bring monastic regulations from Lerina / Lérins.  He blesses Vortigern and his sons.  

-

Vandals under King Genseric cross to Africa and besiege Hippo Regius.  Suebi under King Heremigarius / Hermeric are the sole barbarians left in Hispania.  

-

Aetius elevated to the rank of magister militum, iuniorof the two offices of comes et magister utriusque militiae, the senior being the patricius Flavius Constantinus Felix.  

C429 Flavius Florentius & Flavius Dionysius - Mint at Treveri / Trier ceases to issue silver coins.

430 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus III - Visigoths led by Anaolsus attack Arelate / Arles but are defeated by Flavius Aetius, who, with the Army, accuses Patricius Flavius Felix of plotting against him and has him, his wife, and a deacon killed.  Flavius Aetius beomes the highest ranking amongst the magister militia.  

-

Suebi under King Heremigarius / Hermeric attack Gallicians, annexing the province.

 

C430 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus III – Nor / Mor / Marius [MA has fl C410-440; PCB has b 380] succeeds Eugenius / Owain Fiddu in Cerneu and Honorius / Ynr Gwent succeeds in Gwent and Ercyng [Chadwick has Caratacus the first ruler of Gwent C425, with son Cunobelinus / Cynfelin and grandson Honorius / Ynyr, who marries daughter of Guorthemir son of Vortigern. Owain succeeded as dominant in South-East Wales by Amlawdd Wledig made ruler of Ercyng by Honorius? Other has 440 Protector Eugenius of Cernyw killed in battle, succeeded as Protector by son Marius / Mor / Nor; PCB has Amlawdd Wledig / Anblaud, Britanniae regis, ap Kynwal ap Ffrwdwr ap Gwrvawr ap Kadien ap Eudaf; father of Rhieinwylydd, mother of Saint Illtud, b 425 who he says is legendary. ‘Culhwch and Olwen’ has Arthur’s mother as Eigr ferch Amlawdd, and Eigr’s brothers Llygatrudd / Llygadrudd Emys / Red Eyed Stallion and Gwrbothu / Gwrfoddw Hen, King of Ercyng.  Amlawdd marries Gwen ferch Cunedda Wledig]. 

-

Vortigern grants Ewyas in lands of the Silures / Gwent to son Vortimer / Gwerthefyr Fendigaid / The Blessed, who takes it from lands of Cernyw and calls it Gwerthefyriwg [other has C440]. 

-

[JM] Aquae Sulis / Caer Baddan / Bath falls under control of Glevum / Caer Gloul / Gloucester in lands of the Dobunni.  

-

Vortigern settles Anglian foederati in northeast Britain [other has 435] and sends Hengest / Hengist north to attack Picts beyond the Wall up to Dumfries and beyond the Forth, ravaging the Orkneys.  Hengest / Hengist calls in Octha / Octa and Ebissa and forty keels and settles some in northeast Britain. [MA has 500 - 530 fl Octa of Kent; Nennius says they lay waste Orkney and take possession of land beyond Frenessican Sea / Solway Firth].  This ends the Pictish menace.  

-

Territory of Cornouaille / Kernev / Kernew in Armorica founded by Rivelen / Rioelen Mor Marthou [Marius / Mor / Nor of Cernyw] at Caer Ys / Corspotium / Quimper. 

-

Irish disciple of Saint Germanus, Michomerus / Michomairle in Autissiodorum /Auxerre.  

-

Mint at Treveri / Trier ceases to issue gold and bronze coins and closes.

Post 430 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus III- [Bury] some revisions made to Notitia Dignitatum including British sections.  

-

Some imperial gold coins, and a number of pseudo-imperial pieces made by western barbarian rulers, arrive in Britain.

430-450 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIII & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus III - Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII & Gennadius Avienus - [LA] Britain ceases to have a money economy.

431 Anicius Auchenius Bassus & Flavius Antiochus – Flavius Aëtius, in Raetia and Noricum, defeats the bacaudae in Augusta Vindelicorum / Augsburg and re-establishes Roman rule on the Danube frontier.  He campaigns against the Juthungi then drives back the Salian Franks from the Somme, recapturing Tournacum / Tournai and Cambriacum / Cambrai [Eagles has 432].  

-

Council of Ephesus condemns Pelagius and Coelestius.

 

432 Flavius Aetius & Flavius Valerius – Galla Placidia makes Comes Bonifacius / Boniface Patricius and senior Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae, stripping Flavus Aetius of his command.  Aetius attacks Boniface, who defeats him at Battle of Rimini, though mortally wounded in the process. Aetius escapes to Huns in Pannonia, then with their help returns and is made senior Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae.

-

King Genseric of the Vandals takes Hippo Regius and makes it his capital.  

-

Saint Sixtus III Pope (to 440).  

C432 Flavius Aetius & Flavius Valerius - [JR] Saxons raid Ireland [Yeates quoting Irish Annals has 434 ‘the first prey of the Saxan in Ireland’].  [Morris] Vortigern’s daughter marries Irish King.  End of Irish threat to Britain. 

433 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIV & Petronius Maximus – British cleric Faustus [Chadwick ?Britu, son of daughter of Emperor Maximus, blessed by Saint Germanus], made Cistercian Abbot of Lerina / Lérins; he is a supporter of Pelagian views against predestination and ?son / grandson of Vortigern; GA suggests he was son of Vortigern and converted by Saint Germanus from Pelagianism; PCB says b 400].

C433 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIV & Petronius Maximus – Flavius Aetius supreme in the West.

C434 Flavius Ardabur Aspar & Flavius Areobindus - Gradlon Mawr / The Great ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais and Cornuaille dies succeeded by son Salaun / Salomon I / Selyfan / Selyf, brother of Gwidol ap Gradion, prince of Dumnonia.  [MA has 475-505 fl Saloman successor to Grallo / Gradlonus ruler of Armorica; also has 405 - Saloman succeeds Gadeon and Cynan ap Eudaf as ruler of British in Armorica / Brittany; PCB says fictitious, 405-412].  

 

435 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XV & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus IV – Flavius Aetius made magnificus vir parens patriusque noster.  

-

Auxiliaris becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 437). 

-

[Chadwick] bacaudae outbreak in Armorica [to 437] under Tibatto.

C435 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XV & Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus IV – Marcus Conomari / Conomor / Cynfawr ruler of the Dumnonii / Dumnonia dies succeeded by son Constantine Corneu / Gorneu [Chadwick has Custennin Corneu born C510 and C450-470 birth of Constantine ruler of Dumnonia; MA has C475- 505 fl Custennin Fendigaid successor to Cynfor ruler of Dumnonia; PCB has b 415 and the same man as Custennin Fendigaid / Blessed / Waredwr / Deliverer. He quotes Bonedd y Saint’s genealogy ap Cynfar ap Tudwal ap Cynan Meriadoc, and makes him father of Saint Digain [is this Saint Docco?], father of his successor Erbin and ancestor through him of Saints Cybi and Iestyn].  

-

Celtic chieftain Tibatto declares independent Armorica.   

 

436 Flavius Anthemius Isidorus & Flavius Senator – [Crichton] last Roman mercenary troops recalled [Storr has Aetius recalls them to aid break Visigoth siege of Colonia Narbo Martius / Narbonne].

-

Bressal Bélach King of Leinster / Laigin dies. 

-

[Carney in DOC] Cairpre Lifechair, son of Cormac, of the Desi opposes Breassl.  

-

Flavius Aetius and Eparchius Avitus defeat the Burgundians of King Gundacar.  

-

Magister Militum Litorius and the Huns defeat King Theodoric I of the Visigoths at Narbo Martius and push them back to their capital Tolosa / Toulouse. 

436-437 Flavius Anthemius Isidorus & Flavius Senator - Flavius Aetius II & Flavius Sigisvultus – Flavius Aetius with Litorius campaigns against bacaudae in Armorica. 

Late 430s - [Ellis] Civil war between Vortigern and Ambrosius Aurelianus [JM suggests latter was imperator of Britain 433-436.  Nennius mentions Ambrosius’s struggle against Guitolin; MA suggests he was a relative of Saint Ambrose of Mediolanum / Milan 339-397, whose father Ambrosius Aurelianus was Praetorian Prefect of Gaul and was, possibly related to Emperor Aurelian; WSK has Ambrosius Aurelianus floruit C490; PCB has Emrys Wledig b 400].

 

436 Flavius Anthemius Isidorus & Flavius Senator – Aetius cedes Aquitaine to Visigoths, agri desreti around Valence to the Alans and Sapaudia to the Burgundians.

 

437 Flavius Aetius II & Flavius Sigisvultus – Flavius Aetius sends the Huns to destroy the Burgundians, slaughtering 20,000, which may be the basis of the Nibelungenlied.  He travels to Constantinople with Valentinian III, who marries Licinia Eudoxia and assumes direct rule of the West.  

-

Eparchius Avitus is Magister Militum per Gallias based in Avernia / Clermont Ferrand, where he defeats the Huns, then compels the Visigoths to raise the siege of Colonia Narbo Martius / Narbonne.

C437F lavius Aetius II & Flavius Sigisvultus – [Nennius] Battle of Guoloph / Wallop in Hampshire between Vitalinus [Vortigern? Ruler of Glevum?] and Ambrosius [?Aurelius / Aurelianus] [Chambers has 474; Crichton has 470; PCB quotes HB ‘From the reign of Vortigern to the discord between Guitolinus and Ambrosius are twelve years, which is Guoloppum, that is Cat Guoloph’and says that Gwidol was the name of Vortigern’s father, Gwidol ap Gwidolin / Gwidolion / Guitaul filii Guitolin / Guitolion filii Gloiu or Gwidawl m. Gwdoloeu m. Gloyw gwalltir. Latin forms were Vitalis, Vitalinus / Vitalianus & Claudius; Glevum was also Claudia Castra].  -

[Gallic Chronicle] Capture and death of Tibatto, leader of Armorican bacaudae.

-

Mint at Aquileia ceases to issue bronze coins.

C437-438 Flavius Aetius II & Flavius Sigisvultus / Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVI & Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus – British Council refuses to supply Saxon foederati and tries to send them home. Saxon foederati seek reinforcements from home. [PCB quotes ASC saying this is after 449]. [Vortigern marries daughter of, and grants Canturguoralen / Kent to, Hengest / Hengist without knowedge of Gwyrangon, ruler of Kent].

 

438 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVI & Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus – Flavius Aetius defeats Suebi at Battle of Mons Colubrarius.  King Hermeric of the Hispanic Suebi abdicates, succeeded by Rechila, who defeats Romanae Militiae Dux Andevotus by the banks of the Genil River.

 

438-439 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVI & Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus / Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVII  & Festus - [IA] Secundinus and Saint Iserninus / Isernius British priests working in Ireland with Saint Patrick [other has 456; Bowen has with Palladius and has Secundinus founding church at Dunehaughlin in County Meath and Iserninus at Clonmore in County Carlow and Aghade in Kilcullen; Wikipedia has the three bishops arriving in 439 to join Palladius].  

-

[AU] – Ireland’s civil law, the Senchus Mor, codified. 

439 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVII & Festus – Magister Militum Litorius, and allies the Huns, defeated by Visigoths at Tolosa / Toulouse, imprisoned by them and dies.  Ostrogoth Vetericus / Vitirichus stabilises the situation and Flavius Aetius defeats the Visigoths and imposes a treaty.  

-

King Genseric of the Vandals takes Carthago / Carthage, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Isles.  

-

The Sueves invade Lusitania and make its capital, Emerita Augusta / Mérida, the new capital of their kingdom. 

-

Florentius is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

C439 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVII & Festus – Eparchius Avitus (later Augustus) is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum and renews the treaty of friendship with the Visigoths under King Theodoric I.

 

440 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius – [DOC] death of Maine mac Niall, earliest Ui Neill.

-

Aetius settles Alans around Valentia / Valence to control Armorican unrest. 

-

Rechila continues with the expansion of the Suebian Hispanic kingdom and defeats Count Censorius at Myrtilis Iulia / Mértola. 

-

Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus is Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum and quarrels with Aetius, Pope Leo I mediating.

-

Saint Leo I the Great Pope (to 461).  

C440 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius – Saebald / Sibald leader of Anglian laetiin Deywr / Deira, dies, succeeded by son Saefugul / Segulf / Saefugel.  Foirtchern, grandson of High King Loeghaire and Vortigern, born.  

-

Corinium / Caer Ceri / Cirencester defences and gate repaired and forum kept clean. 

-

Armorican Saint Germanus / Garmon joins Saint Patrickin Ireland.  

-

Childeric I becomes King of the Franks.

440-441 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius - Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus (alone) - Saxon revolt [JM has 441-442; Ellis has Jutish revolt 450].  [Gildas] Destruction of British towns. Durovernum / Caer Caint / Canterbury deteriorates.  Many of the major cities and settlements looted.  Venta Icenorum / Caistor-by-Norwich sacked and not reoccupied. Population flees.  Camulodunum / Colchester and Lindum / Lincoln gates burned but repaired. Ceramic industry ceases.  Economy destroyed, rural areas unsafe. ?Deira separated by revolt from Eboracum / Ebrauc / York / North Britain.  Rising suppressed in the North and settlements restricted there [Storr has Deirans build Danes Dyke cutting off Flamborough Head then one to the River Hull cutting off Holderness. British build a dyke at Flotmanby Wold].

C 440-446 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius  - Flavius Aetius III & Q. Aurelius Symmachus – Ambrosius [? Aurelius / Aurelianus] dies of plague. 

440-450 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius - Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII & Gennadius Avienus – Scotti / Irish capture Viroconium / Caer Guricon / Wroxeter of the Pagenses / Powys and Scotti / Irish King Banadl / Banall / Benlli / Benlli Gawr / Enlli Gawr installs himself.  Cadell Ddyrnllwg / Cadell of the Gleaming Hilt, son of Cadeyrn / Cateyrn ap Gwrtheyrn / Cateyrn Fentigaid [PCB b 400] ruler of Powys, submits to Benlli.  [JM has C 429Irish usurper Banadl / Benlli / Benli is burned to death in capital Viroconium / Caer Guricon / Wroxeter; MA ? or fortress Moel Benlli; others have C445/446/447 - Cadell Ddyrnllwg / Gleaming Hilt son of Cadeyrn Fentigaid restored to rule of Pagenses / Powys by Saint Germanus; MA – ?a mistake for Irish Saint Garmon; Nennius has Saint Germanus destroying Benlli and raising Cadell Ddryrnllug from low status to rule; PCB says Benli is legendary].  

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Irish presence at Caer Draithou / Dunster Castle, Somerset [other has ?420s].

C440-480 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius - Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius iunior (alone) -  [MA] fl Eifion successor to Dunaut ruler of Dunoding [PCB has Eifion ap Dunod ap Cunedda Wledig b 430, father of Dingad, ? founder of Catref of Eifionydd – the other being Ardudwy. He has Dunod b 400, first king of Dunoding].

440-496 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V & Flavius Anatolius - Flavius Paulus & Post consulatum Viatoris – Middel Seaxe are settled north of London, Sutherge are settled south of London.

441Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus (alone) – [Hodgkin] Chronicon Imperiale has Britanniae usque ad hoc tempus variis cladibus eventibusque laceratae in ditionem Saxonum rediguntur [Yeates quoting Gallic Chronicle has Britannia falling to Saxon forces]. 

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FlaviusAetius appoints Asturius Magister Militum perHispanias, in order to put down the bacaudae in Tarraconensis.  

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The Suebian armies of Rechila conquer Hispalis / Seville, just months after the death of King Hermeric.  The Suevi control Baetica and Carthaginensis.

C441 Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus (alone) – Marcellus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 445).

441-442 Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus (alone) - Flavius Dioscorus & Flavius Eudoxius - Northern Gallic annal Chronica Gallica of 452 records that Britain passes ‘in dicionem Saxonum’;‘The British, who to this time had suffered from various defeats and misfortunes, are reduced to the power of the Saxons.’ 

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Asturius and Merobaudes, magistri militum of Hispania suppress bacaudaein Terraconensis.

C441-446 Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus (alone)– Flavius Aetius III & Q. Aurelius Symmachus - Aquae Sulis / Caer Baddan / Bath defences strengthened but city sacked. 

442 Flavius Dioscorus & Flavius Eudoxius – [Chadwick] bacaudae outbreak in Armorica.  Flavius Aetius sends Gohar King of the Alani to suppress bacaudae and settles Alans around Aurelianum / Orleans to control ?Armorican unrest.

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[Yeates quoting Gallic Chronicle] Britons subject to Saxon rule.

C442 Flavius Dioscorus & Flavius Eudoxius - Morgan / Mawgan / Manogan / Maucann / Maucanu / Maucant ap Pasgen becomes joint ruler of Buellt and Gwerthrynion [PCB has b C430]. 

C442-444/5 Flavius Dioscorus & Flavius Eudoxius- Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVIII & Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus / Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI & Flavius Nomus - British counter attack and Vortimer three times shuts Hengest / Hengist and the Saxons up in Ruoihm / Thanet, but they are reinforced. Vortimer fights first with help of other regions against Hengest / Hengistat River Derguentid / Darent / Darenth / River by the Oaks or Crecganford / Crayford or Glanford Bridgein Lincoln. [JM 445 / 449; other & Storr have 457; ASC has 456]. 

 

443 Petronius Maximus II & Flavius Paterius – Flavius Aetius settles Burgundians in Sapaudia, south of Lake Geneva.  

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Merobaudes defeats the bacaudae of Aracellitanus in Hispania.

C443 Petronius Maximus II & Flavius Paterius – Custennyn / Constantine Corneu ruler of Dumnonia dies, succeeded by Erbin / Erbyn / Ervan ap Constantine / ab Custennyn / Urban [PCB has Erbin ap Custennin Corneu b 440, father of Geraint and Selyf, father of Saint Cybi. Legend has Erbin’s brother Uthr ap Custennin, father of Arthur. Bonedd y Saint has Erbin as a saint and brother to Saint Digain. Saint Ervan is venerated in Cornwall, Erven in Brittany, Eruen one o the four saints at Llangwm, Gwent; Wikipedia has C427 – C480].  

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Cornubia / Corniu / Cerniw / Cornwall founded as sub-region of Dumnonia ruled by Merchion ab Custennyn / Marcianus, younger brother of Urban / Erbin ab Custennyn [?linked to Marius, the official or governor of Cernyw; see C410; MA has cousins Erbin and Meirchion fl 505-535; PCB has Meirchion ap Custennin Gorneu, father of March ap Meirchion, no date].

 

444 Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVIII & Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus – ? Founding of Armagh by its first Bishop Saint Secondinus / Secundinus / Secundinius / Sechnall / Seachnall, founder of Domnach Sechnaill / Church of Sechnall, Dunshaughlin, County Meath, a companion of Palladius].  

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Rome adopts Alexandrian computation of Easter.

 

445 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI & Flavius Nomus – Flavius Aetius has the Vandals attack Turonium in Gallaecia.  

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Majorian defeats a Frankish siege of Tornacum / Tournai, followed by a Frankish attack in the region of Atrebatum / Arras, in Belgica Secunda. The foederati are stopped in an ambush near Vicus Helena, where Flavius Aetius directs the operations while his commander Majorian leads the cavalry.

C445 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI & Flavius Nomus – Dyfnwal Moelmud / Dunvallo Molmutius / The Bald and Silent son of Germanianus becomes ruler of Bryneich / Bernaccia [PCB has b 440 ap Garbanion ap Coel Hen. May be the Dyfnwal Moel listed in Arthur’s court in ‘Culhwch and Olwen’]. 

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Cunedag / Cunedda ruler of Gwynedd dies succeeded by 7th son Einion Yrth / Erth / The Impetuous / The Stricken [PCB has Einion Yrth / Gyrth / Touched / Stricken ap Cunedda b 410, given Rhos where his son Owain Danwyn ruled.  His two wives were sisters, daughters of ? Didlet, King of the Picts in Powys.  Father of half-brothers Einion and Cadwallon Lawhir, plus Llyr Marini and Tegog, ancestor of Mael ap Menwyd, pendefif of Pennardd in Arfon].  He leaves Rhos on the Ceredigion / Gwynnedd border to his youngest son, Owain Ddantgwyn [PCB has Owain Danwyn ab Einion Yrth b 440, ancestor of princes of Rhos, father of Cynlas. Bonedd y saint has him father of Saints Einion Frenin, Seiriol and Meirion, and also father of Hawyal Gloff or Menwyd. PCB has Saint Einion Frenin ab Owain Danwyn a saint of Lyn b 470; also Saint Seiriol Wyn / the Fair ab Owain Danwyn, prince of Rhos, b 470, one of the ‘Seven Happy Cousins’. Saint in Anglesey and Puffin Island / Ynys Lannog / Priestholm; Saint Meirion ab Owain Danwyn, prince of Rhos, b 470, saint of Llangadwaladr, Mon], [others have 480500; MA has fl 470-500].

Cunedda leavessub-rulers: 

Second son Osfael / Osmail / Ismail / Oswael / Ysfael ap Cunedag ruler of Osmaeliog / Osfeilion / Ysweilion [PCB has b 410, rulerin the eastern horn of Anglesey].

Third son Rhwfon ap Cunedag ruler of Rhufunlog / Rhufoniog [PCB has Rhufon ap Cunedda Wledig b 400, with no descendants and his kingdom absorbed into Rhos].

Fourth son Dynod / Dunod ap Cunedag ruler of Dunoding in west Gwynnedd [other has 424; PCB has b 400, father of Eifion; MA has fl 440-470 Dunaut 1st ruler of Dunoding]. 

Fifth son Ceredig ap Cunedda of Ceredigion [see above].

Sixth son Afloyg / Afloeg ap Cunedag, ruler of Afflogion; his youngest son Dogfael ap Cunedag as ruler of Dogeilion / Eighth son Dogfeiling / Dogfeilion at Ruthin / Castell Coch yng Ngwern-fôr [others have 424 or 455; PCB has b 410 Dogfael ap Cunedda Wledig, father of Elno].

Ninth son Edeyrn / Edern ap Cunedag / Cunedda Wledig ruler of Edeyrnion / Edeirnion [PCB has b 415 ancestor of Saint Mordeyrn / ab Edern, saint in Rhufoniog, Gwynedd].

Tenth son Gwron / Hero ap Cunedda [PCB has maybe legendary, maybe actually Ysfael b 420, father of Cynyr, Meilir and Yneigr who assisted Cadwallon Lawhir expel the Gwyddyl from the island].

 

Grandson Meirchion / Meirion ap Typaun / Tybion ap Cunedag / Cunedda ruler of Meirionydd [JM has this by Arthur after 500; MA has Meirion son of Tybion1st King fl 470-510; PCB has b 420 father of Cadwaladr, Cadwallon & Bleiddud, and slayer of Beli ap Benlli Gawr].

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Vortimer / Wytgeornfights Saxons atthe ford called Rithergabail / Rhyd-yr-ceffyl / Horse Ford / Episford / Aylesford / Aegelsthrep / Aegaelesthrep / Aegaales threp [MA says Aylesthorp in Lincoln or Fishford / Rhyd y Piscod / Sathnegabail / North and South Ferribyon the Humber; PCB & Storr quote ASC as having this in 455], where Horsa and Cadeyrn Fentigaid / Categirn, Vortimer’s brother d.  

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Cadell Ddyrnllwg / Ddyrnlug / Catel Durnluc / Gleaming Hilt ap Cateyrn ap Gwrtheyrn succeeds in Pagenses [other source has 455, another has Pascent succeeding; MA has Cadell successor to Categirn fl 480-510; PCB has Cateyrn / Catotigirn-I / Warlord / Battle King ap Gwrtheyrn b 400 and has Cadell b 430, hosted Saint Garmon when he pursued Benlli, blessed by Garmon, ruler of northern Powys and father of Cyngen Glodryd and Tegid].  

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Hengest / Hengist takes the Kingdom [other has Aesc / Oisc / Ossa succeeds Horsa as King of Kent; other has 455; MA has 525-555 fl Ossa / Oisc of Kent].

 

C445-475 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI &Flavius Nomus - Flavius Zeno Augustus II & Post consulatum Leonis iunioris Augusti - [MA] – fl Wihtgils of Kentish line, Esla of the West Saxons, Ingui followed by Angenwit of Bernician Angles, Swaerta or Westerfalca of Deiran Angles, Hryp of the East Angles, Sigefugel of the East Saxons, Eomer of the Mercians, Woden of Lindsey Angles.

 

445 -459 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI & Flavius Nomus / Flavius Ricimer & Flavius Patricius - Illus  (alone) / Flavius Appalius Illus Trocundes & Severinus iunior - Ailill mac Nath Í / Ailill Molt / Ram, King of Connacht, High King of Ireland [others have 459 or 478-482; Chadwick has 462; JM has 461succeeded by Aillel Molt of Connacht].

446 Flavius Aetius III & Q. Aurelius Symmachus – [DOC] ?Mac Cairthinn  filius Coerthin filii Coelboth Muscraige King of Munster dies at the Battle of Femen [other has Mac Cairthinn mac Coelboth Uí Enechglaiss King of Leinster, King of Tara, killed at Mag Femen in Brega; other has 530; other has 447 Mac Cairthinn mac Ceolboth of the Ui Enechglass of Leinster falls in battle of Mag Femin in Brega between Leinster and the Ui Neill].

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Romans dispatch the Magister Utriusque Militiae Vitus to Baetica and Carthaginensis, who, assisted by a large number of Goths, attempts to subdue the Suevi and restore imperial administration in Hispania. King Rechila defeats the Goths, Vitus flees in disgrace.

C 446 Flavius Aetius III & Q. Aurelius Symmachus - Saint Germanus Bishop of Autissiodorum / Auxerre and Severus Bishop of Treveri / Trier visit Britain, finding Britain ruled by ‘Great Tyrant’ / Vortigern / Vawr-tighern / Overlord [JM has him as Vitalis / Vitalinus; Welsh tradition has Gwrtheyrn / Gwrthenau / Supreme Leader; CP has 447; others have 440-446; MA has 436; Chadwick has 447, with a recrudescence of Pelagianism in Britain].  Saint Germanus lands at Selsey and meets Elafius regionis illius primus [Ellis has Chieftain of the Belgae at Venta Belgarum / Winchester].  He succeeds in expelling Pelagians and with all the British clergy attacks Vortigern [PCB has Elafius hastened to meet St Germanus; name may be latinised Greek or Elesa son of Elsa son of Gewis in West Saxon line].

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Salaun / Salomon I / Selyfan / Selyf ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais dies succeeded by son Aldrien ap Selyfan / Aldroenus/ Audroenus /Aldwr [Chadwick & GM have Aldroen ruler of Brittany, 4th in descent from Conan Meriadoc b C480.  His younger brother Constantine / Custennin Corneu / Constantine III is father of Uther Pendragon and is married to Igerne, daughter of Amlawdd Gwledig / Anblaud ruler of Cernyw, and father of Arthur.  MA has Saloman ruler of the Britons in Armorica / Brittany d and fl 505-535; PCB has Aldwr b 415 but fictitious].  

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? Plague.

447 Flavius Calepius & Flavius Ardabur iunior / Flavius Rufius Praetextatus Postumianus & Flavius Zeno – Saint Secundinus / Secundinius Bishop of Armagh dies (or 448).  

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Alans under Goar put down a renewed revolt of Bacaudae in Armorica [to 448]. 

448 Flavius Rufius Praetextatus Postumianus & Flavius Zeno – Saint Germanus of Autissiodorum / Auxerre dies at Ravenna pleading case of people of Armorica.  

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King Rechila of the Suebi dies, succeeded by son, Rechiar, who plunders Vasconia, Saragossa and Lleida in Hispania Tarraconensis, stretching from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Biscay, which was still under Roman rule.

C448 Flavius Rufius Praetextatus Postumianus & Flavius Zeno - British appeal to Flavius Aetius / Agitius when he is campaigning in Gaul. Britain’s last appeal to Rome for help but none comes, as Rome is fighting Attila King of the Huns. [MA suggests this written by Vitalis or Vortigern; others have 443/446/450/454; JEL says 446 or soon thereafter].

449 Flavius Astyrius & Flavius Flor(entius?) Romanus Protogenes – The bacaudae in Spain revolt and sack Tyrassionis, Illerdensus. The Suebi enter Tarraconensis to assist the Basilius and his revolt. 

Pre 450 – Saints Romulus / Romuil and Conindrus / Conindri, evangelise in the Isle of Man.

450 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII & Gennadius Avienus – Saint Monenna comes to Whithorn with eight maidens and a widow, settling in Dundevenel / Dundonald in Ayrshire.  

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Jutish foederati settled around Noviomagus / Chichester in lands of Regnenses / Rhegin / Sussex. [JM] Vortigern is said to have ceded Sussex and Essex to Saxons. 

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Vortigern deposed [others have 450-455post 442, 435].   Vortimer / Gwerthefyr Fendigaid ruler of Gwerthefyriwg / Gwent becomes ‘High King / Imperator’. [His nephew Cadell of the Gleaming Hilt, son of his brother Cadeyrn Fendigaid (The Blessed) is ruler of Pagenses / Powys].  Pascent / Pasgen ap Gwrtheyrn made ruler of Buellt / Builth and Gwrtheyrnion / Gwerthryn / Gwerthrynion / Guorthigirniaun by Vortigern his father [other has by Ambrosius Aurelianus in 455; MA has Pascent successor to Vortigern in Builth and Gwrtheyrnion fl 450-480]. 

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Theodosius II Emperor of the East d succeeded by Marcian.  

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Chlodio King of the Franks d; Flavius Aetius supports his younger son Merovaeus's claim to the throne, adopting him as his own son and sending him from Rome, where he had been an ambassador, to the Frankish court with many presents [other has 447 Clodio, King of the Salian Franks at Tournai, dies succeeded by Mereovech [to 458; other has from 448].

C450 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII & Gennadius Avienus – [JR] Latinus stone carved in Whithorn.  

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Caistor in Lindsey abandoned.  

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Short-lived territory of Maelienydd formed out of Pagenses / Powys bordering Gwerthrynion.  

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Scotti / Irish Ui Liathain establish region of Brycheiniog / Brecknock with first ruler Irish prince Brychan / Brachan / Broccannus / Broccan Brycheiniog / Saint Brychen Brycheiniog, husband of Marchel, heiress of Garthmadrun / Garth Madryn at Talgarth [MA has him succeeding Vortigern and fl 450-480; PCB has Brychan I b 400, II b 470, son of Anlach / Anlac mac Coronac, an Irish king and Marchell, daughter of Tewdrig / Teuderic / Teudiric / Teudric ap Teudfall / Teithfall ap Teuder / Teithrin, King of Garthmadrun, b 330. He had 11 sons (others add up to 30) and 11 married and 13 unmarried daughters = 24, but others add up to 30 from 3 wives, Prawst, Rhybrawst and Eurbrawst – a Cornish list has Gladwisa and the Irish list Saxon King’s daughter Dina. Quotes scholar to say were 2 Brychans, one of southern Scotland. Triad calls his line one of the three stocks of saints, with Cunedda and Caw of Prydyn, and another Three Saintly Lineages his line, Cunadda’s and Joseph of Arimathea. Anlach brought Marchell back to Benni. Later, Brychan was a hostage in court of Banadl / Benadel / Banadyl of Powys, whose daughter Banadlinet / Banadylinued / Banhadlwedd he violated and she bore St Cynog / Mochonoc Camarch b C420, Brychan’s eldest son, who founded churches in Cornwall, south Wales and Powys– no record of Banadl except Powys place names.  2nd son Rhain Dremrudd b C430 became prince of Brycheiniog and ancestor of the line. The daughters married men covering 3.5 centuries; but PCB also has Clydwyn ap Brychan, who invaded much of south Wales / Deheubarth and was father to Saints Clydog and Dedyw]. 

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Prince Congar / Cyngar of Cernyw emigrates to Armorica and rules Cornouaille as second ruler [PCB has no entry].

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Deroc / Deroch I, ruler of Damnonia / Dumnonee, dies and is usurped by general Marchell, though his son Riotham / Riothamus / Riutimus / Riotimus / Riotimus returns, kills usurper and takes throne [other has 460 Riothamus, son of Deroc I (or Deroc II) ruler of the Britons / Bretons / ruler of Damnonia; PCB has no mention of Deroc I son of Guitol].  

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Saint Maughold founds Maughold monastery near Ramsey, Isle of Man. 

Post 450 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII & Gennadius Avienus – [Cool] Rubbish dump finds at Corinium / Cirencester are ‘happily Roman’.  

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Ui Neill destroy Ulaid capital and power base of Emain Macha. 

 

450-451 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII & Gennadius Avienus - Flavius Marcianus Augustus VI & Valerius Faltonius Adelfius – Tonantius Ferreolus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 453).

451 Flavius Marcianus Augustus VI & Valerius Faltonius Adolfius – Attila King of the Huns attacks Gaul and besieges Aurelianum / Orleans.  Flavius Aetius, King Theodoric I of the Visigoths, the Burgundians, the Armoricans and the Salian Franks defeat Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. Theodoric I is killed.

452 Flavius Bassus Herculanus & Flavius Sporacius - [DOC] Ui Neill attack Leinster, interfectio magna Lagenarum.

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Attila the Hun invades Italy, razing Aquileia, but Flavius Aetius forces him to withdraw.  

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Eastern Emperor Marcian attacks the Huns north of the Danube. 

C 452 Flavius Bassus Herculanus & Flavius Sporacius - The British win at Rutupiae / Ritupis / The ‘Inscribed Stone by the Gallic Sea’ / Wippedesfleot / Wippedfleet / Richborough [JM has C450; Ellis has 460; Storr has 465].  Death of a thane named Wipped and 12 British chieftains. Vortimer succeeds in clearing Ceint / Kent, containing the East Angles, and subduing the rest, but is mortally wounded [other has 465 Wippedesfleot / Rutupiae / Richborough taken by Hengist & Oisc  / Aesc / Ossa, completing conquest of Kent; Storr has Jutes build Faesten Dic east of the River Cray and another on the River Darent]. 

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Vortimer / Gwerthefyr Fendigaid / Blessed, ruler of Gwerthefyriwg / Gwent dies [other has him poisoned by Saxon step-mother, 455], succeeded by Honorius / Ynyr Gwent [other has C457; PCB has two Ynyr Gwents, one b 450, one 540, but this means 2 lines of princes of the same name.  PCB also has Honorius son of Thefriauc / Thefriaucus / Trefriauci / Ynyr ap Tyfriog, undated, who lived with Saint Justinian / Stinan on Limeneia / Ramsey island, Dyfed; Chadwick has 450-460 Iddon ruler of Gwent b; Ynyr’s son Iddon a contemporary of Saint Teilo].  [MA] Vortigern restored as Imperator. 

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[Nennius & MA] End of Roman rule in Britain; overthrow of officials, killing of their generals, end of taxation.

453 Flavius Opilio & Iohannes Vincomalus –Óengus mac Nad Froích / Angus Mac Nadfraich beomes King of the Eóganachta in Munster. He is baptised by Saint Patrickin Cashel, the first Christian King of Munster. [JM has 465Angus King of Munster, d 492].

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Procopius Anthemius sent to Danube frontier by Eastern Emperor to restore defences ruined by Attila.  

 

C453-454 Flavius Opilio & Iohannes Vincomalus - Flavius Aetius & Flavius Studius – Vortigern is overthrown by Ambrosius Aurelianus of Glevum / Caer Gloul / Gloucester ‘who becomes Imperator / High King’ [other has 455; Chambers has 462; JM has 460-475; MA has 470s/477].   Vortigern burned to death in stronghold of Genoreu on the hill called Cloartius in Ercing, by the River Wye.  

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Ceretic / Corotic / Ceredig ap Cunedda ruler of Ceredigion d, succeeded by Usai ap Ceredig [MA has fl 470-510; PCB has b 450 father of Serwyl].  

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Ceint / Kent mostly lost to Jutish rulers as Kings of the Cantware [other has 457].  

 

454 Flavius Aetius & Flavius Studius – Flavius Aetius, Dux et Patricius, murdered by Emperor Valentinian III in Ravenna.  

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Romans use Visigoths to suppress bacaudae in Aquitaine and Hispania. 

[DOC] King Loeguire of the Ui Neill celebrates feast of Tara, feis Temro.

455 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VIII & Procopius Anthemius – Jutes reinforced, Hengest / Hengist and Aesc / ? Osca establish Kingdom of Kent, and launch the second stage of the war across the midlands, south and west [other has C473– Kings Hengist and Aesc of the Cantware defeat the British in Kent, ending the war in Kent or breaking out of Kent].   

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Many British emigrate to Armorica and are settled by Aegidius north of the Loire.  

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British Church adopts new method of calculating Easter.

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Emperor Valentinian III murdered.  

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The Vandals sack Rome, killing Emperor of 11 weeks Petronius Maximus and capturing Licinia Eudoxia and her two daughters.  

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Eparchius Avitus Augustus, Magister Militum per Gallias, proclaimed Emperor at Tolosa by King Theodoric II of the Visigoths.  He appoints Aegidius / Gillon to be Magister Militum per Gallias. 

C455 – Braciat ap Pasgen / Briacat / Braigad / Braigat ap Pasgen / ? Riagath / Rhiagath / Riocatus succeeds his father Pasgen / Pascent as ruler of Buellt and Buellt / Builth and Gwrtheyrnion, perhaps first as co-ruler with Morgan ap Pasgen [other has Morgan ruling from C452].

455-456 Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VIII & Procopius Anthemius - Eparchius Avitus Augustus (alone) – King Rechiar of the Suebi attacks Romans in Taraconensis breaking treaties with Emperor Avitus, who sends King Theodoric II and the Visigoths, with Burgundians under Kings Gundioc and Hilperic, across the Pyrenees to defeat the Suebi at the river Órbigo near Astorga, killing Rechiar and plundering their lands to 459, and taking Baetica.

 

By 456 Eparchius Avitus Augustus (alone) - Priscus Valerianus ceases to be Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum. 

 

456 Eparchius Avitus Augustus (alone) – [traditionally C432] Saint Patrick sent to Ireland to preach to King Loegaire [other has 430/431; IA has 432; Nennius has 438; PCB quotes Carney to say 456; O’Rahilly has 461; JR has C432; WSK has possible fl C450]. With him is his nephew Saint Auxilius / Usaille [IA has 438], one of eight brother missionaries to Ireland [Bowe has Auxilius founding church a Killashee in Kildare].  [JR] Saint Patrick writes to apostate Southern Picts.  

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Avitus, Emperor of the West defeated at Placentia by Suevian army commander Ricimer, who has rebelled at Ravenna.  Avitus is made Bishop of Placentia but flees to Gaul and d. An 18 month imperial interregnum in the West.  

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Paeonius becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 458). 

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[DOC] Death of Ennac mac Cathbotha / Enda Rogaillnech of Ards.

457 Flavius Constantinus & Flavius Rufus – Bishop Palladius the Deacon of Ireland ‘the elder Patrick’ d [IA has this or 461; AC has 457; GA has 463; Malmesbury legends have him as Abbot of Glastonbury and d 472; Crichton has him setting up a cell at Aberfeldy in 469].  

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[Traditionally 433] Saint Patrick clashes with High King Laoghaire / Loegaire and Saint Benignus, disciple of Saint Patrick, ‘Patrick’s Psalm Singer’, is tied inside a burning timber building with a druid to emerge alone unscathed [others have 434]. 

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Marcian Emperor of the East d succeeded by Leo I.  

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Majorian nominated Emperor by Ricimer and recognised by Leo. 

?Post 457 Flavius Constantinus & Flavius Rufus – The British concept of Lloegr / Lloegyr / Logris / Loegria emerges for Southumbria, lands under the law?

457-461 Flavius Constantinus & Flavius Rufus - Flavius Severinus & Flavius Dagalaiphus – Mint at Ravenna issues bronze coinage.

458 Iulius Maiorianus Augustus & Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus - Drust son of Erp King of the Picts d, succeeded by an unknown king [MA says by Talorc II in 453]. 

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[DOC] King Loeguire of the Ui Neill defeated by Leinster.  

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Merovech, King of the Salian Franks at Tournai, d succeeded by Childeric I [to 481; other has 457/458].

 

Post 458 Iulius Maiorianus Augustus & Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus– [traditionally 440]– Amalgaid mac Fiachrae King of Connacht d.  A succession dispute breaks out between his sons Óengus and Éndae. Saint Patrick arranges for High King Lóegaire mac Néill and his brother Eógan mac Néill to mediate the dispute. Endae has his son Conall baptised and given to Patrick's service for his support.  

 

459 Flavius Ricimer & Flavius Patricius – Magnus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 460).

C459 Flavius Ricimer & Flavius Patricius - [JM] Second migration to Brittany.  

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Saint Auxilius / Usello / Ussoldus / Ussuldus / Usaille / Usille / Usyllt / Issells, British co-missionary of Saint Patrick in Ireland, d. [JM has Saint Patrick dies and northern Irish sees established; PCB has Usyllt passing through Dyfed with Iserninus and establishing churches]. 

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Heruls raid south to Baetica.

460 Flavius Magnus & Flavius Apollonius –  Death of Saint Corentin / Corentinus / Kaourintin, first Bishop of Quimper [PCB has pre 453 – post 480].  

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Ibar, pupil of Briton Moctheus, who taught in Lough, and three Munster men consecrated bishops in Rome. [JM has 465 Ibar, Enda and Kebi in Rome].

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Suebi take Lucus Augusti / Lugo in Hispania from Roman forces.  Procopius Anthemius defeats the Ostrogoths in Illyricum.  

C460 Flavius Magnus & Flavius Apollonius – Saint Ceneu, ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York and the North d, succeeded by sons Gwrgant ruler of Rheged, taking all in the west up to the Salway; and Mor / Mar ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York and land to the north of the Salway [PCB has Ceneu / Whelp ap Coel b 400, father of Maeswig Gloff / Mar / Mor, Pabo Post Prydyn, Gwrwst Ledlwm / the Ragged ap Ceneu b 435; PCB has Mar / Mor ap Ceneu b 435, father of Arthwys, Cynllo, Lleenong, Einion; and Gwrwst ap Ceneu father of Meirchion Gul and Eliffer Gosgorddfawr; in ‘Culhwch and Owen’ Gwrwst is father of Dyfnarth. 

Saefugul / Segulf / Saefugelleader of Anglian laeti in Deywr d, succeeded by son Soemel / Soemil / Saefugel II, who separates Deywr from Barnaccia and perhaps achieves some autonomy.

Ratae Coritanorum / Caer Lerion / Leicester passes under Angle control [other has C450 ]. 

Second emigration of Cornovii to Cornubia.  

[JM] Eomer King of Angel dies succeeded by Icel [MA has fl Icel of the Mercians; other has Eomer King of the Iclingas last King of Angeln ]. 

 

460s- Irish Saint Beon travels to Glastonbury and becomes hermit at Saint Patrick’s advice.

461 Flavius Severinus & Flavius Dagalaiphus – British cleric Faustus, Abbot of Lerina / Lérins, a supporter of Pelagian views against predestination, made Bishop of Regium / Riez in Provence [JM has 462]. 

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Bishop of the Britons Mansuetus [?of Armorica], later Bishop of Tullum Leucorum / Toul, attends Council of Civitas Turonum / Caesarodunum / Tours [PCB says this is the first tangible evidence of British in Armorica in the neighbourhood of Vannes]. 

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Emperor Majorian appoints Aegidius Magister Militum per Gallia; he is left with ‘the Kingdom of Noviodunum / Soissons’. Majorian returns to Italy but is killed by Ricimer, who installs Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus as Severus III.  

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Saint Hilarius Pope (to 468).

 

462 Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus & Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus II - Nectan Morbet becomes King of the Picts and becomes a Christian [MA has 457 succeeds ? Talorc II as King of the Picts; JM has him king 462-486]. 

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[DOC] King Loeguire of the Ui Neill killed in battle with Leinster.

C462 Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus & Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus II - Saint Germanus / Garmon visits Britain from Ireland.

  

463 Caecina Decius Basilius & Flavius Antoninus Messala Vivianus - Aegidius and King Childeric I of the Salian Franks defeat the Visigoths at Aurelianum / Orleans.

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Burgundian King Gundioc appointed magister militum per Gallias.

 

464 Flavius Rusticius & Anicius Olybrius - Aldrien ap Selyfan / Aldroenus ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetaisdies succeeded by son Budig I / Budicus / Budicius / Budic [MA has fl 530 – 560; PCB says he is fictitious].  

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Remismund becomes King of the Suebi in Hispania, which he devastates and takes Felicitas Julia / Lisbon.  

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Arvandus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum (to 465). 

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A great plague (or violence or poison) kills Aegidius, who is succeeded by son Syagrius as commander (dux) of Roman armies in Gaul; barbarians called him ‘King of the Romans’. Paulus of Juliomagus / Angers continues as comes.  

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King Childeric I of the Franks and Paulus defeat the Goths.  

465 Flavius Hermenericus & Flavius Basiliscus – [IA] Saint Iserninus d [PCB has him as Hernin / Hirnin in southwest Wales].  

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Forga mac Dallán mheic Dubthach mac Mianach mac Lugaid Lorc King of Ulster / Ulaid d.  

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Eógan mac Néill Noigallach King and founder of Ailech, blessed by Saint Patrick, d. 

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Emperor Flavius Libius Severus III Serpentius Augustus d.  Interregnum.

C465 Flavius Hermenericus & Flavius Basiliscus - Rhwfon / Rhufon ap Cunedag ruler of Rhufoniog d succeeded by Mor ap Rhwfon [PCB has Rhufon with no successor and Rhufoniog absorbed by Gwynedd]. 

466 Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus III & Tatianus – Theodoric II King of the Visigoths murdered and succeeded by brother Euric.

C466 Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus III & Tatianus – Saint Germanus / Garmon becomes first Bishop of Man.

466-467 Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus III & Tatianus - Flavius Pusaeus & Flavius Iohannes – Procopius Anthemius defeats the Huns in Dacia.

467 Flavius Pusaeus & Flavius Iohannes – Arvandus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum for the second time (to 472).  

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Procopius Anthemius, with an army led by the Magister Militum per Illyricum Marcellinus, sent to be Emperor of the West by Emperor Leo. Accepted by Ricimer, the principal magister militum, he organises a campaign of the western Roman army to attack Gaiseric of the Vandals in Africa, probably under the command of Marcellinus, but the result is a failure: the bad weather obliges the Roman fleet to return to its base before completing the operation.

C467 Flavius Pusaeus & Flavius Iohannes – Aergol Lawhir / Lauhir / Aircol / Ayrcol / Agricola / Aricol Lawhir / Long Hand ap Triffyn, becomes Protector of Dyfed [JM has C500, as he is father of Vortipor who is old in 540; other has Aergol Lawhir becomes ruler of Demetae / Demetia 437; Chadwick has him contemporary of Saint Teilo, of Iddon ap Ynyr, ruler of Gwent and Gerontius/Geraint ruler of Dumnonia, the latter 2 fathers of the rulers abused by Gildas; MA has fl 460-490; Llandaff charters have a signature 500; PCB has b 460, son of Triffyn / Tryfun, ruler of Dyfed, father of sons Gwerthefyr and ? Erbin.  Book of Taliesin has ‘A battle in Crug Dyfed, Aergol flying’ from Cynan Garwyn of Powys [C570-610 so impossible].

468 Procopius Anthemius Augustus II (alone) - Leo the Thracian, Anthemius and Marcellinus organise a major operation against Gaiseric’s Vandal kingdom in Africa. The commander-in-chief of the operation is Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus (who will become Eastern emperor in 475). A fleet consisting of upwards of one thousand vessels is collected to transport the combined Eastern-Western-Illyric army, and while most of the expenses are paid for by the Eastern Empire, Anthemius and the Western treasury contribute to the costs. The fleet is defeated in the Battle of Cape Bon and Marcellinus is killed at Roman hands.

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Visigoths attack the Suevi in Hispania. 

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Saint Simplicius Pope (to 483).  

C468 Procopius Anthemius Augustus II (alone) - [MA] Drest succeeds Nechtan / Nectan Morbet as King of the Picts [JM has 486]

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Budig I / Budicus ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais d succeeded by son Maxenri / Méliau / Meliavus / Melianus ap Budig I [PCB has prince of Cornuaille b 500, r C530-537. His wife Aurilla, daughter of Iudoc, prince of Damnonia, father of Melor, slain by brother Rivold C537. Honoured as a saint in Leon. Possibly gave land to hermit Saint Domineuc /Domnech who gave them to Saint Malo].

468-469 Procopius Anthemius Augustus II (alone) - Flavius Marcianus & Flavius Zeno - Odovacer and the Saxons / Frisians led by Corsoldus take Juliomagus / Angers, settling on islands in the Loire, but Frankish King Childeric I and Comes Paul retake the city. Childeric follows a Saxon warband to the islands on the Atlantic mouth of the Loire, and massacres them there.

469 Flavius Marcianus & Flavius Zeno – Flavius Magnus becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum. 

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[TMC] Sidonius Apollinaris writes on behalf of Arvandus to Euric, King of the Visigoths, advising him against allying with the ‘Greek’ emperor, but instead to attack the Britons across the Loire.

By 470 Messius Phoebus Severus & Flavius Iordanes – Einion Yrth / Erth, second ruler of Gwynedd, subdues Scotti / Irish on Mona / Anglesey [JM has 490-510 Serigi the Irishman, ?Serach, son-in-law of King of Leinster, expelled from Anglesey]. 

470 Messius Phoebus Severus & Flavius Iordanes - Emperor Anthemius enlists British help to fight Visigoths in Gaul [TMC has 469].  John Reith / Regula / Riothamus / Rigotamos ruler of Damnonia [others have Ambrosius Aurelianus / Supreme King / Supremely Royal; MA asks if this is Arzur / Arthur of Brittany] crosses to / operates in Gaul, sailing up the Loire to Avaricum / Bourges. GA has 470 seaborne British join Armorican British to fight for Emperor Anthemius; JM says C468; LA has 460s; Chadwick citing Jordanes writing C551says C470 12,000 British come to the aid of the Emperor Anthemius 467-472]. Arvandus, Prefect of Gaul persuades the Goths to attack the British at Avaricum / Bourges and Dol / Deol / Bourg-de-Deols.  The British retreat into Burgundy (allies of Anthemius) and are lost [GA has this as Arthur, using William’s Legend of Saint Goeznovius, the Welsh Saint Gwyddno and Alberic’s Chronicle; TMC says later letter of Sidonius Apollinaris implies the British remained a formed body of men]. Comes Paul, Syagrius’s General, attacks the Goths but is killed by Childeric I King of the Franks.  Syagrius holds the Loire, defeating the Goths. Emperor Anthemius attacks the Visigoths with an army under the nominal leadership of his own son, Anthemiolus, commanded by the generals Torisarius, Everdingus, and Hermianus.  Anthemiolus moves from Arelate / Arles and crosses the Rhone River, but he is intercepted by Euric King of the Visigoths, who defeats and kills the Roman generals and pillages the area.

C470 Messius Phoebus Severus & Flavius Iordanes –Einion Yrth / Erth (The Impetuous) ruler of Gwynedd d succeeded by son Cadwallon Lawhir / Long Hand [other has 500 Cadwallon ap Einion / Cadwallon Lawhir/ Long Hand / Cadwallon I expanding power and making Gwynnedd the pre-eminent British state; PCB has b 440 father of Maelgwn Gwynedd. His mother was daughter of Tidlet, King of the Picts, in Powys or Prawst ferch Tithlym Prydyn. Wife Meddyf ferch Maeldaf ap Dylan Draws of Nanconwy.  Fought Battle of Cerrig-y-Gwyddyl in Mon, leading one of the ‘three fettered bands of Ynys Prydain’, slaying Serigi Wyddel at Llam-y-Gwyddyl / the Irishman’s Leap].  

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Foundation or ? renaming of territory of Cernyw as Glywysing / Glamorgan in Cernyw in lands of Silures with capital at Cardiff / Caerdydd by first ruler Claudius / Glywysus / Glywys / Glwysson of Solor, the brother of Protector Marius / Mor, who becomes a hermit at Penryn [MA has fl 465-495; other has 480. PCB has Solor / Filor ap Nor ap Owain b 405 with name meaning Silurian; and Glwys ap Solor b 430, father of Gwynllyw and 9 other sons including Saint Pedrog, grandfather of Saint Cadog, father of daughter Dibunn / Dyfwyn / Donwn / Douun, wife of Meurig ap Enynny. Glywys’s wife was Guaul / Gwawr ferch Ceredig.  He is called Glywys Cornubiensis / Kerniw and Clemens tywyssaawc o Gernyw. Glywys means Glevensis / Man of Glevum. He is venerated as Saint Glywys / Gluvias / Gluviacus / Gliguis / Gleguis and entered a martyrium in Merthyr Glywys, where he was connected with Nertat and Bishop Saint Fili].

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Some coins continue to enter Britain (the Patching hoard).  

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Maxenri ap Budig I ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais d succeeded / overthrown by brother Rhiwod ap Budig [PCB has Rivold, prince of Cornuaille, son of Budic, who killed brother Meliau 538 and mutilated his son Saint Melor / Meler  / Melar b 530 aged 7 by cutting off his right hand and left foot.  Melor had a silver hand.  Rivold then bribed his guardian Cerialtan to kill him before dying 544 or 545, but Cerialtan’s wife rescued him and sent him to Meliau’s sister, husband of Conomorus in Damnonia.  Cerialtan persued Melor and slew him at Lanmeur. Rivold pensioned Meliau’s wife Haurille / Aurilla, daughter of Iudoc]. 

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Sidonius Apollinaris Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand refers to the people of Armorica as Britanni.  

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Magnus Felix becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

C470 - 500 Messius Phoebus Severus & Flavius Iordanes – Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius - [MA] fl Elesa of the West Saxons, Wilhelm of the East Angles, Bedca of the East Saxons, Winta of Lindsey Angles.  

 

471 Flavius Valerius Novus Leo Augustus IV & Caelius Aconius Probianus - [IA] Second Saxon raid on Hibernia / Ireland [Yeates quoting IA has 434 ‘the second prey of the Saxan in Ireland’].   

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[Ellis has 450-460] Coroticus/ Coirteach / Ceretic / Caradocruler of Alt Clut / Strathclyde raids Ireland and attacks Saint Patrick’s converts, occasioning Saint Patrick’s letter to him excommunicating his soldiers [others have 459/460; 475 Ceretic / Corotacus / Coirthech Rex Aloo; WSK has C460; JEF has 450-493; PCB quotes Carney to put this at 471].

 

C471 Flavius Valerius Novus Leo Augustus IV & Caelius Aconius Probianus – Entropius becomes Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

Post 471 Flavius Valerius Novus Leo Augustus IV & Caelius Aconius Probianus - Erbin ap Ceretic becomes ruler of Alt Clut / Stratchclyde [others have 470; 475-480.  MA has Erbin, brother of Vortipor – fl 495-515; other has C450; other has C460; PCB has letter of Patrick to Coroticus 471].  

472 Rufius Postumius Festus & Flavius Marcianus – Ricimer besieges Rome. Anthemius Emperor of the West flees and is killed in St Peter’s, replaced by Eastern envoy Olybrius.  Ricimer and Olybrius d. 

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Arvandus, Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum, is taken to Rome in chains, accused of treason for persuading Visigoth King Euric to attack Bretons north of the Loire. Found guilty, he is deprived of all offices and imprisoned, then exiled.

 

C472 Rufius Postumius Festus & Flavius Marcianus - Rhiwod ap Budig ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais dies succeeded by Erich / Cybydan / Cybrdan ap Aldrien.  

 

473 Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus V (alone) – Burgundian Gundobad nominates Glycerius as Emperor of the West.

 

C473 Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus V (alone) – death of Saint Dochau / Dochow / Dogwyn / Docgwyn, founder of Llandough-juxta-Cardiff monastery, as well as monasteries including that at Docco in Cornwall [IA has 473 - British Doccus / Docco bishop / abbot of the Britons, author of first Irish Christian liturgy, d].

 

474 Flavius Leo iunior Augustus (alone)– Leo I Emperor of the East dies, succeeded by Zeno, who sends army to depose Glycerius and install Julius Nepos.  Glycerius made Bishop of Salona.  

 

C474 Flavius Leo iunior Augustus (alone) - Honorius / Ynyr Gwent, ruler of Gwerthefyriwg / ? Gwent loses or delegates territory of Ercing / Ergyng [or Amlawdd Wledig leaves it]. Gwrfoddw Hen son of Anblaud / Amlawdd Wledig first [or second] ruler of Ariconium / Aricon / Arcing / Ergyng / Ercing / Archenfield with capital at Ariconium / Weston under Penyard [other has C475; PCB has Gwrfoddw Hen as legendary (in ‘Culhwch and Olwen’) uncle of Arthur, whose sister was Arthur’s mother. He is perhaps the same as Gwrfoddw / Guruodu King of Ercyng, with son Erfig / Eruic. He may be Gwrwedw in the Kanu y cwrwf / Song of Ale in the Book of Taliesin connected with Ynyr, Rhuddfedel and ‘the long haired Gwentians’].  

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[GA] ? Ambrosius’s maiden victory against the Saxons. [JM has 460–490s British counter attack, holding Londinium / London, Noviomagus / Chichester, under Ambrosius Aurelianus / Emrys [Gildas], who settles Ambrosiaci? in Ambrosden, Amberley, Amesbury / Ambresbury etc, campaigning in Wiltshire to Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire. 

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[GA] Ambrosius builds a fleet.  

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Saint Germanus / Garmon Bishop of Man d, succeeded by Saints Romulus / Romuil and Conindrus / Conindri.

475 Flavius Zeno Augustus II & Post consulatum Leonis iunioris Augusti – King Euric of the Visigoths gains recognition from Emperor Julius Nepos of independence from Rome in return for the return of Provincia, then absorbs Hispania, ending Roman administration.  

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Emperor Julius Nepos overthrown at Ravenna by the army commander, the Magister Militum and Patricius he had appointed, Pannonian Orestes, who installs his son Romulus Augustulus. Julius Nepos flees to Dalmatia. 

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Polemius becomes the last Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.

 

C475 Flavius Zeno Augustus II & Post consulatum Leonis iunioris Augusti - Cuncar / Cyngar ap Dyfnwal Moelmud ap Garbanion, ruler of southern Votadini / Bryneich / Bernaccia [PCB has b 480, father of Morgan Fwlch].  

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Gwrast / Gwrwst Lledlwm ? son of Gwrgant ruler of Rheged d [other has 470], leaving son Meirchion / Merchiaun Gul / The Lean / Marcianus ruler of Rheged [MA has fl 470 - 500 Merchiaun the Lean, great-grandson of Ceneu, rules Rheged] and son Masgwld / Masaid ruler of Elmet [other has 460 Masgwid Gloff  / The Lame becomes ruler of Elmet; MA – 440-480 fl Maeswig the Lame or Mar son of Ceneu - ruler of Elmet / the Southern Pennines. PCB has Gwrwst / Grwst / Fergus Ledlwm / the Ragged ap Ceneu b 435 and according to ‘Culhwch and Olwen’ with son Dyfnarth captured by Gwyn ap Nudd after his victory against Gwythyr ap Greidiol, but released by Arthur. Father of Meirchion  / Marcianos Gul / the Lean and Eliffer Gosgorddfawr. Meirchion Gul ap Gwrwst Ledlwm b 460 with son Llyr Marini.  Maeswig Gloff ap Ceneu / Masguic clop map Ceneu / map Mar / Maesgwig / Maeswic kloff ap Ceneu ap Coel / Maxwic klof / Masgoit Clofaut / Mascoet Cloflawt C435, father of Lleenog and grandfather of Gwalog ap Lleenog.  Maeswig Gloff and Mar seem to be the same person?].  

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Mor ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York and Northern Britain d, succeeded by sons Einion ap Mor the first ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York; Arthwys / Athrwys ap Mor / Mar [MA has 460-520], the first ruler of the northern Pennines [MA has Arthwys C450-520, ruler of the Southern Pennines; PCB has b 465]; and Dynod / Dingad ap Einion / Eifion, first ruler of Dunoting / Dunoding [PCB has b 470 father of Meurig].  

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Dynod / Dunod ap Cunedag, ruler of Dunoding, d succeeded by Einion ap Dynod. [MA has C470-510 fl Eifion successor to Dunaut / Dynod ruler of Dunoding.  PCB has Dunod b 400 father of Eifion / Einawn ap Dunod ap Cunedda Wledig, father of Dingad].  

-

Braciat / Braigad ap Pasgen Buellt / Pascent ap Gwyrtheyrn ruler of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d, succeeded by Idnerth ap Briagad [PCB has Briacat / Riagath / Rhiagath b 430 father of Mepurit / Meuprit / and identical with Idnerth, b 470 father of Pawl; MA has C480 – 510 fl Riagath / Riocatus successor to Pascent as ruler of Buellt / Builth and Gwrtheyrnion]. 

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? Monastery founded at Tintagel.  

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Mint at Mediolanum / Milan ceases to issue gold, silver and bronze coins and closes.  Mint at Ravenna ceases to issue gold and silver coinage and closes (or 476).

 

475-495 Flavius Zeno Augustus II & Post consulatum Leonis iunioris Augusti - Flavius Viator (alone) – Angles [source has foederati] settle around Venta 

Icenorum / Caer Went /Caistor in Iceni lands [other has 495-560 - Venta Icenorum / Caer Went / Caistor occupied by Angles and the Kingdom of East Anglia forms in Iceni lands; Storr has Angles advance southwest down Icknield Way to Great Chesterford building defensive Bran Ditch, Brent Ditch, Fleam Dyke and Devil’s Ditch].

C475 – C550 Flavius Zeno Augustus II & Post consulatum Leonis iunioris Augusti - nil – [TMC] Phocaean Red Slipware imported into south-western Britain from the eastern Mediterranean, particularly up to 525.  Amphorae also importing wine and/or oil.

476 Flavius Basiliscus Augustus II & Flavius Armatus– Scyrian / German Magister Militum Flavius Odoacer / Odovacer removes Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, kills Orestes in battle at Piacenza, ends nominations of Western Roman Emperors and transfers allegiance to the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno. Odoacer’s troops declare him King. Odoacer and Syagrius send deputations to Zeno, who recognises only Odoacer. Zeno grants Odoacer title of Patricius. Odoacer continues to recognise Julius Nepos’s titles but rules Italia.

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Mint at Rome ceases to issue gold, silver and bronze coins and closes. Mint at Arelatum / Arelate / Constantina / Arles 

ceases to issue gold coins and closes.  

 

477 Post consulatum Basilisci Augusti II et Armati – [WSK] Aelle, first ruler of the South Saxons, with sons Cyman, Wlencing and Cissa, lands at Cymenes Ora / Cymen’s Shore / The Owers / Owers Bank, Selsey and defeats Britons of Rhegin / Regnenses, who flee into the Weald. Chichester later named after Cissa as Cissa’s Ceastar, and Lancing after Wlencing [WSK has 477; JM has C480 Battle of Portsmouth; Storr has British build dykes on the River Lavant and Stane Street; Saxons dig the War Banks west of the River Arun C465-475].  

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King Genseric of the Vandals dies succeeded by son Huneric. 

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End of the Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul based at Arelate /Arles, which is taken by the King Euric of the Visigoths.

478 Illus (alone) – Namatius, Roman admiral for Euric King of the Visigoths, patrols west coast of Gaul from Burdigala / Bordeaux, deterring Saxon raiders.

 

C478 Illus (alone) – Erich / Cybydan / Cybrdan ap Aldrien ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais d succeeded by son Budig II / Budic / Buddig / Budicius / Emyr Llydaw (Emperor of Brittany) ap Erich, ruler of Cornuaille [other has C450-550; PCB has b 500, married in Dyfed Annauued / Anawfed daughter of Ensic / Ensyc amd Guenhaf / Gwenhaf ferch Liuonui, parents of Saint Teilo. Budic and Anawfed had Ismael / Ysfael, and Tyfei / Tyfai. On return to Vannes, they had Saint Oudoceus, whom they sent to study under Teilo]. He is later exiled with a fleet to court of Aircol Lauhir / Aergol Lawhir of Dyfed (? by Caradoc Freichfras founding Bro Erech in 490) with his son Hoel I Mawr before returning to reclaim his seat.  

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Sidonius Apollinaris Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand visited by British Bishop and monk Riocatus [Chadwick – Riagath / Riagat / Briacat grandson of Vortigern] who is travelling for Bishop Faustus of Regium / Riez.

Before 480 Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius iunior (alone) – SaintErbin ap Constantine / ab Custennyn / Urban King of Dumnonia abdicates in favour of Gerren / Gereint / Geraint Llyngesog / Llyngesic / the Fleet Owner ab Erbin [other has C480 Urban / Erbin ab Custennyn ruler of Dumnonia / Dyfneint dies, succeeded by Gerren / Gereint Llyngesog ab Erbin [Chadwick has Gereint b C570, r C600, but poems have contemporary with Arthur; MA has Geraint ab Erbin and Mark ab Meirchion fl C530-560 successors to Erbin and Meirchion Kings of Dumnonia and Cornubia.  PCB has Erbin ap Custennin Corneu b 440, father of Geraint, also of Selyf the father of Saint Cybi, uncle of Arthur.  He says Geraint ap Erbin is legendary and b 470. Black Book of Carmarthen and Red Book of Hergest have Gereint fil’ Erbinat Battle of Longborth. Gereint map Erbin is in ‘Culhwch and Olwen’ as warrior at Arthur’s court and father of Cadwy / Cado, Selyf, Iestyn and Cyngar.  He is one of the ‘Three Seafarers’ of Ynys Prydain.  His wife was Gwyar ferch Amlawdd Wledig.  Cousin to Arthur, whose court he left to rule Erbin’s lands when latter got old. ‘Friend of the Saints’ in Longborth poem, author of proverb ‘Short-lived is the hater of the Saints’].

480 Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius iunior (alone) – Ceredigion Briton Saint Brioc / Brieg / Briog / Breock/ Briocus moves to Armorica and founds monastery at Landebaeron [JM C468-C 559; PCB b 460]. 

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Julius Nepos assassinated in Dalmatia, probably by ex-Emperor Glycerius, Bishop of Salona / Salon in Dalmatia, with the Comes Ovida.  Odoacer invades and seizes Dalmatia and kills Ovida, making Glycerius Bishop of Mediolanum / Milan.  

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Visigoths conquer Provincia Romana / Provence.

 

C480 Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius iunior (alone) – Cinuit / Cynwyd / Cynwydion / ap Ceredig Wledig / son of Ceretic Guletic becomes ruler of Alt Clut [other source has C500; MA has fl 450-480; PCB has b 435 father of Dyfnwal Hen and ancestor of his line of Strathclyde].  

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[JM] Arthur succeeds Ambrosius Aurelianus [others have by C475/480 – Artorius / Arthur, ‘commander of the kings of the British in the war’, succeeds Ambrosius Aurelianus; other C480-511 Arthur ? Imperator / High King; GA has b 480, d 540; WSK has possible fl C500; PCB has Arthur ap Uthr b 480 and quotes HB that ‘after the death of Hengist - ?488 – Arthur was wont to fight against the Saxons with the kings of the Britons, but he himself was dux bellorum. The twelve battles listed are:

1 At the mouth of the River Glein [Historia Gruffud ap Kenan says Arthur fought against both Picts and Saxons and ‘in the first of them he was defeated and a fugitive due to the treachery in Caerlwytgoed / Lichfield – this place was Dinas y Llywn Llwyd. In the other battles he was victor.’

 

2-5 On the River Dubglas in the region Linnuis.

 

6 On the River Bassas.

 

7 In the wood of Celidon ie Cat Coit Celidon.

 

8 In Castello Guinnion in which Arthur carried the image of the Virgin Mary on his shoulders.

9 In urbe legionis.

10 On the shore of the River Tribuit.

11 On the mountain called Agned; on Mons Breguoin, which we call Cat Bregion.

12 In monte Badonis].  

[MA has C485-497Arthur’s battles leading up to Badon].

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Soemel / Soemil / Saefugel IIleader of Anglian laeti in Deywr / Deira, d succeeded by son Uestorualcna / Sguerthing / Westerfalea (Western Falcon).

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Meirchion / Meirion ap Typaun / Tybion ap Cunedag ruler of Meirionydd d succeeded by Cadwaladr ap Meirchion / Meiron [MA has fl 500-540; PCB has Meirion ap Tybion b 420, Cadwaladr ap Meiron b 460 father of Gwrin Farfdrwch].  

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Claudius / Glewisus / Glwys Cernyw d dividing territory of Glywyssing into three: Saint Gundleus / Gwynlliw / Gwynllyw / Farfog / Woolos becoming Over-ruler with capital at Castrum Buleum / Caerfule, Newport, who founds Saint Mary’s Church at Gwynlliw, later incorporated into Saint Woolos Cathedral of the Celtic Church in Newport [MA has fl 495-525 successor of Glywys of Glywysing]; Pawl becomes sub-ruler of Penychen; Merchwyn / Mechwyn Vesanus (Mad Marcianus) becomes sub-ruler of Grofynedd. Edelig becomes the sole sub-ruler of Edeligion [PCB has Saint Gwynllyw / Gwynlliw Varvoc / Farchog / Filwr ap Glywis b 460, father of Saint Cadog and Saint Cynidr. He inherited Gwynllwg and married Gwladus ferch Brychan, mother of Cadog, and Ceingair ferch Brychan, mother of Cynidr. Founder of monastery Eglwys Wynllyw where he was buried. Lived eremitical life separated from wife. Cadog and Dubricius at deathbed].  [PCB has Pawl / Poul Penychen / Pennichen ap Glywys / Poulentus b 465 granter of Llancarfan land to Cadog for monastery. Court at Nant Pawl. Illtud was Captain of his soldiers.  He and his brothers Edelig and Seru witness agreement of Cadog with his uncle Rhain ap Brychan]. [PCB has Merchwyn ap Glywys / Merchguino filio Gliuis / Merchguinus / Meirchyawn b 480].[PCB has Edelig ap Glywys b 460. Saint Cybi came to his lands and resisted expulsion, so Edelig gave him 2 lands].  

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Honorius Ynyr Gwent, ruler of Gwent, d succeeded by son Iddon [PCB has b 570 slew husband of his sister Tegiwg and had dealngs with Cadwallon ap Cadfan C620 or as a contemporary of Saint Teilo to whom he gave lands, and who helped him fight Saxons. One of the ‘Three Lively Steeds’ of Ynys Prudain was Cethin Carn Aflaw / Cethin Cloven-hooved, his horse].  

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Cynfelyn ap Arthwys ruler of the Northern Pennines,becomes ruler of Middle Britain in Cynwidion in Catuvellauni lands [PCB has b 490 father of Cynwyd Cynwydion].  

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Icel ruler of the Iclingas / Mercians arrives in Britain or moves west out of East Anglia and founds small kingdom in east Midlands [others have 500-510 or C515-527; migration of the Angel kings].

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Constantius of Lugdunum / Lyon’s Life of Saint Germanus written [LA has 472-491]; he calls Britain ‘prosperous’. 

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[JM] Saint Illtud founds school [Wikipedia has C508 with Book of Llandaff crediting Dubricius with directing Illtud to do it; other has Saint Illtud founds monastery of Llantwit Vawr / Major; other has C508 the College of Theodosius re-established by St. Illtud. According to the Book of Llandaff, St. Dubricius commissioned Illtud to re-establish the college, and the place came to be known as Llanilltud Fawr]. 

Pre 481 Saint Benignus, disciple of Saint Patrick, ‘Patrick’s Psalm Singer’, resigns as Coadjutor in the Diocese of Armagh and d, succeeded as Bishop by Saint Iarlaithe / Jarlath mac Treno [traditionally 467; IA has 465/467/468; other has C469 Saint Benignus Abbot of Glastonbury d; AC has Benen / Benignus of Armagh d 468].  

 

481Rufius Achilius Maecius Placidus (alone)– Saint Iarlaithe / Jarlath mac Treno Bishop of Armagh dies, succeeded by Saint Cormac of Armagh, Bishop and first Abbot.  

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Childeric I King of the Salian Franks at Tournai d, succeeded by Clovis I [to 511], who attacks Syagrius [other has Childeric and Clovis both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and subordinate to the Magister Militum]. 

 

482 Flavius Appalius Illus Trocundes & Severinus iunior – Aillel Molt High King of Ireland, King of Connacht killed at Battle of Ocha in Meath, replaced as High King by Lugid / Lugaid, son of Loegaire, but with Muirchetach mac Erca holding power [other has 463Loeguire / Loegaire Mac Neill High King of Ireland dies, succeeded by Lugaid mac Loeguire; PCB quoting Additamenta to Tirechan’s Memoir of St Patrick has Laegaire mac Neill b C420 d C462 with wife Scothnoe, daughter of Vortigern and son Fedelmid, grandson Saint Fortchern / Foirtchernn].  

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Dauí Tenga Uma mac Briúin / Dauí Galach becomes King of Connacht; baptised by Saint Patrick.

 

483 Post consulatum Trocundis & Anicius Acilius Aginantius Faustus iunior - Crimthann mac Énnai King of Leinster from the Uí Cheinnselaig sept of the Laigin (baptised by Saint Patrick) slain [DOC has Crimthann mac Cennselaig slain by Oengus mac Meicc Erca of the Ui Bairrche, brother of dsaint Fiacc of Sletty to avenge Crimthann’s exiling his people, the Dessi; other has 485 Fincath mac Garrchu / Findchad mac Garrchon King of Leinster, of the Dál Messin Corb sub-sept, the Uí Garrchon, defeated and killed in the first Battle of Grainaret by the Uí Néill].  

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Saint Felix III Pope (to 492).

 

484 Theodoricus & Venantius – Euric King of the Visigoths dies, succeeded by Alaric II.

485 Post consulatum Theoderici & Q. Aurelius Memmius Symmachus iunior – [WSK] Aelle ruler of the South Saxons defeats Britons of Regnenses / Rhegin / Sussex at Mearcraedes Burnan / Mearc Redes Burna [MA suggests this may be Glynde Bourne / River Glein, the 1st in Nennius’s list, with hill fort at Mount Caburn nearby; ?as Ambrosius Aurelianus ages & loses control]. Aelle controls no further west than the River Arun [Storr has British plant foederati to enclose Saxons but latter build dykes on the Slade and north & south of Froxfiled Green to protect the River Rother]. 

Post 485 Post consulatum Theoderici & Q. Aurelius Memmius Symmachus iunior [traditionally C432] Saint Ninian / Ninia / Nynia / Nyniau / Nynnnio / Nennio / Neunyo / Maucennus / Maoineann / Monennus / Mugint Apostle to the Southern Picts, d at Candida Casa / Mor-munntir / Hwit aern / Whithorn / Witerna / Futerna / Rosnatensis Monasterium / Magnum Monasterium / Alba / in Galloway, succeeded as Abbot by Caranoc (later missionary to Ireland).

486 Flavius Longinus & Caecina Mavortius Basilius Decius iunior – Roman Dux Syagrius overwhelmed by the Franks and killed by King Clovis I of the Salian Franks and Ragnachar, King of Cambrai, at Noviodunum / Soissons, ending Roman rule in the West outside Italia. 

488 Claudius Iulius Ecclesius Dynamius & Rufius Achilius Sividius – [WSK] Hengist / Hengest, King of the Cantware, dies, and is succeeded by Aesc [BS has him moving north of the Humber and being caught and beheaded by Ambrosius, who hands over command to Arthur]. 

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Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great attacks Italia.

 

C488 Claudius Iulius Ecclesius Dynamius & Rufius Achilius Sividius – [Wikipedia] Saint Maughold / Macaille / Maccaldus / Maccald / Machalus / Machaoi / Machella / Maghor / Mawgan / Maccul / Macc Cuill, Bishop of Man, successor to Saints Romulus / Romuil and Conindrus / Conindri, d [other and Oxford Reference have d 498; Scottish Calendar of Saintshas Machutus, Breton bishop and confessor, d 565, but Oxford Reference says this is a false linkage]. 

489 Flavius Eusebius & Petronius Probinus- [PCB] quotes Carney to say Saint Patrick’s Confessio – Ellis has 460].  

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Muiredach Muinderg / Red-necked mac Forga mac Dallan King of Ulster / Ulaid, who received blessings of Saint Patrick, d [other has Muiredach mac Eógain King of Ailech dies].  

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Aengus Mac Nadfraich, King of Cashel, slain at Cellosnad / Kellestown, County Carlow [other has Óengus mac Nad Froích King of the Eóganachta in Munster d, succeeded by Dauí Iarlaithe mac Maithni, King of Iarmuman in west Munster.  JM and other have Angus King of Munster d 492; DOC has Oengus mac Nad Froich, ancestor of most of the Eoganachta, King of Munster, killed at Battle of Cenn Loenada 490; Carney in DOC has Oengus grandson of Conall Corc d C494]. 

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Magister Militum Flavius Odovacer overthrown in Italy by King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths, who becomes King of Italia (other has 493).  

 

C490 Flavius Longinus II & Anicius Probus Faustus iunior– Tutagual / Tudwal son of Cinuit becomes ruler of Alt Clut / Alclud / Strathclyde as well as Galwyddel / Galway [MA has son of Clynog, fl 530-570].

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Bran Hen / The Old ap Dyfnal Moelmud disputes then divides Bryneich / Bernaccia with ruler Cuncar / Cyngar ap Dyfnal Moelmud and takes northern part near Guotodin, then becomes Protector of Guotodin [PCB has Cyngar ap Dyfnwal Moelmud ap Garbannion b 480 father of Morgan Fwlch].  

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Usai ap Ceredig ruler of Ceredigion  [MA has fl 500-540; PCB has Usai ap Ceredig b 450 father of Serwyl] d succeeded by Serwyl [PCB has Serwyl ap Usai b 490, father of Boddw]. 

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Cadell Ddyrnllwg / Gleaming Hilt ruler of Pagenses / Powys d [other has 460], succeeded by son Saint Cyngen Glodrydd / The Renowned / The Famous ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg, under regency of Rhodri Ddyrnllwg [MA has fl C510–540; PCB has b 460 father of Brochwel Ysgithrog, Cadell, Ieuaf, Maig Myngfras, Mawn and Sanan by Tudglid ferch Brychan].  

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Iddon, ruler of Gwent, dies, succeeded by Caradog Freichfras / Vraichfras / Strong Arm ap Ynyr,son of Honorius / Ynyr Gwent of Gwent / Ercyng, who founds Bro Erech / Broerec / Gwened at Condate Riedonum / Civitas Riedonum / Rennes in Armorica and makes Saint Padam / Paternus (a Welsh Bishop replaced in his see by Kinoc) Bishop of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais [MA has fl 465-495; JM has 560 Caradoc Vreichvras ousts ruler Macliavus from Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais for a time; MA has fl 560-590 Macliaw successor to Budic ruler of Armorica, whose region had been usurped by Canao / ? Caradoc Vreichfras; other has C544. PCB has Caradog / Caradauc Freichfras / Kradoc vraichvras / Brecbras / Stout Arm ap Llyr Marini / Marivi b 470, who took Letavia / Llydaw under his rule. But he maintains Llydaw is in Britain not Armorica. In ‘Rhonabwy’s Dream’ he is Arthur’s chief counsellor and first cousin. His mother Dywedd / Tywanwedd verch Aflaw Wledig; Dywedd is sister of Eigr. Father of saints Cadfarch, Tangwn and Maethlu, and of Cawrdaf. Triads call him ‘Chief Elder’ of Celliwig in Cornwall, one of the ‘Three Battle-Horsemen’ of Ynys Prydain, one of the ‘Three Favourites of Arthur’ and called by Arthur ‘Pillar of the Cymry’. His horse Lluagor / Host-splitter was one of the ‘Three Bestowed Horses / Lively Steeds’ of Ynys Prydain.  Wife was Tegau Eurfron, Guinier.  Llyr Marini / Merini / Myrini / Marivi b 440 legendary]. 

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Muiredach King of south Leinster d [JM has 492 Muiredach Muinderg King of the Uliad d]. 

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Saint Mochaoi d, founder and Bishop of Nendrum [or 497].

Post 490 - Saint Tathyw / Tatheus, Irish founder of monastery at Llantathan and monastic school at Venta Silurum, d [PCB has b 475; quotes the Life: son of Tathalius a king in Ireland; given land by Caradog of Gwent at Caerwent. St Cadog studies under him.  Pater totius Guentonie.  Equates to Irish hermit Meuthi in life of Cadog. 

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Heruls raid Galicia and Cantabria. 

 

491 Flavius Anicius Olybrius Iunior (alone) – [WSK] Aelle ruler of the South Saxons and Cissa besiege and take Andredes Cester / Anderitum / Anderida / Pevensey in Regenses / Rhegin / Sussex and massacre occupants. They do not move further east.  Cissa becomes joint king. ?Temporary end of the territory of Rhegin. ? End of occupation of Noviomagus / Chichester [but see by 500].  ?British client state remains in East Sussex.  [Bede] Aelle is first Bretenanwealda / Bretwalda / Lord of Britain [JM says early 470s]. 

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Zeno Emperor of the East d succeeded by Anastasius.  

 

492 Flavius Anastasius Augustus - Flavius Rufus - Saint Gelasius I Pope, first to be Vicar of Christ’ (to 496).

 

493 Flavius Eusebius II & Flavius Albinus iunior - [CP following Bede & Ellis] Battle of Badon / Caer Faddon (Bellum Badonis/ Siege of Badon; Obsessio Montis Badonici/ the Battle of Badon Hill/ Mount Badon; Bellum in Monte Badonis / Mynydd Baddon); at Little Solsbury Hill fort near Caer Baddan / Aquae Sulis / Bath, or Liddington Castle, Badbury Rings [other sources have 490, 496, 500, 517, 518; AC and IA interpolation have 516-518; Easter Annals in Nennius has 518; GA has 514-520; LA has 499 or 495; JM has 495; Chambers has 518; Collingwood has pre 503; Bede can also be said to have 490, 492; MA has 492-497; BS has 517; Crichton has 516; WSK has C500; JEL has C500; Yeates has C520]  ?Arthur defeats King Aelle of South Saxons / Oesc / Aesc of Kent.  [AC has 516 – Bellum Badonis in quo Arthur portauit crucem Domini nostri ihu xpi tribus diebus & tribus noctibus in humeros suos & Brittones uictores fuerunt; MA suggests Aelle led supported by Aesc]. [MJ has ?before 490 others 516-518]. [PCB says C500 and quotes HB: Duodecim fuit bellum in Monte Badonis, in quo corruerunt in uno die nongenti sexaginta viri de uno impetu Arthur et nemo prostravit eos nisi ipse solus.   He quotes Gildas De Excidio: Ex eo tempore nunc cives, nunc hostes vincebant…usque ad annum obsessionis Badonici montis).  Brut y Brenhinedd and ‘Rhonabwy’s Dream’ call the site Caer Faddon, the Welsh for Bath, near the Severn].  

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[JM] Anlach / Andac mac Cormac of the Ui Luithain ‘subdued Britain’ with Briscus, assisting Aed Brisc of Desi in Demetia expand his kingdom to Llandovery. Theodoric and his officer Marchel / Marcellus campagn near Brecon against the Irish. They and Arthur oust the Irish dynasty in Demetia. 

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[JEL] Saint Patrick / Patricius / Qatrikias / Padrig Maun, Bishop of the Conchobar / of Armagh dies [others have 459/492/493/496 aged 120; tradition has 462; Ellis has 462; JR has 461; PCB quotes Carney to say 493].

 

C493 Flavius Eusebius II & Flavius Albinus iunior - [JM] Demetian Irish attack Brecon and Cardiff areas.

 

495 Flavius Viator (alone) - Cerdic / Caratacus son of Elesa (Elasius? Elafius?) with son / grandson Cynric, son of Creoda, lands at Cerdices Ora / Cerdicesora / Cerdic’s Shore near Totton, Southampton with 5 ships and fights Britons [but see 508 & 514; JM has C480; preface to ASC has winter 494; LA has 523]. ? Cerdic is British ruler ?of the Belgae who fights with / alongside / commands ?the English.  [JM has Irish; MA has fl 500– 530 Cerdic of the West Saxons; fl 525-555 Cynric or Creoda of the West Saxons. PCB quotes Asser ‘Cerdic son of Elesa, son of Geuuis, from whom the Britons name all that nation Geguuis’ / Gewissae. ASC adds Esla between Elesa and Gewis.  Bede says West Saxons of Winchester were Gewissae. Cerdic is British Ceredig and Elisa is like British Elise. Cynric is British Cynwrig and later Caedwalla is Welsh; Storr has him digging ditches at Netley, west of Fawley, Hatchet Gate, Sway and two Grim’s ditches west of the River Avon; then one north of the River Meon]. 

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Fráech mac Finchada / Fróech mac Findchado King of Leinster, of the Dál Messin Corb sub-sept, the Uí Garrchon, defeated at the Battle of Taillten in 494 by Coirpre mac Néill, losing Brega and Tailtiu, defeated and slain by Eochu mac Coirpri at the second Battle of Grainaret / Granard, County Longford in Tethba. 

C495 Flavius Viator (alone) – Tutgwal Theodovellaunus ap Cinuit, ruler of Alt Clut and Galwyddel d succeeded in Galwyddel by son Dingat ap Tutgwal [PCB has Dingad ap Tudwal b 430 perhaps ruling in Galloway, father of Senyllt]and by Caw / Cauus / Caw Prydein in Alt Clut [PCB has Caw of Prydyn / of Twrcelyn / of Cwm Cawlwyd b 460.  Converted by Saint Cadog,who built monastery of Cambuslang in Arglud / Arecluta. Caunus / ? Cauuus Father of Saint Gildas plus 4 other sons: two, Egreas / Egrud / Eugrad and Alleccus / Gallgo, renounced patrimony and retired to Twrcelyn in Anglesey; Cuillus / Huail succeeded father; Mailocus / Maelog / Meilig. Daughter Petcova / Peithien.  Bonedd y Saint says 24 sons.  His children are one of the ‘Three Kindreds of Saints’.  In ‘Culhwch and Olwen Caw / Kaw Prydein mounted Arthur’s mare Llamrei.  In ‘Stanzas of the Graves’ he is one of three ‘who had not been used to being provoked’]. 

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Maeswig Gloff ap Ceneu / Masgwid Gloff ruler of Elmet dies, succeeded by Llaennog ap Masgwid/ Lleenog / Lleinog ap Maeswig Gloff / Mar [MA has C470-510 fl Llenauc son of Maeswig the Lame ruler of Elmet; PCB has Maeswig b 435 may be also Mar.  Lleenog / Lleinog / Lleenawc / Lleennawc / Lleinawc / Lleinnawc b 465, father of Gwallog]. 

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Mor ap Rhwfon ruler of Rhufoniog d succeeded by Aidan ap Mor [PCB has Aeddan ap Mor  ? 900].

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Gwerthefyr ab Aergol Lawhir / Gartbuir / Gwrdeber / Guortepir / Vortipor  / Vortiporius / Voteporix / Vortepor mac Aricol succeeds brother Erbin as Protector of Dyfed, ‘High King’, Gildas: ‘Tyrant of the Demetae’ [MA has fl 490-520, old in the 530s; other has 475 Gwyrthefyr becomes ruler of the Demetae / Demetia / Dyfed; JM has reigns C515; PCB has b 425 and quotes his tombstone in Castelldwyran, Dyfed: Memoria Voteporigis Protictoris and Votecorigas. Father of Cincar / Cyngar / Congar].  

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Brychan / Broccan Brycheiniog / Saint Brychen Brycheiniog ruler of Brycheiniog d succeeded by son Rhain / Reginald / Dremrydd / Red-Faced / Red-eyed [MA has Fl C480-510 Rhain the Red-eyed as successor to Brychan ruler of Brycheiniog.  PCB has Rhain Dremrudd ap Brychan / Rein filius Brachan / Rein Vrem Rud / Drein dremrud mac Brachan / Rhein ap Brychan / Rein dremrud mac Brachan b 450 father of Rhigeneu and Neufedd. In Cadog’s day he invaded Gwynllwg but was defeated, besieged and rescued by his nephew Cadog, making an agreement with him]. 

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[JM] British Faustus, Bishop of Regium / Riez in Provence d.

495-512 Flavius Viator (alone) - Flavius Paulus & Flavius Moschianus – King Illan of Leinster fights 8 or 9 campaigns in Britain [JM: Irish attacks on Britain 495-510].

C495-525 Flavius Viator (alone) - Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus & Flavius Anicius Probus iunior – Gates of Venta Belgarum / Winchester blocked.

 

496 Flavius Paulus & Post consulatum Viatoris – King Aelle of South Saxons, Bretwalda, attacks Britons and defeats them [other has C500-650– South Saxons take kingdom of the Regnenses / Reghin / Sussex; other has C501 Port and sons Bieda and Maegla of the South Saxons kill British noble [JM says 480, and see C508] at Portes Mutha / Portum Adurni / Portchester in Regenses /Rhegin]. 

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[DOC] expugnatio Duin Lethglaise / the storming of Dun da Lethglass / Downpatrick ?by the Dal Fiatach, whose seat it becomes [other has 496/498 Eochaid mac Muiredaig Muinderg King of Ulster / Ulaid storms fortress of Dún Lethglaise / Downpatrick, County Down and makes it the Ulaid power base].  

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King Clovis I founds the Kingdom of Francia / Frankia / the Franks.  

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Anastasius II Pope (to 498).

497 Flavius Anastasius Augustus II & II post consulatum Viatoris – [TMC] Bretons make a treaty with Clovis I at his baptism? Procopius’s History of the Wars say Roman allies Arboruchoi / Armoricans fought for the Romans and could not be suppressed by the Franks, so they made peace and intermarried. Gregory of Tours says that from Clovis I’s time the British ceased to be kings and became counts [Chadwick has 499 Gregory of Tours says Clovis C466-C511 conquers Brittany but Bretons only give nominal obedience and refuse to recognise his sons]. 

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Saint Cormac of Armagh, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Dubthach / Dubtach the First, Bishop.

498 Iohannes Scytha & Flavius Paulinus – [DOC] Ui Neill defeat Leinstermen at Inis Mor in the territory of Ui Gabla, starting a series of battles lasting to 502/503. Ui Neill may also be at war with Connacht. 

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Saint Symmachus Pope (to 514).

 

C498 Iohannes Scytha & Flavius Paulinus - [Chadwick & Duan Albanach have C464; IA has 498/499] Fergus Mor / the Great mac Erc mac Eochu of Dal Riada goes to Britain and establishes Kingdom of Dal Riada / Riata / Dalreudini [Ellis has 500; other has 503; JM has C500; Crichton has 460; Ardrey has 500-501; WSK has C500; JEF quotes the Cethri primchenela Dail Riata / the four principal kindreds of Dal Riata to say that Fergus went to Kintyre, his brother Loarn Mor / the Great to Lorn ancestor of the Cenel nEchdach and a third brother Oengus, who founded Cenel nOengusso; there was one other cenel]. 

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[JM] Abar and Ibar visit Abingdon monastery.

498-499 Iohannes Scytha & Flavius Paulinus - Flavius Iohannes qui est Gibbus & Post consulatum Paulini - [MA] Galanan succeeds Drest as King of the Picts.  

499 Flavius Iohannes qui est Gibbus & Post consulatum Paulini – Saint Guyomard martyred at Ploudery.  [JM] Abban, nephew of Bishop Ibar, having baptised Finnian, dies. [DOC] Ui Neill maybe at war with Connacht.

 

By 500 Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius – Deganwwy fortified as ruler of Gwynedd’s court.  Dinas Emrys in Gwynedd fortified.  Garn Boduan on Llyn fortified inside Iron Age hill fort.  Carreg-y-llam on Lyn and Dinorben in Denbighshire fortified. Dinas Powys fortified in Glywysing. Glastonbury Tor occupied by local ruler [GA says ruler of Somerset; ?Melwas / Melvas of Ynys Wydrin, chief of the Aestivio Regio / Summer region / Gwlad yr Haf; PCB says legendary].  Cadbury Castle Somerset fortified by leader with a hall and 1,000 or so men.  Castle Dore fortified as ruler of Dumnonia’s stronghold / court / llys.  Other hill forts occupied were Cadbury-Congresbury, Dumbarton, Mote of Mark, Tintagel, Coygan Camp inDyfed. 

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Roman cities surviving include Verulamium / St Albans, Viroconium / Wroxeter, Calleva Atrebatum / Silchester [which added a series of defensive dykes], Deva / Chester, Glevum / Gloucester, Londinium / London, Seguntiacum / Caernarvon, Lindum / Lincoln, Isca Dumnorum / Exeter, Noviomagus / Chichester, Luguvalium / Caer Luel / Cathair Luail / Carlisle Isurium Brigantum / Aldborough, Eboracum / York.  

-

Forts re-occupied at Cataractonum / Catraeth, Camboglanna / Castlesteads and Vinovium / Castellum Guinnion, plus 10 others in the north [KD].  

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[Storr] Bunn’s Bank, Devil’s Ditch and The Grundle enclose River Waveney valley; Fossditch, Devi’s Dyke, Launditch and Panworth Ditch in the north; Black Ditches, the War Banks and dirches around the Swaffhams; possible planting of Swabians and Saxons along this line and north of Camulodunum penning Angles inside Iceni lands. 

-

Some villa sites remained, including Star Villa and Butcombe in Somerset.  

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Glastonbury ‘of the Gaels’ has shrines of Saint Patrick and Saint Brigit. 

-

British migration to Armorica / Brittany and Gallaecia / Galicia largely ended. 

 

6th CENTURY CE/AD

500 Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius – [Aethelweard] Cerdic and Cynric ‘encircle the weatern part of Britain’.  

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[DOC] ? Ui Neill at war with Connacht.  

C500 Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius – Esa / Oesa ruler of Anglians in Bryneich / Bernaccia / Bernicia  [MA has fl C470–500 Esa or Aethelbert of Bernician Angles.    

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Angle foederati settled in Elmet.  

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Uestorualcna / Sguerthing / Westerfalea / Western Falcon leader of Anglian laetiin Deywr / Deira d succeeded by son Uilgils / Giulglis / Witgils  [MA has fl C470-500 Witgils of Deira].

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Einion / Eifion ap Dynod ruler of Dunoding d succeeded by Dingad ap Einion / Eifion [MA has fl 500-540 Dingad successor to Eifion ruler of Dunoding; PCB has b 470 father of Meurig].  

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Cadwaladr ap Meirchion ruler of Meirionydd d succeeded by Gwrin Farfdrwch / Guurgint barmbtruch / Gurind barmbtruch / Gwrent vrabtruth / Kynyr varyf dwrch / Gurgeynt / Gwrhynt bramdrut / Gynyr varffdrwch ap Cadwaladr / Cut-Beard [MA has fl 530-570; PCB has b 500 father of Clydo wife Marchell ap Brychan]. 

-

New gate built in north wall of Glevum / Caer Gloul / Gloucester; the city expands. 

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Elnaw / Elno ap Dogfael made ruler of Dumnonian sub-region of Glastenning [PCB has b 440 prince of Dogfeiling, father of Glas / Elgud Glas]. 

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March / Marcus ap Meirchion / Marcianus / Mark son of Meirchion ab Custennyn Gorneu, brother-in-law of Meirchion of Lyonesse, becomes ruler of Cornubia with capital in Castle Dore / Lancien / Lantyan [PCB has legendary.  He is Mark of the Tristan romances, uncle of Trystan. Wife of March and mistress of Trystan is Esyllt Fynwen / Iseult.  March in triad is one of the ‘Three Seafarers’ of Ynys Prydain and in ‘Rhonabwy’s Dream’ the head of a troop of Norwegian horse, Arthur’s first cousin and one of the 42 counsellors of Arthur. Other story accredits him with horse’s ears [March = horse] and a ruler in part of Gwynedd]. 

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Lyonesse / Isles of Scilly granted to Felec / Ffelig / Felix the son-in-law of Meirchion ab Custennyn of Cornubia

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Daniel Drem Rud ruler of Cornouaille d succeeded by Macliau prince of Brittany who is usurped by Caradog Freichfras [other has St Mélar ap Méliau, son of Maxenri, ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais; MA has C475- 505 fl Daniel successor to Iahann Reeth ruler of Cornuaille and has fl 505-535 Budic successor to Daniel ruler of Cornuaille;MA has fl 530-560 Meliau / Macliau, usurper of his brother Rivold, successor to Daniel ruler of Cornuaille; PCB has Count of Bro Weroc C560-577 persecuted by brother Canao and consecrated Bishop of Vannes.  Later he took possession of Bro Erech].  

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Riotham / Riothamus / Riutimus / Riotimus ruler of Damnonia / Dumnonee d succeeded by son Riwal Deroc / Ferox / The Arrogant / The Obstinate / Riuuallus Murinazou / Rivalus Murmaizon [Chadwick has Weroc I Count of Vannes / Vannetais and makes Rhiwal founder of Dumnonia C520; see Rhiwal rules 470, 472; see Deroc usurped 450; MA has fl 475-505 Riwal ruler of Domnonie; PCB has prince of Dumnonee, Riwalus Britanniae dux filius fuit Derochi filii Guitoli filii Urbieni filii Catovi filii Gerontonis.  Catovus = Cadwy and Geronto = Geraint.  ‘Occupied the whole of Lesser Britain in the time of Clotharius king of the Franks’; Lothaire r 511-561. His son was Derochus, grandson Riatham, father of Ionas, father of Iudwalus. He r C515-520. Rival disputes with Saint Winwaloe’s father Fracan and Count Rigual gives lands to cousin Saint Brioc. His sister Pompaia was mother of Saint Tudual. As Rigaldus appears as duke from Britain in life of Saint Leonorus. Confused with Rivelen Mur Marchou of Cornuaille; Musset has 511 a king of the Dumnonii moves to Armorica]. 

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Saint Samson studies at Llantwit Major and at Caldey monastery under Saint Pyr / Piro. 

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Bishopric established at Welsh Bicknor. 

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[JM] end of the main Elbe cemeteries.  

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[GA] Foundation of Amesbury monastery. 

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Feidlimid mac Óengusa King of Eoganachta in Munster d.

C500-510 Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius – Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius iunior (alone) - ? Londinium / London abandoned.

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[JM Demetia recovered].

C500-530 Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius - Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes -  [MA] fl Eobba of Bernicia Angles, Wyscfrea of Deiran Angles, Wehha or Guechan of the East Angles, Offa of the East Saxons, Cnebha of the Mercians, Cretta of Lindsey Angles.

C500-540 Flavius Patricius & Flavius Hypatius - Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini; II post consulatum Iohannis - [MA] fl Guticern son of Samyl the Humble ruler of the Borders and Northern Pennines[other has Caer-Guendoleu, the Segovae lands in Salway / Solway; no PCB entry]. 

 

C 5–C 6– Power of Gwent in Silures lands around Venta Silurum / Caerwent and Isca / Caerleon increased by ruler Caratacus / Caradawc Vreichvras / Caradog Freichfras / Caradoc ap Ynyr / Caradoc Strong Arm, who moves capital to Portskewett. 

 

C 5–C 7– Lindinis / Ilchester in Durotriges lands remains occupied throughout.

501 Flavius Pompeius & Flavius Avienus iunior – Fergus Mór mac Eirc / Eire mac Nisse Mór King of Dal Riata d [MA and WSK - Fergus Mor / the Great King of Dal Riada dies succeeded by Domangart; Crichton has 503; Ardrey has 501; WSK has 501 and C501-507]. 

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Caw deposed as ruler of Alt Clut, succeeded by Dyfnwal Hen ap Cynwyd / Domgal.  [Other has Dumnagual Hen / Dyfnwal Hen ap Cynwyd, grandson of Coroticus, becomes ruler of Alt / Allt Clut / Dumbarton, Strathclyde [PCB has b 465 father of Gwyddno, Clynog, Cynfelyn, Cedig, Garmonion, Gwrwst Briodor and ? wrongly Aeddan Fradog; he quotes genealogies showing him as Dyfnwal ap Ednyfed ap Annun ap Macsen Wledig; other has C525 Dyfnwal Hen / Dumnagual Hen son of Cinuit becomes ruler of Alt Clut; JM has C500; MA has fl 475-505]. Tutagual / Tudwal / Tutgwal Theodovellaunus son of Cinuit becomes ruler of Galwyddel / Galway.

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Irish Saint Ibar, founder of Imblech-Ibair / Emly in Munster, d [AC has Episcopus Ebur paufat inchristo anno eccletatis suae]. 

 

502 Flavius Probus & Rufius Magnus Faustus Avienus iunior – [DOC] Ui Neill King Muirchertach Mac Ercae defeats King Daui Tengai Umai of the Ui Briuin Connacht, ri Connacht, at the Battle of Segas [other has Dauí Tenga Uma mac Briúin / Dauí Galach King of Connacht slain at the Battle of Segsa / Seghais / Boyle River by son-in-law Muirchertach mac Ercae; other has 503 Lugid, son of Loegaire, High King of Ireland d succeeded by Muirchetach mac Erca / Muirchertach Mac Ercae Maic Eogain [others have 505, 507; 479-503 / 507- Lugaid mac Lóegairi High King of Ireland killed by lightning for mocking Saint Patrick; 504-527 /534- Muirchertach mac Muiredaig / Mac Ercae / Muirchertach Macc Ercae / Muirchertach mac Ercae of the Ui Neill High King of Ireland].  

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[JM] Eogan Bel King of Connacht (to 546).

 

Post 502 Flavius Probus & Rufius Magnus Faustus Avienus iunior – death of Saint Brioc / Brieg / Briog / Breock, first abbot of Saint-Brieuc-des-Vaux in Brittany.   

 

C505 Flavius Sabinianus & Flavius Theodorus – Saint Illtyd / Illtud d [JM has 510; GA has C520; other has 525].

 

Post 505 Flavius Sabinianus & Flavius Theodorus – [JM] Dyfnwal / Domgal / ? Dumnagual Hen ruler of Alt Clut takes lands of southern Votadini [JM also has C500]. 

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King Meirchion / Merchion Gul / The Lean of Rheged d succeeded by sons Cynfarch Oer / Dismal ap Meirchion Gul, ruler of North Rheged [PCB has b 480 father of Urien Rheged. Wife was Nyfain ferch Brychan. Daughter Effrdyl, twin of Urien, married Eliffer Gosgorddfawr. Triad has the twins one of the ‘Three Fair Womb-Burdens’ of Ynys Prydain. His descendants were the 300 swords of the Cynfrechyn]and Elidyr Lydanwyn / the Stout and Handsome ap Meirchion Gul, ruler of South Rheged [MA has fl 500-540; PCB has b 490 married Gwawr ferch Brychan father of Llywarch Hen].  

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Einion ap Mor ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York and Caer-Guendoleu / Salway d succeeded by his sons: Eliffer / Eleuther / Eleutherius / Goliffer of the Great Army becomes ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York [JM has C540-560; MA has son of Arthwys, ruler of southern Pennines 500-540; PCB has Eliffer Gosgorddfawr / Coscoruaur / of the Great Warband ap Arthyws ap Mar b 500, father of triplets Gwrgi, Peredur and Arddun / Ceindrech Benasgell, one of the ‘Three Fair Womb-Burdens’ of Ynys Prydain. Wife was Efryddl ferch Cynfarch ap Meichion].

 

507 Flavius Anastasius Augustus III & Venantius iunior – Domangart Réti / Domangart mac Ferguso / Domangart Mac Nissi of Cenn Tire King of Dal Riata d [WSK has 507; JEF has him as Corcu Reti, Bede asReuda dux, and d 507, succeeded by Gabran / Cenel nGabrain / Kintyre].  [MA] Comgall succeeds Domangart as King of Dal Riada / Riata. 

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Clovis King of the Franks, with Breton troops supporting him, kills Alaric II of the Visigothic Kingdom in Aquitaine at Battle of Vouillé, taking Tolosa / Toulouse; Emperor Anastasius appoints him Consul.  

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King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths becomes protector of Visigothic King Alamaric in Colonia Narbo Martius / Narbonne, Septimania and Hispania.

 

508 Flavius Celer & Basilius Venantius iunior – Gewis / West Saxon leaders Cerdic / Caratacus and Cynric kill British ruler Natan / Natanleod / Nazaleod and 5,000 men; the land to Cerdices ford / Charford is called Netley Marsh after him.  This may be in Hampshire or Cerdeslai / Clearsley and Notley on the Thames in Buckinghamshire [but see 495 & 514; PCB has r in area of Southampton].  

C508 Flavius Celer & Basilius Venantius iunior – Clinoch / Clinioc / Clynog son of Domgal / Dyfnal Hen becomes ruler of Alt Clut [JM– Cinbelin, brother of Clinoch, ruler of Alt Clut, defeated by his nephew Conall ruler of Alt Clut 560-574; other has Clinoch / Clynogson of Dumnagual Hen becomes ruler of Alt Clut / Alclud; MA has fl 500-540; Crichton has 507 abdication of Dumnagual Hen; PCB has Tuclyd]. 

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Gerren / Gereint Llyngesog ab Erbin ruler of Dumnnonia / Dyfneintdies d [JM - ? killed at Portchester in 501; GA has in late C6] succeeded by Cado / Cato / Cadwy / Gadwy / Cattw / Gadwr / Gadw ab Gerren / Cadwy ap Geraint [GA has Cynvawr / Cunomours ruler of Dumnonia & Duke of Cornubia.  Duke Cador as Cornubian sub-rulers line dies out; Chadwick has Gereint a friend of Saint Teilo.  'Dream of Rhonabwy' makes Arthur a contemporary of Adwy / Cadwy.  Life of Saint Carantoc has Arthur and Cato / Catovius / Cadwy ruing jointly in Somerset; MA has Cadwy fl C560–590; PCB has b 500 r at Dindraithov / Dindreathwy in Devon. He has Saint Carannog land at Civita Carrov / Carrum / Carhampton. Father of Pedur / Peredur. In ‘Culhwch and Olwen’ he is a warrior at Arthur’s court and in ‘Rhonabwy’s Dream’ is one of Arthur’s 42 counsellors. In a triad is one of the three men in Ynys Prydain most courteous to guests and strangers. Catovii ruler of Nomnia was a British king most famous in the eyes of the world cousin to Saint Winwaloe’s father Fracan].

 

509 Flavius Inportunus iunior (alone) - Eochaid mac Muiredaig Muinderg King of Ulster / Ulaid, whose descendants Saint Patrick had cursed for his killing of two virgins who wanted to serve him, d.  

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Ragnachar, Frankish king of Cambrai, killed by Clovis with his brother Ricchar; his other brother Rignomer, b 463, is killed by Clovis at Le Mans [other has d 510].

 

510 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (alone) – [DOC] King Failge Berraide of Leinster defeats Fiachu mac Neill of the Ui Neill at the Battle of Fremu.

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Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius Praefectus praetorio Galliarum (to 536). 

C510 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (alone) – [Crichton] Death ofLewdwn / Llewdwn Lluydauc / Lluydawc Lleudun Luyddog / of the Hosts / Leudonus / Lot ruler of Gododdin succeeded by son Gawain [PCB has b 500]. 

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Cynwyd Cynwidion ap Cynfelyn ruler of Middle Britain in Cynwidion / Catuvellauni lands [PCB has b 520 married to Peren ferch Greidal ab Arthrwys ap Garmon; father of Clydno Eidyn, Cynan Genhir, Cynfelyn Drwsgl and Cadrod Calchfynydd, plus perhaps Cynfor Cadgaddog, Caradog Lyfn and Gwion Goch; Cynwidion is a tribal name; cf ‘the three hundred shields of Cynwidion’].  

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Idnerth ap Briaged / Idnerth ap Rhiagath ruler of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d succeeded by Mepurit ap Briacat / Meuprit / Meurig ap Idnerth [MA has Idnerth fl 510-540; also Pawll successor to Idnerth fl 540-570; PCB has b 470 father of Pawl].  

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Rhain Dremrudd ap Brychan / Rein filius Brachan / Rein Vrem Rud / Rein dremrud map Brachan / Reginald / Dremrydd / Drein dremrud map Brachan / Rhein ap Brychan / Red-Faced / Red-eyed ruler of Brycheiniog d,succeeded by Rigenew / Rhigeneu ap Rhein [MA has fl 510-540; PCB has b 450 father of Rhigeneu. He invaded Gwynllyg in time of Cadog. Rhigeneu ap Rhain Dremrudd b 475 father of Llywarch].  

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Illan mac Dúnlainge, King of Leinster d [other has 527].

C510-520 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (alone) - Flavius Vitalianus & Flavius Rusticius - [JM] Theodoric campaigns in Cornwall against and kills Saint Fingar / Gwinear / Guigner, King Germochus / ? Cermait and 770 Irishmen who have invaded [PCB has Teudur / Tewder / Theodorus / Theodoric / Theodore, legendary prince in Cornwall who gave land to Petroc. He tried to kill Saint Meriasek / Meriadoc and assaulted Saint Kea.  He killed some of Saint Breaca’s party near Revyer / Reyvier].

511 Flavius Secundinus & Felix – Gallic Chronicle has ‘Britannia, lost to the Romans, yields to the power of the Saxons.’  

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Saint Melaine / Melanius, Second Bishop of Rennes 511-530 and successor to Saint Amandus of Rennes, attends First Council of Orléans. 

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Clovis I King of the Franks d dividing the kingdom into Neustria [old Syagrius-ruled area of west ruled by [TMC] Childebert I, who rules Paris to 558; Orleans ruled by Chlodomer to 524; and Soissons ruled by Clothar I to 561] and Reims [Austrasia] ruled by Theuderic I to 533 /534

C512-516 Flavius Paulus & Flavius Moschianus - Flavius Petrus (alone) – Aesc / Oisc / Oiesc / Oeric King of Kent d succeeded by Ochta.

513 Flavius Taurus Clementinus Armonius Clementinus & Flavius Probus - [MA] Drest mac Drust / Dreat mac Girom succeeds Galanan as King of the Picts [other has 552 Drest succeeds Talorg as King of the Picts; JM has Drust king 528-544/548].  

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Dubthach / Dubtach the First, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Ailill / Ailid / Olild the First, Bishop. 

 

514 Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (alone) - Aelle King of the South Saxons d succeeded by Cissa.  

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West Saxons come to Britain in three ships under Stuf and Wihtgar, landing at Cerdices Ora and put Britons of Regenses / Rhegin / Sussex to flight [but see 495 & 508; WSK has C500-550]. 

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Saint Hormisdas Pope (to 523).

 

C 514-600 Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (alone) - (none)  – British revival in Regenses / Rhegin / Sussex.

 

516 Flavius Petrus (alone) - [DOC]King Failge Barraide of north Leinster defeated by Fiachu mac Neill of the Ui Neill at the Battle of Drum Derge and loses the Plain of Mide / Meath / campus Mide.

 

C516 Flavius Petrus (alone) - Saint Cadfan / Catamanus / Gideon, founder-abbot of Tywyn founds Bardsey monastery in Gwynedd.

517 Flavius Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius Anastasius & Flavius Agapitus– Beli ap Rhun of Gwynedd b.

C517 Flavius Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius Anastasius & Flavius Agapitus - Cadwallon Lawhir / Long Hand ruler of Gwynedd d succeeded by son Maglocunus / Mailcunus / Maelgwyn Gwynedd Hir / Maelgwn Mon, ‘High King of Britain’, who murders Owain Ddantgwyn / White-tooth ruler of Rhos [MA has fl 500-540, successor to Cadwallon as 4th ruler ofGwynedd reigns C520; other has 534 Cadwallon ap Einion /Cadwallon Lawhir / Long Hand Cadwallon I ruler of Gwynedd d succeeded by son, the usurper Maelgwn Gwynedd / Princely Hound; GA and William of Malmesbury have pre 540 Cuneglas / Cuneglasus / Cynlas/ Cynlas Goch / Cynlas The Redson of Owain Danwyn, becomes ruler of Rhos; PCB has d 537 Gildas calls ‘Dragon of the Island’, killer of his avunculus [mother’s brother but none known; maybe Owain Danwyn], ‘sodden with the wine of Sodom’, once took the tonsure then reneged, disowned his former wife, married his brother’s son’s wife after killing her husband and his own former wife. Strongest prince in Britannia, his chosen confessor Saint Cadog. Father of Rhun. First wife Sanan ferch Cyngen of Powys by Tudglid ferch Brychan, sister to Brochwel Ysgithrog. 2nd wife was daughter of Sawyl Benuchel / Sawyl Benisel, sister of Saint Asaph, mother of Einion and Furgain. Mother of Rhun ? fabulous Gwallwen ferch Afallach. ‘Great tormentor of the saints’ in lives of Brynach, Cadog, Curig, Cybi. Mechyll and Tydecho. As Melconde Golganu / Malginus opposes Saint Kentigern. Granted Saint Llonio land on the Severn and Asaph at Llanelwy. Had 24 bards at court. In a poem in Black Book of Carmarthen attacks Dyfed.  Cadod’s life has Mailgunus / Mailcunus exacted tribute from Gwynllwg. Padarn’s life has Mulgun attacking through Ceredigion. In legend founded Caer Ddigoli / Shrewsbury, Caer Gyffin / Conway and other castles. D 547 of the Y Fad Felen / pestis flava / Yellow Plague].  

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Owain Ddantgwyn / White-tooth ruler of Rhos, murdered by Maelgwn, is succeeded in Rhos by Cynlas Goch / The Red ap Owain ap Cinglas / Cuneglasus [PCB has Cynlas Goch ab Owain Danwyn b 470 father of Maig. The Cuneglasus of Gildas ‘driver of a chariot belonging to a bear’s den’, ‘tawny butcher’, strife against man and God, driving out his wife and lusting after her sister].

 

518 Anastasius Paulus Probus Moschianus Probus Magnus & Post consulatum Agapiti – Anastasius Emperor of the East d succeeded by Justin I.

C518-519 Anastasius Paulus Probus Moschianus Probus Magnus & Post consulatum Agapiti - Flavius Iustinus Augustus & Eutharicus Cillica – Dewi Sant / Saint David founds monastery at Mynyw / Meneva / Menevia / Hosnant / Vallis Rosina / Glyn Rhosyn / Rose Vale on the banks of the River Alun. Settlement grows up around it called Tyddewi / David's House.

 

519 Flavius Iustinus Augustus & Eutharicus Cillica – Cerdic and Cynric fight the British at Cerdices ford / Charford [see 527] and  take the Kingdom of the West Saxons / Gewissae [?the Belgae].  Cerdic is first King of the West Saxons [ASC preface has Cerdic’s reign 500-516; Reno has 501-517; ASC entries have 519-534; reign lengths give 529-545, with possible death at 550; Dumville and MA have Cerdic’s reign starting 538; Storr has Cynric in the Chilterns].

 

C520 Flavius Vitalianus & Flavius Rusticius – Esa / Oesaruler of Angles of Bryneich / Bernaccia / Bernicia d succeeded by Eoppa.

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Uilgils  / Giulglis / Wilgilsleader of Anglian laeti in Deywr / Deiradies, succeeded by son Uuscfrea / Ulfrea / Uxfrea / Usfrey.  

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Aidan / Aeddan ap Mor ruler of Rhufoniog d succeeded by Moreith / Morudd ap Aidan / Aeddan [PCB has b C930]. 

Saint Cyngen Glodrydd / The Renowned / The Famous King of Pagenses / Powys d succeeded by son Pascent / Pasgen ap Cyngen [PCB has no entry].  

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Riwal / Rhival Deroc / Ferox / The Arrogant / The Obstinate Prince of Damnonia / Dumnone d succeeded by son Deroc / Deroch II [MA has fl 505-535 Deroch successor to Riwal ruler of Domnonie; PCB has him prince of Dumnonee when Tudual arrives; father of Riatham, father of Ionas; r C520-533]. 

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Cyn-March ap Meirchion / Mark ruler of Cornubia becomes sole King of Poher, with capital at Vorgium / Carhaix.  

-

Saint Sennan / Senane founds church at Sennen Cove, Cornwall. 

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Saint Abbán moccu Corbmaic / Eibbán / Moabba, founder of monasteries at Mag Arnaide, County Wexford in the territory of the Uí Chennselaig (also Uí Buide) and at Cell Abbáin, County Loais in the territory of the Uí Muiredaig, d.  

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Saint Finnian founds Clonard Abbey.

?520-550 Flavius Vitalianus & Flavius Rusticius - Post consulatum Basilii VIII - [JM] 'Beowulf' composed.

521 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus & Flavius Valerius Saint Dyfrid / Dubricius ordains Saint Samson of Dol [other has 504].  

 

522 Flavius Symmachus & Flavius Boethius - Eochaid mac Óengusa King of Eoganachta in Munster d succeeded by Dub-Gilcach mac Óengusso then by Crimthann Srem mac Echado / Crimthann Feimin.

 

523 Flavius Anicius Maximus (alone) –  Saint Brigit / Brigid d [AC has 521; JM has 525; IA also has 524/525/526/528; JR has C520].

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Saint John I Pope (to 526).

 

C 523 Flavius Anicius Maximus (alone) – Saint Gundleus / Gwynlliw Farfog / Woolos ruler of Gwynllg and overlord of Glywyssing d succeeded by Cadog / Catwg ap Gwynllyw / Catocus / Saint Cadwg Ddoeth / The Wise / Cadoc who reunites Glywyssing [PCB has b 495].

524 Flavius Justinus Augustus II and Venantius Opilio – [TMC] Death of Chlodomer, King of the Orleans Franks, killed by the Burgundian Franks, succeeded by Childebert I of Soissons [Neustria], whose lands included Nantes, Rennes and Avranches (to 558).  Bretons do not attack his lands.

 

525 Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus & Flavius Anicius Probus iunior – Anno domini dating system devised by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table, replacing Diocletian Era of Martyrs dating starting the year on 29 August and commencing in 284; not widely accepted till Bede’s era.

 

C525 Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus & Flavius Anicius Probus iunior - Serwyl ap Usai ruler of Ceredigion d succeeded by Boddw ap Serwyl [MA has fl 530-570; PCB has b 530 father of Arthfoddw]. 

-

Felec / Ffelig / Felix ruler of Lyonesse / Isles of Scilly d succeeded by Meliodas ap Ffelig [PCB has no entry].

-

A few Byzantine coins circulating in Britain. 

 

C525–550 Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus & Flavius Anicius Probus iunior – none – [TMC] African Red Slipware imported into western Britain.

C525–555 Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus & Flavius Anicius Probus iunior - Post consulatum Basilii XIII - [MA] fl Ida of Bernician Angles, Yffi of Deiran Angles, Wuffa of the East Angles, Cynewald of the Mercian Angles, Cueldgils of Lindsey Angles.

526 Flavius Anicius Olybrius Iunior (alone) – Saint Ailill / Ailid / Olild the First, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Ailill / Ailid the Second, Bishop [IA has 525-526]. 

-

King Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths d succeeded by grandson Athalaric, but he is killed by Theodehad, who is followed by three usurpers. 

-

Saint Felix IV (III) Pope (to 530).

527 Vettius Agorius Basilius Mavortius (alone) – Kings Cerdic and Cynric of the West Saxons fight the Britons at Cerdices Leag / Leah / Cerdic’s Ford [but see 519]. 

-

British Bishop Mahiloc of Galicia signs acta of second Council of Braga.  

-

Dating of Easter amended in Rome according to proposals of Dionysius Exiguus. 

-

Justin I Emperor of the East d succeeded by Justinian.

C528 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus II & Post consulatum Mavortii - [JM] Kingdom of the Picts divided into northern and southern.  

-

Saint Cadog builds monastery at Kilmadock near Stirling.  

-

Saint Ailbe / Ailbhe / Elfeis / Ailfyw / Ailvyw / Elveis / Albeus of Munster, founder of the see of Emly / Imlech d having baptised Dewi Sant.

 

528-538 / 540s Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus II & Post consulatum Mavortii - Flavius Marianus Michaelius Gabrielius Archangelius Iohannes & IV post consulatum Paulini - Túathal mac Cormaic / Túathal Máelgarb of the Ui Neill High King of Ireland (conqueror of Brega) [JM has 532 Muirchetach mac Erca, High King of Ireland, dies, succeeded by Tuathal [other has 536 Muirchertach Mac Ercae Maic Eogain dies; JM has Tuathal king 532-548 with his brother Ainmire king of the Cenel Coirpri]. 

 

529 Flavius Decius Iunior (alone) – Council of Orange condemns Abbot Faustus of Lerina / Lerins and Bishop of Regium / Riez’s De Gratia and De Spiritu Sanctu.

 

530 Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes – Kings Cerdic and Cynric of the West Saxons invade the Isle of Wight and fight at ?Wihtgar’s stronghold / Wihtgaraesbyrg / Carisbrooke.  

-

Ostrogoth Boniface II Pope (to 532) changes numbering of years from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.

 

C530 Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes - Dingad ap Einion, ruler of Dunoding d succeeded by Meurig ap Dingad [MA has fl 530-570; PCB has b 500 father of Eifion].  

-

Pascent / Pasgen ap Cyngen Glodrydd ruler of Pagenses / Powys d succeeded by Brochfael / Brochwel / Brochuael Ysgythrog / Ysgithrog / Of the Tusks / ap Cyngen [PCB has b 490 father of Cynan Garwyn. Mother was Tudglid daughter of Brychan. Father of Saint Tysilio by Arddun ferch Pabo Post Prydyn. Other sons Mawn and Jacobus / Iago. Taliesin was his bard for a time].

-

Cado / Cato / Cadwy ab Gerren ruler of Dumnonia / Dyfneint and Duke of Cornubia d succeeded by Saint Custennin ab Cado / Cadwr / Constantine, High King [GA has Cynvawr / Cunomorus; Chadwick has Cunomorus / Kynvawr’s reign 540-555, born C480; PCB has contemporary with Gildas: ‘Constantine, the tyrranical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia… in the garb of a holy abbot, cruelly tore the sides of two royal children … together with their two guardians…he did this among the holy altars with accursed sword and spear… Many years previously he was overcome by frequent excessive deeds of adultery, having put away his legitimate wife’. Father of Bledrus.  He doubts the identity with ‘king and monk’, for whom see British church].  

-

Deroc / Deroch II ruler of Damnonia / Dumnonee dies, succeeded by son Jonas / Ionas / Wiomarch / Widimacl [MA has fl 530-560 Riatham then his brother Ionas successors to Deroch ruler of Domnonie; PCB has son of Riatham son of Deroch, father of Iudwal / Iudual but Riatham an insertion. Life of St Samson says Conmor handed Ionas over to Childebert King of Paris 511-558 for execution. Wife of Ionas was daughter of Budic].  

-

Enda, Abbot of Killeany, dies. Saint Ciarán the Elder bishop of Saighir / Saigir (Seir-Kieran), Ossory, dies [others have 402].  

-

[JM] Muiredach becomes King of South Leinster.

-

[Rudolf of Fulda] Saxons from Britain arrive at mouth of the Elbe. 

?Post 530 Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes - [JM] Saint Leonorus moves from Gwent to Armorica.

 

C 530-540 Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes - Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis – Eleutherius / Eliffer of the Great Army, ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York d succeeded by son Peredur / Steel Arm [JM has 560; PCB has Peredur ab Eliffer Gosgorddfawr d 580 twin of Gwrgi].  

-

Ceidio ap Arthyws / Keidyaw succeeds [Predeyr Germanianus?] to the line of the Wall / Northern Pennines / Caer-Guendoleu / Salway [MA has Ceidyaw son of Arthwys fl 500-540 in southern Pennines; other has post 505 Ceidio becoming ruler of Caer-Guendoleu, the Selgovae lands in Salway / Solway, ‘King North of the Salway’.  PCB has Ceidio ap Arthwys b 490 father of Gwenddoleu [who d 573], Nudd and Cof.  Mab Keidyaw is mentioned in the 'Gododdin']. 

-

King Ochta of Kent d succeeded by Eormenric [MA has fl C555–585]. 

-

[JM] General Theodoric, ally / mercenary of Marcellus of Demetia and Budic and Maxentius of Brittany, d in a hunting accident in Dumnonia.

C530-550 Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes – VIII Post consulatum Basilii- [JM] Saxon migrations to Europe.

C530-570 Flavius Lampadius & Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes - II post consulatum Iustini Augusti - [MA] fl Cadwallon son of Guticern ruler of Borders and Northern Pennines [PCB has Cadwallon Lyw b 540, son of Guitcun ap Sawyl Benisel, nephew of Saint Asaph and perhaps mentioned in life of Kentigern]. 

531 Post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis – Eógan Bél mac Cellaig King of Connacht defeated by the Ui Neill at Battle of Aidne.   

-

Theuderich I of Austrasia wars in Thuringia.

532 II post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis – Saint Winwaloe / Gwenole / Guénolé / Winwallus / Winwalœus, first abbot of Landévennec Abbey / Lann of Venec d succeeded by Saint Gwenhael / Gwenael / Gwenhael. 

-

Cairell mac Muiredaig Muinderg King of Ulster / Ulaid, whose children Saint Patrick had blessed, d.

533 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus III & III post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis - [MA] Gartnait and Cailtram succeed Drest mac Girom as Kings of the Picts.  

-

[DOC] Battle of Dun Cleithe between Demman King of the Dal Fiatach / Ulaid, with Domangart mac Predae ? of Dal Riata destroying his dynastic rivals.  

-

Eastern Empire under Count Belisarius attacks Vandal Africa. 

-

John II Pope (to 535).  

Post 533 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus III & III post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis - Angli from Britain land at Haduloha / Cuxhaven and are recruited for the war by Theuderich I, King of Austrasia, who settles them north of the River Unstrut [other has Saxons and Britons enlisted in army of King Theudrich / Theuderic of the Franks against the Thuringians; he settles them in Thuringia as they have been displaced from Britain; other has 531; Chadwick citing Monk of Fulda’s Translatio Sancti Alexandrihas Angli and Britons join Theuderich in his war with the Thuringians and are settled there].

 

533-544 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus III & III post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis - III Post consulatum Basilii - Eastern Empire wars against the Ostrogoths in Italy.

 

534 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus IV & Flavius Decius Paulinus iunior– King Cerdic of Wessex d succeeded by Cynric [WSK has 534; other has ?Cerdic of West Saxons also killed at Badon]. They give Wight to their nephews / cousins Stuf and Wihtgar.  Wight remains a Jutish kingdom [Storr has 540s Cynric on the Thames west of London; British build Grim’s Ditch at Pinner].  

-

Muirchertach mac Muiredaig King of Ailech d. 

-

Count Belisarius defeats King Gelimer and ends Vandal Kingdom of Africa.  

-

Theuderic I, King of Austrasia d succeeded by Theudebert I [to 548; other has 533].

 

C534/548 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus IV & Flavius Decius Paulinus iunior / VII Post consulatum Basilii – Saint Senán mac Geircinn founds monastery of Inis Cathaigh / Scattery Island. 

-

Procopius meets Angles in Frankish delegation to Constantinople.  He describes Britain as inhabited by Britons, Angles and Friesians.

535 Flavius Belisarius & Post consulatum Paulini - Cormac mac Ailillo King of Leinster d. 

-

Count Belisarius attacks Sicily and Naples. 

-

Saint Agapetus I Pope (to 536).

535/534/537 Flavius Belisarius & Post consulatum Paulini / Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus IV & Flavius Decius Paulinus iunior / II post consulatum Belisarii & III post consulatum Paulini - [IA] Ailill II Bishop of Armagh dies [other has 536 Saint Ailill / Ailid the Second, Bishop of Armagh, d succeeded by Saint Dubthach / Duach the Second, Abbot, perhaps Bishop Dauid Farannaini / Dauid mac Guairi ui Farannáin].

535–555 Flavius Belisarius & Post consulatum Paulini – XIV Post consulatum Basilii – Volcanic eruption/comet leads to darkness, crop failures and plague for several decades.

536 Post consulatum Belisarii II & Post consulatum Paulini – Count Belisarius takes Rome. 

-

Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius ceases to be (and is the last) Praefectus praetorio Galliarum. Provincia Romana is taken by the Visigoths. 

-

Saint Silverius Pope (till exiled in 537). 

536–539 Post consulatum Belisarii II & Post consulatum Paulini  - Flavius Strategius Apion Strategius Apion & V post consulatum Paulini or Post consulatum Iohannis – Climate cooling due to volcanic dust? leads to failure of crops [IA has 536/537/539 failure of bread].

 

537 II post consulatum Belisarii & III post consulatum Paulini - [AC/IA] Plague.

-

Battle of Camlann - Arthur and Medraut fall [IA interpolation & Easter Annals in Nennius have 539; Chambers has 539; AC has 537 Gueith cam lann inqua Arthur et medraut corruerunt et mortalitas in Britannia et in Hibernia fuit; Morris says 515; GM says 542, Tigernach has 541Anales Toledanos has 580; Moffat has 517; MA suggests 510-520 or 539; PCB has ‘Culhwch and Olwen’ lists three survivors of the battle: Morfran ail Tegid; Sandde Brud Angel; Cynyl Sant and the 9th man who plotted the battle, Gwyn Hywar, overseer of Devon & Cornwall. Triad has Camlan one of the ‘Futile Battles’ of Ynys Prydain, caused by a quarrel between Gwenhwyfar and Gwenhwyfach which led to one of ‘Three Harmful Blows’ of Ynys Prydain.  Two of the ‘Three Unrestrained Ravages’ of Ynys Prydain were Medrod ravaging Arthur’s court at Celliwig, dragging Gwenhwyfar from her throne and striking her and Arthur ravaging Medrod’s court.  Gwenhwyfach was Medrod’s wife. In ‘Rhonabwy’s Dream’ Iddog Cord Prydain kindled strife by insulting Medrod when he could have talked peace, and that the battle lasted 3 days. Another triad has Camlan one of ‘Three Unfortunate Counsels’ of Ynys Prydain leading both Arthur and Modred to divide their forces before the battle. Tradition has 7 survivors, including Saint Pedrog, Saint Cedwyn, Saint Cynfelyn and Saint Darfel Gadarn and Geneid Hir. Location may have been in Snowdonia on Bwlch y Saethau, the Pass of the Arrows.  Medrod ap Llew b 485 triad one of the ‘Three Royal Knights’ of Arthur’s Court noted for beauty and wisdom in peace, unwithstandable in war]. [Chadwick] Medrawd ap Cawrdaf ap [3rd son] Caradawc Vreichvras ruler of Gwent]. 

-

[CP] Gildas writes De Excidio et Conquestu Britannie [JM has 530-550 and C538; GA has C545; LA has 542 or 550; GA says Caradoc of Llancarfan’s Life has him write it at Glastonbury; Breton monk at Ruys has before 548; MJ has 490-540; other has C560/562; MA has pre 535; WSK has C500-540].  He lists five contemporary tyrants: Maglocunus insularis draco/ Maelgwn of Gwynedd; Vortiporius of Dyfed ‘debaucher’; Constantine of Dumnonia; Aurelius Caninus [LA has ?Gwent; other has Glevum / Caer Gloul / Gloucester, Aquae Sulis / Caer Baddan / Bath and Corinium / Caer Ceri / Cirencester; PCB has Cynan Garwyn of Powys]; Cuneglasus / Cinglas [Rhos].  

-

Eógan Bél mac Cellaig King of Connacht defeats the Ui Neill at Battle of Clainloch.  

-

Count Belisarius, besieged by the Ostrogoths in Rome, parleys with their embassy and contemptuously offers them Britain when they have offered him Sicily (neither owning either). 

-

Vigilius Pope (to 555) introduces dating by imperial regnal years into papal documents.

 

538 Flavius Marianus Michaelius Gabrielius Archangelius Iohannes & IV post consulatum Paulini – [WSK] Comgall King of Dal Riata d [MA - Gabhran mac Domangart succeeds Comgall as King of Dal Riata / Riada; other has king to 558; JEF has d 538]. 

-

[DOC] Maine mac Cerbaill, brother of Dermot mac Cerbaill, defeated by the Ui Fiachrach Aidne in contention ‘for the hostages of Connacht’ at Battle of Cloenloch, Coole Loch, Gort, Galway.

-

Emperor Justinian requires years to be numbered by regnal years. 

539 Flavius Strategius Apion Strategius Apion & V post consulatum Paulini (West); Post consulatum Johannis (West) - Celtran mac Gyrom / Cailtrambecomes King of the Picts.

 

Pre 540 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis – [GA; William of Malmesbury] Second church dedicated to Our Lady Saint Mary at Glastonbury ? by Dewi Sant, Archbishop of Meneora.  

-

[JR] Saint Finnian of Movilla is at Candida Casa.

 

540 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis – Talorg mac Murtholic becomes King of the Picts.  

-

Stone erected at Penmacho, Gwynedd ‘In the time of Justinus Consul’ – the last known use of Consular dates in Britain, and the last year of Consular dates anywhere in the West [TMC has 567-569 Penmachno inscription from Gwynedd for the son of Avitorus in tempore iustini consuli / post consulatum XXV, a reference to Emperor Justin II].

-

Count Belisarius takes Mediolanum / Milan and Ravenna then abolishes the Ostrogothic kingdom. 

 

C540 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis - Morgan Bulc / Thunderbolt / Morgan Fwlch ap Cyngar / son of Cuncar reunites Votadini as ruler [other has C500; PCB has b 520 father of Coleddog / Clydog; warred against Hussa of Bernicia 585/6-592/3 and caused the death of Urien, mentioned in the ‘Llywarch Hen Elegy’; ‘Morgan and his men planned / to exile me and burn my lands. / A mouse scratching at a cliff!’ Also mentioned as Morken, persecutor of Saint Kentigern pre 540-603].

-  

Llaennog ap Masgwid/ Lleenog / Lleinog / Lleenawc / Lleinawc ap Maeswig Gloff / Mar, [PCB] b 465 father of Gwallog, ruler of Elmet d succeeded by Arthuis ap Masgwid/ Arthwys / Athrwys ap Mar [PCB] b 465, ancestor of Cynwyd Cynwydion. 

-

Uuscfrea / Ulfrea / Uxfrea / Usfreyleader of Anglian laeti in Deywr d succeeded by son Yffi / Iffi / Yffe. 

-

Moreith ap Aidan ruler of Rhufoniog d succeeded by Mor ap Moreith / Morudd whose region is reabsorbed by Maelgwyn King of Gwynnedd. 

-

Gwrin Farfdrwch / Cut Beard ruler of Meirionydd d succeeded by Clydno [PCB has b 530 father of Gwyddno; other has by Gwyddno Garahnhir / Long-Shanks; MA has fl 560-600]. 

-

Cynlas Goch / The Red ap Owain Danwyn / Cinglas / Cuneglasus ruler of Rhos d succeeded by Saint Einion Frenin ap Owain Danwyn, ruler of Lleyn, who aborbs Afflogion.  

-

Rigenew ap Rhein ruler of Brycheiniog d succeeded by Llywarch ap Rigenew / Rigeneu [PCB b 500 father of Idwallon; MA has fl 540-570].  

-

Caradog Freichfras / Strongarm ap Ynyr, ruler of Gwent and Bro Erech d succeeded by Meurig I ap Caradog in Gwent and ?Canao / Chanao in Bro Erech.  [MA has fl 550-580, successor to Cadog as King of Glywyssing; PCB has Meurig ap Enynny / Enhinti [wife of Caradog Freichfras] ferch Cynfarch ap Meirchion b ?470, father of Erbic].  

-

Gereint becomes sub-ruler of Orcheus in Gwent. 

-

Cadrod / Cadrawd Calchfynedd ap Cynwyd Cynwydion becomes ruler of Calchfynedd Calchwynedd in Cynwidion / Catuvellauni lands [PCB has b 550 and Calchfynedd as Kelso.  Wife Gwrygon Goddeu ferch Brychan].  

-

Meliodas ap Ffelig ruler of Lyonesse / Isles of Scilly d succeeded by Tristan / Tristram ap Meliodas.  

-

Jonas / I Ionas / Wiomarch / Widimacl ruler of Damnonia / Dumnonee killed by Conomor succeeded by son Judual / Iudwal / Iudual ap Ionas / Jonas who is imprisoned by Conomor, who seizes throne [MA has fl 560-590 Iudwal / Judhael successor to Ionas ruler of Domnonie, whose kingdom had been usurped by Conmor; PCB has prince of Dumonee handed by Conomor to Childebert King of Paris 511-558 but helped to escape by mother to Saint Leonore, who sent him to Childebert’s court; Conomor kept under restraint. Saint Samson found great distress under Cinomor’s rule and persuaded Childebert to let Iudual, his cousin, return to overthrow Conomor then r 555-580, father of Iuthael]. 

-

Saint Kentigern exiled.  [MA has Kentigern son of Owain of Rheged b 550].

-

Irish Saint Breage / Breacawith a company of seven other Irish saints, Saint Germoe / Germocus / Germoc / Germochus rex, Saint Senanus / Sinninus / Sithney abbas, Saint Mavuanus / ?Maunanus / ?Mawnan / Maruanus [? or Ruan] monachus, Saint Elwen / Elwyn / Elwinus / Elvan / Elven, Crowan / Crewenna, Helena and Saint Tecla / Tetha / Tedha / Tedda / Teath / Etha / Itha travel to Cornwall to found churches [PCB quotes life to say Breaca born on border of Leinster and Ulster in Brigid’s monastery. She lands at Hayle Bay but is resisted by Teudur / Tewdwr [of Brittany who had been exiled there ], who kills some; she then travels to Reyvier / Revier to get Twdwr’s permission to stay but he kills more and she flees to Pencaer. 

 

Post 540-544 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis – III Post consulatum Basilii - Vortipor / Gwyrthefyr Protector of Demetae / King of Dyfed d succeeded by Congair / Cyngar ap Gwrthefyr [MA has fl 515-545; PCB has b 510 father of Pedr].

 

C540-550 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis – IX Post consulatum Basilii - [JM] Saint Paul Aurelian leaves Dumnonia for Armorica, founding Saint Pol-de-Leon and becoming Bishop of the Osismi.

 

540-555 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis – XIV Post consulatum Basilii – Kings of the Cantware take Camulodunum / Caer Colun / Caer Colonia / Colchester, capital of the Trinovantes.  Kingdom of East Saxons forms [other has C527 Aescwine becomes first King of the East Saxons;MA has fl 525-555].  

 

C540-558 Post 540-544 Flavius Mar(ianus?) Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Iustinus & VI post consulatum Paulini or II post consulatum Iohannis - Cinbelin, brother of Clinich, King of Alt Clut, defeated by his nephew, Conall.

541 Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius iunior & Post consulatum Iustini - [MA] Talorg succeeds Gartnait and Cailtram as King of the Picts.  

-

[JM] Caipre mac Crimthainn becomes King of Leinster (to 580].

-

Ostrogoth Totila recaptures northern Italy.  

-

Practice of choosing Roman Consuls ends; title added to Eastern Emperor’s title.  

 

541-560 Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius iunior & Post consulatum Iustini – IXX Post consulatum Basilii - [JM] King Gabran son of Dungart of Dal Riada overruns and colonises the kingdom of the southern Picts.

 

542 – Reduction in tree growth probably indicates famine. 

-

Saint Cadfan / Catamanus / Gideon Abbot of Bardsey d.

-

Crimthann Srem mac Echado / Crimthann Feimin King of Eoganachta in Munster d succeeded by Cormac mac Aillela. 

-

Eógan Bél mac Cellaig King of Connacht killed by the Ui Neill at Battle of Slichech / Sligo.  

-

[JEF] Procopius – plague begins in the Empire.

 

543/544/545 - [IA] Mortalitas prima [other has 543-547 – Bubonic plague.  JM has 547-551]. 

 

544 – Wihtgar dies, buried at Wihtgar’s Stronghold /  Wihtgaraesbyrg / Carisbrooke.

-

Hoel I Mawr / Saint Hywel (founder of Llanhowell while in exile with his father in Dyfed), son of Budig II ruler of Vannetais and Cornuaille predeceases his father and makes an arrangement with Macliau rule of Bro Erech to watch over his son Tewdr Mawr.  [JM has C557 - Budig II / Budic  / Buddig / Budicius / Emyr Llydaw ap Erich, ruler of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais and Cornuaille; other has ‘brother of the King of Brittany d succeeded by Hoel I Mawr; PCB has fictitious]. 

-

Saint Malo / Maclou / Mac'h Low / Maclovius/ Machutus becomes first Bishop of Aleth, St Malo.  

 

544/548/549 - Túathal mac Cormaic King of Tara conqueror of Brega assassinated [JM has 548] and succeeded by Diarmait mac Cearbaill / Cerbaill [JM has r 549-564], the last High King to use pagan consecration ritual at Tara.

 

545 – [JM] British appoint an Archbishop of London for the last time.  

-

Count Belisarius returns to Italy

C545 – Meuprit / Meurig / Mepurit ap Idnerth ruler of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d ucceeded by Pau / Pawl ap Meurig, who comes under control of Brycheiniog for a time [MA has fl C540-570; PCB has b 510 father of Eldog / Elaed].  

-

Saint Columba and Ciaran of Clonmacnoise leave pupilage of Finnian of Clonard. 

 

545-560 - [JM] Saint Brendan’s voyages [WSK has 563-583 exploration of the Northern Isles, Faroes and Iceland by Brendan of Clonfert from a base on the Garvellachs in Firth of Lorn].

 

546 – [JR] Saint Columba / Colmcille establishes monastery at Derry [IA has 535/546; other has 544].

-

[IA] Coirpre mac Cormac, King of Leinster d. 

-

[JM] Eogan Bel King of Connacht d succeeded by Ailill Onbanda (to 551).

 

Pre 547 - King Theudebert of the Austrasian Franks sends an embassy to the Emperor Justinian with Angle members, claiming that Angeloi, Frissones and Britons of Britain had emigrated to his dominions and were now his subjects, allowing him to claim overlordship of Britain.  [TMC] He salutes Justinian as his ‘father’ [other has 551 King Theudeberht of the Austrasian Franks informs the Eastern Emperor that the Germanic peoples of Britain are his subjects as they are émigrés from his lands; Pope Gregory I had written to Kings Theuderic and Theudeberht referring to the Kentings as ‘your subjects’].

 

Pre 547-550 - King Maelgwn of Gwynnedd makes Bangor an episcopal see.

 

547 - [IA] Clonmacnoise founded by Saint Ciaran [IA also has 544/548; Morris has 550]. 

 

C547 – [Stirling] Bran the Old King of Bryneich d  [CP] Kingdom of Bryneich / Byrneich / Bernaccia / Bernicia / Baernice / Berneich / Bernech / Birnech seized by Angles under Ida, who eject Morgan Bulc / Mwynfawr / the Wealthy, who flees to Goutodin / Gododdin [WSK has Ida King 547-549; JEL follows Bede with 547; JM has 550/560-570; Ellis has C523–550 Angles seize Din Guaroy / Din Guairoi / Bamburgh and establish kingdom in Bernicia; Crichton has Dun Guyardi. Bede has Ida builds Bamburgh / Bebbanburg. TMC quotes HB ‘he joined Din Guayroi to Bernicia; Storr has Bernicians build defensive Bradford Kaims].

-

Outigirn fights the Saxons. 

-

Saint Dubricius / Dyfrig loses property in Ergyng in the plague.

 

547-548- [IA] Dubtach / Duach Abbot of Armagh d.

 

547-559 – [TMC] HB has four British poets flourish: Talhearn Tad Awen; Neirin / Aneirin; Taliesin; Cian Wheat of Poetry.

 

Pre 548 - Saint Columba of Terryglass, pupil of Saint Finnian, founds Terryglass Abbey. 

-

SaintFinnian, staying with Saint Cadoc at Llancarfan, attempts to mediate then aids Britons against Saxons. 

 

548 – Saint Dubthach / Duach the Second, Abbot of Armagh, perhaps Bishop Dauid Farannaini / Dauid mac Guairi ui Farannáin, dies [I.A. has 551] succeeded by Saint Fiachra mac Colmain, Abbot.  

-

Theudebert I king of Austrasia dies succeeded by Theudebald [to 555].  [Other has 547 Theudebert King of Austrasia / the East Franks d succeeded by Theudebald; JM has 548; Wikipedia has 547/548; other has 548]. [TMC] Theudebald does not salute Emperor Justinian as his father due to the western church’s rejection of his ruling on the Three Chapters.

-

Fourth King of Gwynedd, Maelgwn Hir / Maglocunus / Maelgwn / Mailcunus / Magnus the Tall, ‘The Dragon of the Island’, High King of Britain d of Yellow Plague of Rhos succeeded by Rhun Hir / Rhun the Tall [other has 547; IA has 547 Mailcun Rex Genedotae; Chadwick has 548-551; JM has d having been deposed and returned to power ?550/551; MA has dies C549 succeeded as 5th King of Gwynedd by Rhun the Tall fl 530-570; AC has 547 Mortalitas magna inqua pausat mailcun rex guenedotae; WSK has d C549; JEL has C547; PCB has b 500, father of Beli.  Blinded by smoke from a barn burned in Penychen upsetting Saint Cadog.  His mother Gwallwen was Maelgwn’s mistress so his claim was challenged by Elidir Mynfawr, whom he killed in Arfon.  The Men of the North tried to avenge this but were defeated; other has C549 – Elidyr Mwynfawr / Elidyr / Morken Mwynfawr / Wealthy King of Alt Clut/ Strathclyde, marries Princess Eurgain of Gwynedd, so becomes son-in-law of Maelgwn Hir / Maglocunus / Maelgwn / Mailcunus Magnus the Tall, then ravages Gwynedd [JM says C560], but is defeated in two battles and killed in battle on the Cadnant Brook in Gwynedd and his own lands are ravaged by fifth King of Gwynedd, Rhun Hir / Rhun the Tall [others have C547 and 550], who reaches the Gweryd / Forth. Elidyr thinks his claim is stronger because Rhun is illegitimate, but he fails to recognise Gwyneddian law, which gives equal accession rights to both legitimate and illegitimate offspring. [JM has Rhun allied with brother Bridei ravaging Dal Riada lands and southern Picts, reuniting Pictish Kingdom, but see 554; PCB has Elidir Mwynfawr ap Gwrwst Briodor, husband of Eurgain ferch Maelgwn Gwynedd, slain at Aber Meuheadus / Meweddus / Mewydd in Arfon, and the chiefs of the North (Clydno Eidyn, Nudd Hael, Mordaf Hael, Rhydderch Hael) came to avenge him but were driven back by Rhun ap Maelgwn].

 

548-551- [IA] Mortalitas magna, in qua isti pausant. The Great Plague of Egypt strikes Britain [other has 549 plague devastates Britain, affecting more the British parts].

 

548/549/551/552 - [IA] Finnian of Clonard, Columba of Terryglass, Colam of Inis Celtra, Sinchell, Mac Taille d [JM has 550-551 Saint Finnian of Clonard d in the plague; A.V. has Saint Finnian of Clonard d C540; A.I. has d 552]. 

 

549 - [JM] Saint Kentigern Bishop of Civitas Silvanectium / Senlis, near Paris.  

-

Saint Oran d of plague on Iona.  Saint Ciaran d of the plague at Clonmacnoise [JM has C551; AC has 544]. Saint Melaine / Melanius / Mellanus / Melan / Mellon, Second Bishop of Rennes d.  

-

Ailill Inbanda / Womanish / Effeminate / Vigorous mac Eógain King of Connacht slain at the Battle of Cúl Conaire in Cera, by the Ui Neill.

-

Saint Felix becomes Bishop of Nantes [other has 548; other has 550].  

 

C549 - Brochwel Ysgithrog / Brochwel ap Cyngen / The Famous / Of the Tusks King of Powys / Ternyllwg, son of King Cyngen Glodrydd, son of King Rhyddfed Frychmoves capital from Viroconium / Caer Guricon / Wroxeter to Pengwern [MA has Brochwel fl 540-570].  

-

Saint Teilo moves to Dol [other has C550 Saint Teilo crosses to Brittany from Wales to escape plague].  

 

C550– Galam Cennaleph becomes Great King of the Tay / South Picts to 580/582

-

Sennyllt Hael ap Dingat, ruler of Galwyddel / Galloway, loses kingdom to Rheged and is exiled to Ynys Manau [PCB has b 460, ‘the third generous one of the North’, father of Nudd Hael].  

-

Urien / Urbgen Rheged map Cynfarch / Cimmarc Oer, becomes King of North Rheged [JM has 570; MA has son of Cinmarc / Cynfarch / The Dismal fl 530-570, killed C590; WSK has fl C570 and r C570-590; JEF has Urbgen son of Cinmarch becomes King of Rheged ?580; PCB has b 510, mother Nyfan ferch Brychan].  

-

Saint Dubricius / Dubric / Dyfrig Archbishop of Ergyng d [JM has 540; other has 612 d on Caldey Island].  

-

Prince Glas / Glast / The Blue ap Einaw / Elno / Elnaw King of Dogfeilion migrates from Letocetum / Caer Luit Coyt / Lichfield to become sub-King of Glastenning / Somerset in Dumnonia. 

-

Rebuilding of the Baths Basilica at Viriconium / Wroxeter. 

-

Withur ? ap Tristan prince ? of Lyonesse becomes first King of Leon. 

-

Saint Brioc returns to Cardigan from Brittany to comfort relatives of those dead in the plague.  

-

Death of Saint Cyngar of Llangefni.  

-

Saint Padarn / Paternus Bishop of Vannes d.  

-

British hermit John of Chinon persuades Frankish Queen Radegund to enter a nunnery. 

-

[TMC] start of import of D ware from Burdigala / Bordeaux and the Loire and E ware carrying dyes etc from Aquitania Burdigala / Bordeaux to western Britain, peaking in the early C 7 but extending to the C 8.

 

550/551/553 - [IA] David Bishop of Armagh, Legate of all Ireland d.

 

C550–560 – Saint Samson active in Brittany.

-

Macliau prince of Bro Erech flees brother Canao, King of Bro Erech, to Chonomorus of Damnonia.

 

C550-600 – Candida Casaat Whithorn ruled by Saint Machaoi.

 

C550-620 - Arthfoddw / Arthfoddw ap Boddw / Arth the Lucky [MA; he also says 560-600] Arthfoddw / Arth the Lucky of Ceredigion successor to Boddw ap Serwyl King of Ceredigion [PCB has b 570].

 

C550-650 – [TMC] Celtic hanging bowls buried in Anglo-Saxon graves.

 

C550–680 - The ‘gold’ phase of currency, which begins with an increase in the rate of importation of continental gold, principally in the form of tremisses. Scillingas first minted.

 

551– Drust mac Munaith becomes King of the Picts. 

-

Ailill Onbanda King of Connacht dies.

 

552 – Drust mac Munaith, King of the Picts, d of yellow plague.  [Other hasDrest succeeds Talorg as King of the Picts, but see 468, 513, 533].  

-

[ASC] Cynric King of the West Saxons takes Sorbiodunum / Sorviodunum / Searo byrg / Searobyrg / Searobyrh / Salisbury [Storr has this north of the Thames, maybe Verulamium; British build Grim’s Ditch from River Wye to River Gade]. Amesbury abbey destroyed by pagans? [GA has in the 550s].  

-

Ostrogoth Totila slain in the Battle of Taginae and his followers Teia, Aligern, Scipuar, and Gibal are killed or surrendered in the Battle of Mons Lactarius.  

-

Justinian’s armies land in Hispania and conquer Baetica (to 555), forming the province of Spania.

 

C552 – ?Venta Belgarum / Winchester taken by West Saxons.  

-

Calleva Atrebatum / Caer Celemion / Silchester basilica taken over for iron foundry.

 

552/555/558 - [IA] Bangor monastery founded in Ulster by Comgall [Morris has 558, 559].

 

553 - Cennelath succeeds Drest as King of the Picts.

-

 

[JEF] Eochaid mac Condlai / Condlae mac Caolbad / Coelub King of Ulster / Ulaid / Ui Choelbad d.  

-

[IA] – Saint Columba / Colm Cille / Columcille places Saint Patrick’s relics in a shrine. 

-

Clonfert founded by Saint Brendan [others have 522, 554, 558, 559, 561, 564].

 

554 – [JM] death of Eugenius filius Conayll, King of Dal Araide and the Ulaid.  

-

Cormaic becomes King of North Leinster [to 578].

 

C554 – Saint Columba founds Kells monastery.

 

555 – Death of Saint Cybi / Cuby / Cybi Felyn (Cybi the Tanned) at Holyhead monastery, which he had founded with Saint Cyngar. 

-

Theudebald King of Austrasia / the Eastern Franks d.  Clothaire / Clothar I, Frankish King of Neustria, absorbs Austrasia and becomes King of all Gaul except Paris and establishes his son Cramn as ruler south of the Loire in Aquitaine.  

-

Saint Samson visits King Childebert of the Franks at Parisius / Paris.  

-

Saint Gildas founds monastery of Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys in Morbihan in Brittany. 

-

Pelagius I Pope (to 561).

 

555-561 – [JR] Battle of Cul Dreihmne / Battle of the Book in Cairbre Drom Cliabh between High King Diarmait mac Cerbaill and Saint Columba and the Ui Neill over Saint Columba’s copy of Saint Finnian of Moville’s psalter, ? the Cathach of Saint Columba.  

 

C555–585- [MA] fl Tytill of the East Angles, Sledda of the East Saxons, Ceoda of the Mercian Angles, who d ?593, Caedbaed of Lindsey Angles. 

 

556 – Picts elect a British king, Bridei / Brudeus / Brudenus / Bridius, son of Maelgwn of Gwynnedd / Bruide / Brude Mac Maelchon / Maelcon / Meilochon, brother of King Rhun of Gwynnnedd, the first Christian King of a re-united Pictland, with capital at Craig Phadraig on the Moray Firth to 565 [MA has 556-557; JM has 554/5/6-584; CP has 557; WSK has king 556-584 but doubts his Christianity].  

-

King Cynric of the West Saxons and son Ceawlin fight British at Beran Byrg / Beranbyrg / Bera’s Stronghold / Barbury Castle [Storr has this as Berins Hill northeast of Goring; British build another Grim’s Ditch cutting the Icknield Way to the Thames west and east at Henley, plus a dyke between Dorchester and the Thames; Calleva Atrebatum builds defences at Grim’s Bank to the northwest of the city and another Grim’s Ditch northwest of Upper Basildon].  

 

C556 - Echu Tirmcharna mac Fergusso King of Connacht d.

 

557 - Saint Samson of Dol is signatory to the Council of Parisius / Paris.  

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Fergnae mac Oengusso Ibdaig ri Ulad / King of Ulaid / Ulster slain at Battle of Druim Cleithe / Kilclief, County Down [JEF has Fergnae son of Oengus Ibdach / of the Hebrides, ancestor of the Ui Ibdaig, and suggests they are the same as the Islay Cenel nOengusso descended through Ronan, son of Owngus and brother of Fergnae, and Ronan’s son Nadsluaig]. 

-

[JM] Aed / Abrat mac Eochaid becomes King of Connacht (to 578).

 

C557– King Conomorus / Quonomorius / Marc / Marcus of Dumnonia, father of Drustanus / Triustan, whose capital is at Villa Banhedos / Castle Dore [Chadwick has C554 contemporary of Frankish King Hildeberht / Childebert], married to sister of Macliavus of Vannes / Vannetais, annexes eastern Dumnonie, killing its ruler and expelling his son Iudual who flees to court of Childebert in Parisius / Paris [JM has 558].  [JM] Conomorus occupies lands of Riwal of western Dumnonie, Carhaix and ? Achm of Leon who has died.  Conomorus accepts title of Prefect of the King of the Franks [TMC has Conomorus rescuing Macliau of Bro Erech from his brother Canao C546]. 

-

[JM] Saint Kentigern still Bishop of Silvanectium / Senlis near Paris.

 

558 – Chonoo / Conomorus / Cunomorus, usurper of Damnonia, is attacked by Childebert I King of Paris supporting the rightful ruler of Damnonia, Iudual.  Childebert then d, leaving prince Chramn, his supporter, to make peace with his father, Clothar I of Soissons [Neustria] and Reims [Austrasia], who takes Paris is now King of the Franks. 

-

[Ardrey] Bridei Mac Maelchon King of the Picts defeats Gabhran mac Domangart King of Dalriata at Circenn [WSK – Gabhran d; other has Bruide mac Maelcon / Maelchon King of the Picts defeats Dal Riada raiders, killing Gabhran / Gabran son of Dungart King of Dal Riata who is succeeded by Conall; others, Ardrey & Crichton have 558; CP has C560; WSK has Conall king 558-574; JEF has Gabran d 558 succeeded by his brother Comgall’s son Conall].  

-

Saint Fiachra mac Colmain, Abbot of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Fedelmid Find, Abbot. 

-

[MA] Ariamir becomes King of the Suebi in Hispania.

 

559 - Curnán mac Áedo, son of Áed mac Echach Tirmcharna King of Connacht, kills a man at Tara in court of High King Diarmait mac Cerbaill, who tears him from Saint Columba’s sanctuary and executes him.  Columba organises an alliance of Ui Neill and Connacht against Diarmait.

 

C559 – [Ardrey] ?Arthur Mac Aedan Prince of Scots born [MA has C560-596 – Artuir mac Aedan, Prince of Dal Riada / Riata]. 

-

Ida, King of Bernicia d succeeded by Glappa / Clappa. 

-

Yffe /Iffi / Yffi leader of Deywr / Deira laeti d succeeded by son Aelle / Aelli who becomes first king of Deywr / Deira taking land from King of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York [ASC has 560; other has C560; WSK has C569; MA has fl C555 – 585; Storr has Deirans build four lines of Dyke finally cutting of the whole Wold, with the British building a succession of three smaller dykes before them. Deirans then break out north to Sacrborough; the British build entrenched camps at Thieves’ Dikes; Sheepwalk Plantation; Ebberston Moor and west of Pickering, and cut roads south of Derventio / Malton.  The Deirans also break out west to Hambleton and Hoawrdian Hills, building 7 lines of dyke].

 

C559/560 – Tutagual / Tuduael / Thuuahel/ Tudwaldus / Tuduvallus / Tudwal Tudclydn / Defender of the People,  son of Clinoch / Clinog ap Dyfnwal Hen becomes King of Alt Clut [PCB has b 510, father of Rhydderch Hael; father of Rhicwlff, the father of Saint Melangell; father of Morgan Mwynfawr].  

 

560 – Saint Custennin ab Cado / Constantine, High King, King of Dumnonia / Dyfneint & Duke of Cornubia enters a monastery but is then killed. [AC has 589 Conversio constantini ad dominum; other has 589: Saint Custennin ab Cado / Constantine, High King, King of Dumnonia / Dyfneint, now a monk, killed; PCB says killed 576 in Kintyre].  Succeeded by Geraint / Gerren rac Dehau / for the South, who also succeeds Cunomorus in Cornubia when he is killed this year [PCB has King of Cornwall].

-

King Cynric of West Saxons d [Ellis says some time before 560] succeeded by Ceawlin [JM; LA has 571; MA has fl C555–585].  

-

[TMC] Chramn / Hrafn, prince of the Franks, flees his father Chlothar I to Chonoober / Chonoo / Conomorus, ‘Count of the Britons’. [Other has 558 Clothair / Clothar I’s rebel son Chramn flees to Conomorus]. Clothair / Clothar I King of the Franks kills rebel son Chramn and King Cunomorus / Conomor of Dumnonia and Dumnonie, who imports mercenary Danes, Northmen and Frisians to resist, but is killed at Ploueneur Menez, after which Chramn is strangle and his and his family burned in a hut. Iudual / Judual / Iudwal restored to Damnonia [other has Conomor / Cunomorus the Cursed King of Damnonia / Dumnonee and Cornubia supports Chram, rebel son of Clothair King of the Franks, is killed by the latter and succeeded by restored Judual / Iudwal ap Ionas]. [Ellis and Chadwick quoting Gregory of Tours say Frankish prince Hrafn rebels against father Lothair I / Clothair / Clothar I and flees to Cunober in Brittany, but Lothair invades, defeats Bretons and kills son and his wife and daughter; TMC has Chonoober killed supporting Chramn 560 but also quotes Vita I S. Samsonis to say Commorus killed by Iudwal son of Ionas no later than 558]. 

-

Saint Cainnech founds Finglas Abbey.  

 

C560 - Keidyaw / ? Cadwalla King of the Wall and the Northern Pennines / Caer-Guenddoleu / Salway d succeeded by Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio. 

-

King Glappa / Clappa of Bernicia d succeeded by Adda [JM has C570].  

-

King Arthuis ap Masgwid of Elmet d succeeded by Gwallog ap Llaennog / Lleenog / Gwallawc Marchawc Trin/ Guallauc son of Laenauc [PCB has b 500].

-

Saint Einion ap Cynlas, ruler of Lleyn, Afflogion and Rhos d.  King Rhun of Gwynedd absorbs Rhos.  

-

Meurig ap Dingad, King of Dunoding d succeeded by Einion ap Meurig [MA has fl 560-600 Eifion successor to Meurig King of Dunoding].  

-

King Brochwel Ysgithrog / Brochwel ap Cyngen of Powys d [other has C540 Brochfael Ysgythrog / Of the Tusks, King of Pagenses / Powys d succeeded by Morgan ap Pasgen].   

-

Dewi Sant / Saint David presides over synod against Pelagianism at Brefi; Saint Dubricius / Dubric / Dyfrig ‘Archbishop of Ergyng’, ‘chief of the church in Britain’with his seat at Weston under Penyard and sway over all of Glamorgan and Gwent, an area that was later known as the Diocese of Llandaff, attends.  At the Synod of Llanddewi Brefi, penance discussed.  Dyfrig resigns his see in favour of Saint David who moves see to Saint David’s and becomes Archbishop of Wales [JM has 550 Dewi Sant active; other has Synod in 545].  

-

Saint Deiniol, who also attends the Synod of Brefi, founds monastery at Bangor-is-y-Coed / Bangor Is Coed / Bangor-on-Dee [JM has Daniel at Bangor, Menai]. 

-

Tristan / Tristram ap Meliodas ruler of Lyonesse / Isles of Scilly d succeeded by Tristan / Tristram the Younger who drowns as the islands are inundated and are reabsorbed into Cornubia. 

-

[CP has 559or 560] King Eormenric of Kent d succeeded by Aethelbert / Aethelberht / Ethelbert I [CP has 559-560; ASC has 565, IA 594; JM has 555; other C590]. 

-

Saint Malo settles in Brittany. 

-

Coirpre Cromm mac Crimthainn becomes King of the Eóganacht Glendamnach in Munster.

-

Post 560 - [JM] Saint Leonorus dies in Brittany.

561– Bruide mac Maelcon King of the Picts fights Dal Riada. 

Diarmuid / Diarmid High King of Ireland rules against Saint Colomba / Colm Cille / Colmcille who has copied The Gospel of Martin belonging to Finnian at Moville, County Down; Columba and allies under his cousin Ainmere overlord of the northern Ui Neill defeat and kill [this is wrong] Diarmuid at Cul Drebne [other has 560 Saint Columba’s alliance wins the Battle of Cúl / Cúil Dreimne, County Sligo against High King Diarmait; the prayers of Columba prevail over the druids of Diarmait; JM has 564 Diarmait, High King of Ireland, killed at Cuil Dremhni [also wrong]; DOC King Diarmait mac Cerbaill of the southern Ui Neill and of Tara beaten at the Battle of Cul Dreimne, allegedly instigated by Colum Cille others have 559-561/566/568/569 - Domnall mac Muirchertaig / Domnall Ilchelgach / Domnall of the Many Deceits / Domnall mac Maic Ercae and Forggus mac Muirchertaig / Forrgus mac Maic Ercae, Joint High Kings of Ireland / Kings of Tara. 

-

Clothair / Clotaire / Clothar I King of the Franks d dividing kingdom into four: Chilperic I in Soisson / Neustria to 584; Sigibert I in Reims & Metz /Austrasia to 575; Charibert I in Paris to 567; and Guntram in Burgundy to 592.  

-

Ostrogoth remnants under Widin captured and brought to Constantinople for punishment.  

-

John III Pope (to 574).  

 

562 – Saint Moluag / Moloc founds monastery on the island of the Lyn of Lorn in Argyll / the Isle of Lismore, then evangelises among the Picts and later founds monasteries at Rosemarkie, Ross and Mortlach, Aberdeen. 

-

[DOC] King Diarmait mac Cerbaill of the southern Ui Neill and of Tara beaten by Aed mac Brenaind of Tethbae at the Battle of Cuil Uinsen and flees.

 

563 - Saint Teilo / Teliaus / Issell / Teillo / Teilou / Dub / Theliau /Télo / Eliau / Eliuddies at Llandeilo Fawr.  

-

[JEF and DOC] Battle of Moin Dairi Lothair between seven Cruithnian kings of Antrim, Londonderry and Down. Ailech faction, a northern Ui Neill alliance, under Ainmere wins. Cruthin King, Eochaid Laib, escapes in his chariot.

 

C563- [JM] Saint Samson dies [other has C565 – Saint Samson Bishop of Dol dies, succeeded by Saint Budoc].

 

563-583 – [WSK, who also has C560-590] Cormac Ua Liathain / Cormac Leir / of the Sea explores the North Atlantic from a base in the Western Isles, and founds Durrow, becoming its first abbot.

 

564 – [JM] death of King Deman / Daimen of Airgialla, succeeded by Conall Derg / Conall son of Comgall [JEF has 563 in year when Gaels fled before Bridei mac Mailcon of the Picts].

 

C564 – death of Saint Petroc / Petrock / Petrocus / Pedrog, founder of Padstow monastery.  

-

Death of Saint Tudwal, founder of Lan Pabu in Damnonia, Armorica, and Bishop of Tréguier.

 

565 – [Bede, CP] St Columba / Colm Cille / Colmcille, apostle to the northern Picts, exiled from Hibernia, crosses to Argyll from Ireland and takes over monastery of Iona, earlier established by Saint Oran [IA has 557/562/563 Columba’s Exile (voyage) to Britain; AC has 562; WSK has 563 with 12 disciples headed by Baithene mac Brenainn / Brendan, Baithine’s brother, Columba’s uncle Ernan, and Diarmait; JR has 563 with 12 disciples, land granted by King Conall mac Comgall of Dal Riata; JEF has 563 foundation of I / Iona]. [Stirling] Saint Columba meets King Bruide of the Picts.  

-

 [JEF] Aed Dub, King of the Ui Choelbad kills the southern Ui Neill king at Mag Line in southern Antrim. [Other and Stirling have Áed Dub mac Suibni later King of Ulster / Ulaid kills High King Diarmait at Ráith Bec, on the plain of Mag Line (Moylinny, near Larne), in the lands of the Dál nAraidi].   [DOC] Killing by Aed Dub mac Suibne of King Diarmait mac Cerbaill of the southern Ui Neill and of Tara, said by Adomnan to be totius Scotiae regnatorem deo auctore ordinatum. Ri Temro / King of Tara now taken to mean King of Ireland. 

-

[JM] King Ainmire of Ireland [JM 565-569] invites Saint Gildas to restore order in the Irish Church after Columba’s departure. 

-

Justinian Emperor of the East dies, succeeded by Justin II [to 574]. [TMC] Justin II overturns Justinian’s policy on the Three Chapters and restores relations with the west.  

 

565-573 - [IA] Brendan of Birr dies.  [IA has ascension of Brendan 553/559571/572/573 Brendan of Birr dies; and 576/577/583/587 Brendan of Clonfert dies. AC has 574 Brendan byror dormitatio; other has 578].

 

566 – Forggus mac Muirchertaig / Forrgus mac Maic Ercae King of Ailech, High King of Ireland and his successor Domnall Ilchelgach mac Muirchertaig d [Other has 564/573-566/569/575/576 Ainmuire / Ainmire / Ainmere mac Sétnai High King of Ireland / King of Tara; JM has 565 Ainmere mac Erca becomes King of Ireland; Carney in DOC has Domnall d 566]. 

-

Saint Gildas visits Ireland [AC has 565 Saint Gildas in Ireland] while Ainmire mac Setnai High King, exchanging copy of Isidore of Seville’s encyclopaedia for Tain Bo Culaigne.  

 

567 – Constantine, ex-King of Dumnonia, martyred in Kintyre.

-

King Cissa of South Saxons d.  

-

King Charibert I of Paris d, his lands absorbed by Chilperic I of Soissons / Neustria.

-

King Thiudemir’s Council of Lucus Augusti / Lugo recognises British settlers in Galicia as separate part of church, the see of Bretona.

 

568 – Conall mac Comgaill King of Dal Riata allied with Colman Bec / the Little, King of Meath, of the southern Ui Neill expedition to Iardoaman / Iardoman, Sol (Seil) and Ile (Islay) [other has Conall of Kintyre, King of Meath, raids the Western Isles; JEF has 570 Conall son of Comgall on campaign in the Hebrides]. 

-

King Adda of Bernicia d succeeded by Ethelric / Aethelric / Aedelric [JM has 588; MA has fl C555 – 585].  

-

King Ceawlin of West Saxons and brother/son Cutha / Cuthwulf fight King Aethelberht of Kent and drive him into Kent, killing two ealdormen Oslaf and Cnebba at Wibbandun / Wibbandune / Wimbledon, Wineblead’s tun / fort [JM has Surrey falls under Wessex sway; Ellis has disputing Middle Saxon land; Storr has this at Whipsnade; Cooper at Wyboston].  

-

Calleva Atrebatum / Caer Celemion / Silchester destroyed by King Ceawlin of the West Saxons [other has C600; Storr has it survive till no later than 607 when Wessex pushes the British off the Lambourn Down and cuts it off from the west].  

-

Frankish invasion of Italia repelled.  

-

Lombards / Langobards and a motely collection of allies invade Italia under King Alboin and establish Lombard Kingdom of Italia, leaving Ravenna, Rome and parts of the coast in the hands of the Eastern Empire.  

 

C568 - [IA] Synodus Victoriae apud Brittones congregatur. Dewi Sant / Saint David presides over synod against Pelagianism at Isca / Caerleon (the Synod of Victory) [other has 569].

 

569 – [Yeates quoting AC ] ‘Victory of the Britons’.

-

[JM] Ainmere mac Erca High King of Ireland d succeeded by Baetan mac Erca [JEF has d C569 succeeded by Aed; of Cenel Conaill, overlord of the northern Ui Neill, lord of Donegal and King of Ailech, cousin of Columba, Bithene and Lasren, abbots of Iona].  Báetán mac Muirchertaig King of Ailech takes nephew Eochaid mac Domnaill as Joint King [other has 567 Báetán mac Ninneda High King of Ireland; others have 562-563/569/572/573 Eochaid mac Domnaill / Eochaid Find / The Fair and Báetán mac Muirchertaig / Baetán Bríge, King of Ailech, Joint High Kings of Ireland / Kings of Tara].  

-

King Theodemar of Suebi in Hispania holds Council of Lucus Augusti / Lugo subdividing dioceses including that of Britonia.

 

570 – Saint Gildas d [IA interpolation has 570; AC has 570/572 Gildas obiit. Ellis has C570 Gildas d on the island of Houat, Britanny; WSK has d 570; TMC has 570; other has 567]. 

-

King Theodemar of the Suebi in Hispania d succeeded by Miro.

 

C570 – fl bard Aneirin / Neirin [PCB b 540?].

-

Petr / Pedr ap Cyngar becomes King of Dyfed [MA has fl C545-575 Retheoir / Pedr / Peder successor to Cyngar King of Dyfedand C550-620 Artuir ap Pedr / Arthur of Dyfed; PCB has b 535].  

-

Morgan ap Pasgen King of Pagenses / Powys d, splitting kingdom into two, Powys in west, Pengwern in the east including Caer Guricon / Viroconium / Wroxeter, succeeded as King of Powys by Cynan Garwyn / Carwin ap Brochfael / Brochwel Ysgithrog ap Cyngen / White Shanks /White Thigh [MA has ‘Of the White Chariot’, successor to Brochwel / Of the Tusks, fl 570-600; WSK has fl C600; PSB has ‘Aurelius Caninus’, b 520, fought wars against Gwynedd, Breicheiniog, Gwent, Dyfed, threatened Cornwall]. 

-

Canao / Chanao King of Bro Erech d, having murdered three brothers, leaving only Macliau who was saved by Saint Felix and now becomes King of Bro Erech [JM has 533 Canao King of Bro Erech slain by Clothar I King of the Franks succeeded by Macliavus; PCB has Canao prince of country around Vannes later called Bro Erech slain 560]. 

-

Withur ?of Lyonesse first King of Leon d succeeded by son Ausoch, who becomes last King of Leon.  

-

Death of Saint Armel / Arthfael / Bear-Prince / Armagilus, Abbot of Plouarzel. 

 

Pre 571 – Wehha becomes first King of East Angles [JM has Saxons establish independent monarchies in Britain; the East Angles (?the Uffingas displacing the Icelingas this year) and probably East and South Saxons].

 

571– Saint Cadoc, King of Gwynllwg and Penichen d leaving kingdom to King Meurig of Gwent [Chadwick has C550 Saint Cadoc / Cadog gives Glywysing to King Meurig ap Enhinti of Gwent, who unites the two; JM has C580 King Catocus / Saint Cadwg Ddoeth / The Wise / Cadog / Cadoc King of Gwynligt and Penychen / Glywyssing / Glevissig killed by the English in Calchwynedd in Catuvellauni lands; MA has fl 520-550 successor to Gwynllyw, giving kingship to Meurig ap Enhinti; Chadwick has Meurig King of a united Gwent born C610 other has Glywyssing passes to Gwent under King Meurig ap ?Caradog; MA has fl 605-635].   

-

King Wehha of East Angles d succeeded by Wuffa.  

-

After Battle of Bedcanford / Biedcanford / Bedford, Cuthwulf of West Saxons takes Limbury, Aylesbury, Eynsham and Benson / Bensington from Cynwidion / Calchvynydd [LA has from Saxons who had earlier settled in Aylesford area] then dies [other has 560].

 

Pre 572 – Maedoc / Aidan of Ferns in Connacht studies with Dewi Sant at Menevia / Mynyw in Dyfed [others have 577-585].

 

572 – [Ardrey] Saint Mungo / Kentigern [Stirling – Cynon] exiled from Strathclyde (and later founds Saint Asaph at Llanelwy in Gwynedd). 

-

King Ethelric / Aethelric / Aedelric of Bernicia d succeeded by Theoderic / Theodric / Deoric / Deodric [JEL has son of Ida, King 572-579].  

-

Cory Dále Burns King of Ulster / Ulaid d succeeded by Baetan mac Carrill [DOC has Baetan King of the Dal Fiatach succeeding brother Demman and ruling to 581 from a fortress at Lethet. He is credited with making peace with Munster at Emly and clearing the Isle of Man / Manand, ? expelling the Conaille Muirtheimne who held it hitherto. He also took homage from Aedan of dal Riata at Ros na Rig in Seimne, Islandmagee, County Antrim; Yeates has Baeta mac Cairill king to 581, the only known ruler of Dal Riata to rule over both Hibernian and Alban sides]. 

-

Báetán mac Muirchertaig / Baetán Bríge and nephew Eochaid mac Domnaill/ Eochaid Find / The Fair, Joint Kings of Ailech and High Kings defeated and slain by Crónán mac Tigernaig, King of the Ciannachta of Glenn Geimin / Glengiven, County Londonderry.

-

Coirpre Cromm mac Crimthainn King of the Eóganacht Glendamnach in Munster defeats Colmen Bec of Meath at Battle of Feimin.  

-

Mailoc Bishop of the Ecclesia Britonensis, now Bretoña, in Galicia. 

-

King Alboin of the Lombards assassinated, succeeded by King Cleph. 

 

573 - [DOC] Coirpre Crom, King of Munster, grandson of Oengus mac Nad Froich, defeats Colman mac Diarmata of the southern Ui Neill at Femen.  

-

Gregory becomes Bishop of Tours.

 

C573 – Conall mac Comgaill King of Dal Riata killed at Battle of Teloch / Delgu in Kintyre with son prince Donnchad [CP has 573-574; WSK has 574; other has 573; JM has King of Kintyre / Cenn Tire, King of Meath; JEF has 576], succeeded [CP] by Aedan mac Gabhrain / Gabrain / Gabhran / Gabran, son of Eochaid mac Muiredag King of Leinster [Ardrey has second son of Domangart], or of mother of a daughter of Dyfnwal Hen, King of Alt Clut / Strath-Clota; JEF has Aedan son of Gabranof Kintyrebecomes King of Kintyre / Cenn Tire and Comghall / Cowal in south Argyll and in north Antrim 576 and wins Battle of Teloch in 578, securing Kingship of Corcu Reti 578; JEF has Donnchad son of King Conall of Cenel Comgaill / Cowal killed at Teloch but also shows him d 576 but Ardrey has Duncan, Conall’s son, d 574].  Aedan is consecrated / blessed by Colmcille [Crichton has 573; WSK has 574; JM has 574-609]. Columba at first supports Eoganan for the throne but changes sides and blesses Aedan.  Battle of Delgon in Kintyre between Aedan and Eoganan & Duncan; latter killed.

-

Rhiderch Hael / The Generous / Rhydderch Hen / The Old becomes King of Alt Clut [JM has 560 Riderch Hael recovers throne of Alt Clut; other has 580; MA has fl 560-600; Crichton has Rhydderich Hael; WSK has fl C580 and king C580-612; JEF has Vita Columbae has him as Roderch son of Tothal] and possibly High King [PCB has b 540 d ?614].  

-

Urien Rheged, Rhydderch Hael of Alt Clut / Clud; Saint Dunod Fawr of Dunoting; Gwrgi and Peredur of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York [and Crichton says Rhun Hir of Gwynedd] fight Gwenddoleu of Caer-Guendoleu / Salway and Aedan mac Gabrain of Dal Riada over the stronghold of Caerlaverock / Fort of the Lark near Dumfries.  Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio killed and Guendoleu destroyed. [AC has 574/5; JEF has 573].    

-

Guenddolau / Guendolen / Gwenddolew ap Ceidio / Keidiau King of Caer-Guendoleu / Salway killed in the battle of Arderydd and kingdom absorbed by Rheged [MA has Gwenddolau son of Ceidyaw fl 530-570 dies at Arfderyddin 573; AC has 573 Bellum armterid; JM says Urien of Northern Rheged absorbed Carlisle].

 

574 –King Cleph of Lombardy assassinated, succeeded by 35 independent dukes.  

-

Abdication of Emperor Justin II; Empress Sophia and Tiberius regents.

-

(CP] Accession of Pope Benedict I (to 578). 

 

574–578 – Pope Benedict I asks Gregory to convert Saxons but recalls him before he leaves Rome.

 

575 – Baetan mac Cairill High King of Ireland, King of Ulster defeats Aedan mac Gabhran King of Dal Riada / Riata and his son Artuir at Dun Baetan at Rinn Seimne on Island Magee near Larne, County Antrim [JM has 588 Baetan mac Erca High King of Ireland d succeeded by Aed mac Ainmere; other has 568/575/576–592/594/598 Áed mac Ainmuirech King of the Northern Uí Néill, High King of Ireland / King of Tara; JEF has Irish genealogy saying Baetan of Dal Fiatach met Aedan mac Gabran, who recognised his authority, at Island Magee in south Antrim before Baetan d 583]. 

-

Convention of Druim Ceit / Druim Cett / Drumceat in County Derry attended by Colmcille and Aedan mac Gabhrain settles relations between Ireland and Dal Riada, which recognises authority of Aed mac Ainmerech, High King and allots Dal Riada authority over Ulster [WSK has 575; CP has 574 and says frees Dal Riada from tribute to High King but retains its military service; JM has 588 – Irish Convention of Drum Ceat summoned by King Aed mac Ainmere; Columba and King Aedan of Dal Riada achieved concordat between church and state and an agreement between Irish monarchy and Dal Riada; alternative view, an attempt to prevent Ulaid extension of power into Albania: Áed mac Ainmuirech of Northern Uí Néill and Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata made an alliance, fostered by Saint Columba, a member of the Cenél Conaill like Áed, to oppose Báetán's attempts to increase his power by extending Dál Fiatach influence beyond the isle of Ireland; WSK has 575; JEF has C592 Aedan meets Aed mac Ainmere at Druimm Cete in northeast Ireland and the convention settling three-way peace between Ailech, the Corcu Reti and the Ui Choelbad].  [CP] Bishop Baeithin Mor / the Great of Bangor attends the Convention. 

-

Dallan Forgaill, chief ollamh/ judge of Ireland, composes Amra Colmcille / Ode to Colmcille.  

-

Áed mac Echach Tirmcharna King of Connacht d.  

-

Saint Magloire of Dol, Abbot of Lammeur and Sark, second Bishop of Dol d.  

-

[JM] Sigibert I King of Austrasia d succeeded by Childebert II.  King Chilperic I of Neustria / the West Franks at the siege of Tournai names his son Samson and has him baptised by ? Bishop Samson.

 

C575 – [JM] Saint Kentigern active at Glasgow [WSK has fl C570-612].

-

Welsh Bicknor monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.

-

Saint Paul Aurelian / Paol Aorelian / Pol de Léon / Paulinus Aurelianus, Bishop of Léon in Armorica d.  

 

C575–C625 – [TMC] E glassware produced at Whithorn and B glassware in Kent.

 

576 - Colmán Már mac Coirpre King of Leinster d.  

-

King Leovigild of Visigoths enters Galicia and attacks King Miro of Suebi.

 

576-577- [IA] smallpox.

 

577– [DOC] Baetan mac Cairill King of Ulster takes Isle of Man from Dal Riata / Riada.  

-

Battle of Deorham / Dyrham at Hinton Hill near Caer Baddan / Bath; King Ceawlin of West Saxons and son Cuthwine conquer Aquae Sulis / Caer Badon / Bath, Glevum / Caer Gloul / Gloucester and Corinium / Caer Ceri / Cirencester in the region of Guenet and kill British kings Coinmail / Conmail / Cynfael of Glevum / Caer Gloul / Gloucester, Condidan / Candidianus / ? Constantinus] / Cynheiddon of Caer Ceri / Cirencester and Farinmail / Ffernfael of Caer Baddan / Bath [WSK has 577]. Baddan becomes Bathanceaster, Ceri becomes Cirenceaster [Storr has this at Derry Brook near Purton or Derry Hill east of Chippenham, resulting in British building Grim’s Ditch from Goring to Ogbourne then Wansdyke to River Severn].  

-

Coirpre Cromm mac Crimthainn King of the Eóganacht Glendamnach in Munster d.

 

C577 - King Macliau of Bro Erech and his successor son King Jacob killed by King Tewdwr / Tewdr / Teudar Mawr / Teuderic Maur / Theodoric / Theodore the Great of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais, Cornouaille and Penwith [other has 560 Tewdr Mawr / Teudar / Teuderic Mawr / Theodore the Great who had been sent into exile by Macliau of Bro Erech and who had become ruler of Penwith in Cornubia returns to rule Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais; after the victory he retires to monastery in Tintern] succeeded by Waroch / Waroc’h II, second son of Macliau [MA has fl 585-615 Waroch successor to Macliaw King of Armorica].  Tewdr Mawr / the Great, King of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais and Penwith retires to monastery in Gwent succeeded by Alain I, King of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais and Cornuaille, grandson of Budig II ruler of Vennetais and father of Gradion Prince of Cornuaille 

 

Post 577 – ?Dumnonia builds Wansdyke against West Saxons.

 

578 – Baetan mac Cairill King of Ulster retreats from Isle of Man before Dal Riata / Riada.  

-

King Wuffa of East Angles d succeeded by Tytila. 

-

Saint Fedelmid Find, Abbot of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Carláen / Cairlan / Ciarláech / Cairellán, Bishop [IA has 577-578 - [IA ] Feidlimid Finn Abbot of Armagh d. 

-

[Chadwick and TMC] quoting Gregory of Tours says King Chilperic of Neustria invades, but Waroc of Bro Erech slays the Saxon allies of the Bessin, although he is forced to give son as a hostage and to restore Vannes.  When the Franks withdraw, Waricj reneges and sends Bishop Eunius of Vannes to Chilperic. 

-

Justin II Emperor of the East d succeeded by Tiberius II Constantine [to 582].  

-

[CP] Pelagius II Pope (other has 579to 590).

 

578/579/580 - [IA] Saint Finnian of Molville Bishop of Ui Fiatach d [JM has 589].  

-

[JM] Colman, King of South Leinster d.

 

579 – [TMC] Waroch of Bro Erech attacks Franks in Nantes and Rennes.  Bishop Felix of Nantes tries unsuccessfully to mediate.  Frankish general Duke Beppolen retaliates. [Chadwick - King Waroch II of Bro Erech ? makes Vannes Breton territory for the first time]. 

-

Bruidge mac Nath I of the Ui Failgi Kings of Leinster d in battle against the Ui Neill.

 

C579 – King Theodric / Deoric Fflamddwyn / Flamdwyn / Flame-bearer / Fire stealer of Bernicia killed by Owain King of Rheged, succeeded by Frithuwald / Frithewlf / Friduuald.  [JM has Bernician Fflamddwyn / Firebrand / ?Aethelric unites four Bernician armies and invades Rheged, to be beaten by Urien at Argoed Llwyfein / Leven Forest.  Urien King of Rheged Pillar of Britain fights Bernician Theodric and kills Ulph / ?Frethulf / Theodulf.]  

 

579/580 - [DOC] Coirpre Crom, King of Munster, grandson of Oengus mac Nad Froich d, ri Caisil, King of Cashel.

 

580 - Aedan mac Gabhrain King of Dal Riada attacks Picts in Orkneys / Orc and Caledonia [JEF has 582-583 after Baetan of Dal Fiatach dies].  Scotti settle in the Orkneys [CP has 579 or 580; WSK has 580].   

-

Death of Galam Cennaleph, King of the Tay / South Picts [JEF has 582]. 

-

[WSK] Aethelbert son of Iurminric / Eormenric / Irminric becomes King of Kent [or 593; to 616/618; ASC has 565].

-

Colcu mac Domnaill King of Ailech challenges High King Áed but is defeated and slain at the Battle of Druim Meic Erce (Drumhirk, County Tyrone).

 

C580 - Kings Gurci / Gwrgi and Peredur son of King Eleuther / Eleutherius / Eliffer of the Great Army of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York defeated at Caer Greu and killed by ? Frithuwald King of the Bernicians; Eboracum / Ebrauc / York falls to [JM occupied by] King Aelle of Deira, becoming his capital. [AC has 580/581 Guurci et peretur moritur. CP has Welsh Triads naming Gwrgi as one of the three traitors through whom the Cymry lost the crown of the Isle of Britain]. Peredur’s son Gwgaun never recovered his kingdom. [MA has Peredur and Gwrgi fl 530-570 sons of Ellifer of the Great Host; JEF has two British kings cousins of Urien d; PCB has Peredur d 580 always mentioned with twin brother Gwrgi].  

-

Gwyddno Garahnhir / Long-Shanks King of Meirionydd d succeeded by Idris Gawr [MA has fl 590-630 Gwyddno successor to Clydno King of Meirionydd; PCB has Idris Awr / Gawr ap Clydno d 632.

-

King Pau / Pawl ap Meurig of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d succeeded by Eldoc / Eldog ap Pawl [MA has fl 570-600 Elaed successor to Pawl King of Buellt and Gwerthrynion; PCB has b 550].  

-

King Llywarch ap Rigenew of Brycheiniog d succeeded by Idwallon ap Llywarch [MA has fl C570-600 Idwallon successor to Llywarch King of Brycheiniog; PCB has b 530 father of Rhiwallon].  

-

In Galicia, the Suebian Parochiale includes a list of the principal churches of each diocese in the Metropolitanate of Braga (the Ecclesia Britonensis /Bretoña).  

 

Post C580 - [MA] Gwallawg grandson of Llenauc King of Elmet fights Bernicians [MA has fl C530-570 Gwallawg grandson of Llenauc King of Elmet].

 

581– [JM] Cennaleth, King of the Southern Picts d [IA interpolation has 580 Cennaleth Rex Pictorum d]. 

-

Baedan mac Cairill / Báetán mac Cairill King of Ulster / Ulaid d.

 

582– [DOC] Aedan mac Gabhrain King of Dal Riada takes Isle of Man from Ulaid Dal Fiatach king [CP has 582 or 583; WSK has 582; JEF has Aedan wins Battle of Manau 585-586]. 

-

Fergus Scandal mac Crimthainn Airthir Chliach King of the Eóganacht Glendamnach in Munster slain, succeeded by Felimy II mac Coirpri Chruimm, then by Felimy III mac Tigernaig. 

-

Tiberius II Constantine Emperor of the East d succeeded by Maurice [to 602], who is again hailed as ‘father’ by the Franks.

 

583 King Aedan of Dal Riada wins bellum Manonn / Battle of Manaan / Mano / Cath Manand against southern Picts in Manau Gododdin [JEF has 584 -or 585]. ​

-

[Crichton has Merlin confronts Saint Mungo and undergoes triple death].  

​-

Saint Serf / Serbán / Servanus d [WSK has Bishop Saint Serf d C695-700].  

​-

[JEF] King Baetan of the Dal Fiatach of Ulster d.  

​-

[DOC] Killing of Fergus mac Scandail of the Eoganacht Aithir Chliach, King of Munster. 

​-

King Leovigild of the Visigoths defeats King Miro of the Suebi who d succeeded by son Eburic, who is overthrown by Audeca.

 

C583 - [JM] Saint Winwaloe dies in Brittany. 

 

584 - [IA interpolation and MA] Bruide / Brude / Bridei mac Maelcon / Maelchon King of the Picts d [JM has Bridei killed by southern Pictish rebels; Ellis has 585; Ardrey has by Arthur Prince of Scots at 2nd battle of Circenn; WSK has C585 but also has Gartnait king 584-602 or 599; JEF has Verurian king d 586], succeeded by Gartnait / Gartnart filius Domelch, son of Aedan mac Gabhrain King of Dal Riada [by Pictish wife Domelch].  

-

King Cynewald of Mercia d [JM says the first independent monarch of Mercia and Lindsey] succeeded by Creoda, who founds stronghold of Tamworth. 

-

King Ceawlin of the West Saxons sacks Viroconium / Caer Goricon / Wroxeter in Pagenses / Powys and border regions of Ergyng and Gwent. [Bede: King Caelin / Ceaulin the second Bretwalda after the first, King Aelle of the South Saxons, and before the third King Ethelbert of the Kentish folk]. King Ceawlin of West Saxons and Cutha beaten by British at Fethan Leaf / Fethanleag / Battle Wood (near Stoke Lyne, Oxfordshire; Cooper has Fretherne on the Severn), where Cuthwine is killed [Ellis says British were led by Mouric son of King Theodoricwho had taken to monastery in Tintern, assisted by Maedoc / Aidan of Ferns in Connacht, staying with Dewi Sant in Mymyw / Menevia, Dyfed; JM says Mauric son of Theodoric was King of Glywyssing and his father came out of the monastery to die at Tintern Ford by Brockwier on the Wye, the battle his son won against Ceawlin; other has 600 Saint Tewdrig / Theodoricus ?King of Glywysing and Gwent, son of King Teithfallt dies of wounds after skirmish with Saxons at ford of Rhyd Tintern / Pont y Saeson, succeeded by son Meurig [he is allied with Kings Iddon of Gwent and Gwrfoddw of Ergyng - does not work chronologically]. [Storr] British build dykes blocking Akeman Street west of the River Glyme; at Daglingworth north of Corinium; the Bulwarks around Rodborough and the Trench blocking the Daneway].

-

[AC] Saint Deiniol ?first Bishop of Bangor in Gwynedd d.  Bellum contra euboniam et dispositio danielis bancorum [JM Daniel at Bangor, Menai d; Daniel / Saint Deiniol of Bangor / the Bangors (son of Dunaut Fawr, son of Pappo Post Priten, brother of the father of Gwrgi and Peredur); other has 572 Saint Dunad / Deiniol / Daniel d].  

-

[IA] Nathcomi (Mo-Chaeme) Abbot of Terryglass d.

-

Saint Felix Bishop of Nantes d [other has 583; other has 582].  

-

King Chilperic I, King of Neustria, assassinated, leaving two month old son Clothar II [to 629].  Guntram of Burgundy claims three civitates.  

-

Lombards end interregnum and elect Autari king.

 

584/585/587/589 - [IA] Mac Nisse Abbot of Clanmacnoise d.

 

585 – King Frithuwald / Frithewlf of Bernicia dies succeeded by Hussa [Ellis says 582; JEL and TMC have king 585-592].  

-

Gwallog of Elmet, Rhydderch of Strathclyde, Urien of North Rheged defeat Hussa at Arddunion / Ardunion [Stirling has 574]. 

-

King Autari of the Lombards pushes the Franks back into Piedmont and forces the Eastern Empire to a truce.  

-

King Leovigild of the Visigoths attacks Galicia and takes Suebian Kingdom, which is now permanently Visigoth. 

 

C585 – British alliance against Northumbrian Angles. King Urienof Rheged, King Rhydderch Hael of Alt Clut, King Gwallawc Marchawc Trin /  Gwallog ap Llaennog of Elmet and King Morcant / Morgan Bulc of the Votadini, who single-handedly destroys any hope the Britons of The Old North had of resisting the Anglian invaders [JM has r 540-560].   [JM has 591 Aedan of Dal Riada and the Ulaid of Ireland joining; CP has Aedan known in the Welsh Triads as Aeddan Fradwr o’r Gogledd / Aedan the traitor of the north’]. They are initially extremely successful in driving back the Angles from Bryneich territory, forcing them to vacate Din Guardi / Bamburgh, the capital, and besieging them for three days on Ynys Metcaut / Lindisfarne / Holy Island.  [JEF has another ally may have been Aelle of Deira].  King Urien of Rheged / glyw Reget/ Lord of Rheged and Reget diffreidyat / defender of Rheged / Uryen yrechwyd / Urien of the lands of Gurgust / lyw Catraeth / ruler of Cataractonum / Catterick / arbenic teyrned / high lord of princes / leader of men of Goddau and Llwynfenyd / Eden in Cumbriais killed [JM has 590; others have 575-585 and C590; Crichton and Storr have C590; WSK has C590] by Morcant; Urien is assassinated by Llofan / Lovan / Llaf Difo at Aber Leu / estuary of the River Low and the alliance of the Britons of the North collapses. The Angles break out from their containment and retake most of the lands they had held before the war to expel them had begun [TMC has Northern History has Urien besieging Theodric 572-579 with the modern name Meddgawd; Storr has Bernicians building dykes between, and both west and east of Galashiels and Selkirk on the River Tweed.  Later link the head waters of the Teviot with the Catrael dyke blocking the road from Carlisle].  

-

King Gwallawc Marchawc Trin/ Gwallog ap Llaennog of Elmet is killed in the British defeat, succeeded by Certic / Cerdic / Ceretic / Ceredig ap Gwallog, who fortifies his seat at Barwick-in-Elmet with ditches to the north [MA has Ceredig son of Gwallawg fl 560-600, last King of Elmet, d C620; PCB quotes Bedes’s account of Saint Hilda describing poisoning of her father Hereric, refugee from King Aethelfrith, blamed by King Edwin, who justified the take over of Elmet by it.  Cerdic d C620]. 

-

King Urien of Rheged is succeeded by Owain / Owein mab Urien / Owain ab Urien Rheged who isimmediately beset by his British neighbours, King ? Ceretic [other has Gwallawc Marchawc Trin] of Elmet [rege Brettonum Cerdice; JEF follows Jackson in making Guallauc Riderch’s successor and not King of Elmet) and Dunaut Bwr / Dunawt / Dynod / Donatus son of Pabo / Dunod ap Pabo / Dunaunt King of Donotry / regio Dunutinga / Dentdale in Cumbria; the former attacking Owein's brother Elffin whilst Owein and Pasgen, another brother, fight Dunaut [MA has Owain son of Urien fl 560-600 killed 592 and brother Rhun alive in 620s; PCB has Owain b 530]. 

-

Llandinabo monastery first mentioned in Llandaff charters.

-

[JM] Aedan of Ferns active.

-

Judual / Iudwal ap Ionas King of Damnonia / Dumnonee d succeeded by son Iuthael / Iudhael ap Iudwal [MA has fl 585-615 Iuthael successor to Iudwal / Judhael King of Domnonie; other has 590-658 Iudhael / Judhael‘King of the Bretons’]. 

 

585–588 – [CP] Pope Gregory I sees the three Anglian boy slaves, subjects of Aelle, in the market.

 

C585-589 – [WSK] Saint Columba founds Durrow monastery [DOC has 588 Aed mac Brendain meic Maine is rex Tethba around Ardagh and grants Columba lands at Durrow].

 

C585–610 - [MA] fl Bubba of Lindsey Angles.

 

C586 – King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd d [Others have 569/601; JM 580/589] succeeded by son/nephew Beli ap Rhun [MA has fl 560-600 successor to Rhun the Tall as 6th King of Gwynedd].

 

587 – King Aescwine of Essex d [JM says the first independent King of the East Saxons], succeeded by Sledda. 

-

[DOC] joint expedition to Western Isles by Colman Bec son of Diarmaitt mac Cerbeill of the southern Ui Neill and Conall mac Comgaill King of Dal Riata.

-

[Chadwick] Gregory of Tours says King Waroch of Bro Erech raids Nantes and Rennes.  He and Vidimacl meet Frankish envoys in Nantes territory.

 

587/588 - [IA] Carlean Bishop of Armagh and Senach Bishop of Clonard d.

 

Pre 588 - Aethelbert / Edilbertus, King of Kent marries Bertha, daughter of Charibert, King of the Franks, who brings with her Liudhard, Bishop of Silvanectium / Senlis, who brings the cult of Saint Martin to England [Chadwick; WSK says in late 570s].  They dedicate church in Canterbury to Saint Martin.

 

588 – [CP, JM, Ellis; ASC] King Aelle / Aelli of Deira d succeeded by Ethelric / Aethelric / Aedelric [other has C589; CP has of Bernicia, father of King Ethelfrid of Bernicia, annexes kingdom; WSK has d C599].  Prince Saint Edwin of Deira flees to Gwynnedd.

-

[CP quoting Thorn] Aelle King of Sussex d [JM C590 The first independent King of the South Saxons d]. 

-

Felimy III mac Tigernaig King of the Eóganacht Glendamnach in Munster d. 

-

Áed Dub / Black mac Suibni King of Ulster / Ulaid d [other has 579; JEF has Fiachnae Lurgan / Longshanks mac Baetan mac Eochaid becomes King of Ulster / Uliad / Ui Choelbad 590 killing Aed Dub, to 628 and adds that the Cruithni, whose High King Fiachnae was, were Gaelic speaking Britons].  Adomnán of Iona's Life of Saint Columba states that Áed Dub was ordained as a priest, an ordination that Adomnán describes as a sham. When Columba learned of this, he prophesied that although Áed would live for many years to come, he "will return as a dog to his vomit; he will again be a bloody murderer and in the end, killed by a spear, he will fall from wood into water and die drowning." Áed was perhaps deposed, or abdicated, and spent time in Britain in a monastery before returning to Ulster to try to regain his throne. Áed was killed aboard a ship on Lough Neagh.  

-

Saint Carláen / Cairlan / Ciarláech / Cairellán, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Eochu /Eochaid macDiarmaid, 

Abbot. 

-

[Chadwick] Gregory of Tours says King Waroch II of Bro Erech raids Nantes and Rennes.  

-

King Autari, with the Bavari, defeats the Franks. 

 

588/589/591 - [IA] drought.

 

589 - Dewi Sant / Saint David Bishop of Tyddewi / Menevia / Saint David’s d, buried in Saint David’s Cathedral, Dyfed [Chadwick has C601; Harleian Annals have 601; GA says or at Glastonbury; AC has David episcopus Moni Iudeorum / Moniu Desorum – Menevia of the Dessi; JR has C590]. 

-

[JM] King Colman Bec of Meath d.

 

C589 – Death of Saint Budoc Bishop of Dol.

 

589-626 - Fiachnae mac Báetáin / Fiachnae Lurgan / Fiachnae Find, King of the Dál nAraidi, High King of the Ulaid I, King of Tara.

 

590 – Prince Artur mac Aedan of Dal Riata and his brother d at battle against the Miathi won by his father Aedan mac Gabrhain King of Dalriata [WSK has C590; JEF has Aedan loses the Battle of Circhind / cath Chirchind / Kirkynn / Cirech against the Miathi and says the date 598 was mistaken, but post 597].

-

[IA] Great snow.

-

[DOC] Fedlimid mac Tigernaig of the Ui Echach Eoganacht Raithlind, King of Munster d.

-

[JM] Saint Columban / Columbanus leaves Bangor for Gaul, where he founds Luxeuil and Bobbio [CP has 585-590; other has 612-615 Saint Columbanus founds monastery at Bobbio; JEF has C591 leaves Bangor for Francia].

-

[Chadwick] Gregory of Tours says King Waroch II of Bro Erech raids Nantes and Rennes.  King Guntram of Burgundy, ruler of Tours and Soissons, sends generals Beppolen and Ebrakher / Ebrachar to retaliate but the former is defeated [TCM] between Vannes and the River Oust and slain. Ebrakher advances to Vannes to be greeted by the Roman Bishop Regalis, then makes Waroch flee to the Channel Islands then sue for peace.  Queen Fredegund, mother of King Clohtar II, sends Saxons of the Bessin dressed as Bretins to aid Waroc.  River Vilaine is the boundary so Vannes is under Breton rule; prince Canao, son of Waroc II, attacks Franks as they return home across it. 

-

King Autari, with the Bavari, defeats the Franks, then is poisoned, succeeded in 591 by Agilulf.

-

Saint Gregory I the Great Pope [Bede has 591; to 604]; the first to employ titles Servus Servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus.  

 

C590 – Eifion / Einion ap Meurig King of Dunoding d succeeded by Isaag / Isaac ap Eifion / Einionap Meurig [MA has fl 590-630 Isaac successor to Eifion King of Dunoding; PCB has b 570, father of Pobien Hen]. 

-

Meurig of Gwent d succeeded by Erbic [JM has 615 Mouric King of Gleviussig dies]. 

-

Considerable numbers of Merovingian tremisses circulating in southern and eastern England. Bishopric established at Llandeilo.

-

Iahann Reeth / Iahan Reith ruler of Cornuaille [MA – fl 460; other has ?Riothamus]. 

-

Saint Gwenhael / Gwenael /Gwenhael, Abbot of Landévennec Abbey / Lann of Venec d.

 

C590–615 – writings of Saint Columbanus.

 

C590-630 - [MA] fl Cadwal, successor to Cangan or Aeddan as King of Rhos, possibly killed at Chester C616 [PCB has Cadwal Crysban / Crisban / Crys-Halog / Crys Haloc / Polluted Shirt ap Cangan ap Maig / Aeddan ap Maig b 560, father of Idgwyn; may be Cetula Rex killed at Chester].  

 

592 – King Hussa of Bernicia / Berneich / Bernicii d succeeded by Ethelfrid / Aethelfrith / Aedlfred / Aedelfrith / Eadlfered / Eadfered Flesaur / Edelflet Fleissawc / Flexor / Flesaur / Twister / Schemer son of Aethelric and grandson of Ida, husband of Bebba [other has 593; Ellis and Moore Memoranda say 592; CP has 592-593; WSK has 592/593-617; JEL has Hussa d 592 succeeded by Aethelfrith, grandson of Ida, son of Aethelric; JEF has C592; TMC has 592-616 and quotes HB that Aethelfrith gave Bamburgh to his queen, Bebba, whence its name; Storr has Aethelfrith build Scot’s Dyke between River Tees and River Swale on Elmet border]. 

-

[Other has ?593; others have 591, 593; WSK has 593] King Creoda / Crida / Cretta of Mercian Iclingas killed at the Battle of Woddes beorge / Woddesbeorge / Wodnesbeorge / Woden’s Barrow / Adam’s Grave,Alton Priors, Wiltshire [Ellis says overlooking Vale of Pewsey; Cooper has perhaps Wanborough] succeeded by Pybba; King Ceawlin of West Saxons driven out with great slaughter and perishes with Cwichelm,buried at East Hendred near Wantage, succeeded by Ceol / Ceolric.  

-

Surrey falls under Kent influence.  

-

Áed Dub mac Colmáin / Áed(h) of Kildare King of Leinster abdicates and enters Kildare monastery.  

-

Guntrum, King of Burgundy, dies, his lands passing to King Childebert II of Metz & Reims / Austrasia [other has 593 Guntram, King of the Burgundians, d and Childebert II, King of Austrasia, takes his lands.

 

C592 – death of Saint Moluag / Moloc / Lua / Luan / Luanus / Lugaidh / Moloag / Molluog / Molua / Murlach / Malew.

 

Post 592 – King Pybba of Mercian Iclingas extends Mercian control into west Midlands, uniting small kingdoms of North Engle (Nottinghamshire), South Engle (Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire) and Pecsaetna (the Peak).  

 

593 – [IA & JM] King Aedan of Dal Riada fights Battle of Leithrig near Stirling against southern Picts [CP has 590; JEF has 592 bellum Leithreid and against Alt Clut].

-

Eoganan Prince of Scots d [CP says 592 or 593 and says ASC supports latter; Tigernach has 595]. 

-

Aed mac Maic Cathair Abbot of Birr d. 

 

C593-616 - [JM] Aethelbert / Edilbertus King of Kent supreme.

 

594 – Franks destroy Varini in area of Old Saxons in northeast German coast.

 

C594 – Waroch / Waroc’h II King of Bro Erech d succeeded by son Canao II, who defeats the Franks near Vannes / Vannetais [MA has C615-645 fl Canao II successor to Waroch King of Armorica; TMC has Fredegar tells of a battle in 594 between Franks and Bretons with heavy losses on both sides, and that the Franks were led by Childebert II].

 

Post 594 - Saint Tanguy / Tangi of Locmazhé founds the abbaye de Saint Matthieu at Le Conquet.

 

595 - Áed Dibchine mac Senaig, King of Leinster, first King from the Uí Máil branch of the Laigin d.  

-

[TMC] King Childebert II of Austrasia and Burgundy’s Franks bloodily suppress a revolt of the Warni. Childebert II, King of Austrasia and Burgundy d and leaves Austrasia to Theudebert II [to 612] and Burgundy to Theuderic II [to 613].

 

C595 - King Morcant Bulc of Bryneich d succeeded by his son Coledauch / Coleddog. 

-

Dunod grandson of Pabo d [AC has Dunaut son of Pabo d 597; IA interpolation has 595– Dunaut rex d; AC has 595/596/597 Dunaut rex moritur; other has 595 Donotry falls to the Bernicians, King Dunaut Bwr / Dynod son of Pabo / Dunod ap Pabo / Dunaunt is killed; JEF has d C595].  

-

Arthfoddw King of Ceredigion d succeeded by Arthlwys ap Arthfoddw [MA has fl 590-630; PCB has b 610, father of Clydog].  

-

Arthur map Petr becomes King of Dyfed [Chambers has early 600s Arthur ap Petr, father of Nougoy, great-grandson of Vortipor, King of Dyfed / Dyfet; other has 585; PCB has b C560, son Noe ab Arthur].  

-

King Erbic ap Meurig of Gwent, Glywyssing and Ergyng dies, succeeded by Erb ap ErbicKing of South-East Wales[other has 524Erb / Urbanus King of Gwent rules; Chadwick has King Erb ap Erbig King of Gwent b C 490; MA has fl 495-524successor of Caradog Vreichfrasand fl 520-550successors to Erb; PCB has b 500 married to daughter of King Custennin, father of Peibio].

-

Valley Dore monastery referred to as property of Saint Dyfrig [Llandaff Charters; other has 605 Valley Dore monastery first mentioned in Llandaff charters].

 

595/596 - Pope Gregory sends Saint Augustine to convert Kent [AC has 595 Agustinus mellitus anglos ad christum conuertit; WSK has 596] .

 

595/599/602 - [IA] Alithir Abbot of Clonmacnoise d.

 

595/598–600/604 - Colmán Rímid / Colmán mac Báetáin and Áed mac Diarmato / Áed Sláine (Áed of Slane, death prophesied by Saint Columba) Joint High Kings of Ireland and Kings of Tara.

 

596 – [CP] Aedan mac Gabrain King of Dal Riada fights and wins or loses but four of his sons killed at Circinn, in Angus, southern Pictish province; [Ardrey has 3rd battle of Circenn / Circhend in which Arthur Prince of Scots defeats Picts but Gartnait is killed; Chambers / Adomnan’s Vita Columbae have Arturius / Arthur mac Aedan Prince of Dal Riada killed in battle]. 

-

Childebert II, King of Austrasia and Burgundy d.

 

597 – Death of Prince Eoganan of Dal Riata.  

-

King Ceol / Ceolric of the West Saxons d succeeded by Ceolwulf, who fights Angles, Welsh, Picts and Scots. 

-

[CP] Saint Augustine consecrated bishop and arrives in Kent with 40 missionaries including Saint Laurentius / Laurence and Saint Honorius (or 601), John, Romanus (or 601) and Saint Peter of Canterbury. He converts King Ethelbert I.  [IA has conversion of Saxons 597; WSK has 597]. 

-

[CP and JM] Saint Columba / Colm Cille of Iona d on Iona [IA interpolation has 592/595/597; AC has 595 Columcille moritur; other suggests 580; WSK has 597, succeeded by Baithene mac Brenainn / Brendan as second Abbot; JEF has 597]. 

C597/600 - Mynydawc / Mynyddog Mwynfawr / the Wealthy and Cynan of Kingdom of Eidyn / Goddodin attack King Aethelfrith of Bernicia at Catraeth / Catterick and are defeated, leading to poem 'Y Gododdin' [JM has C598; Crichton has 607; WSK has possible date C600]. Gerren / Gereint rac Dehau / for the South King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint fights in the battle; PCB has three survivors being Catlew o Gatnant / Cadlew of Cadnant, Cynon ap Clydno Eidyn and Cadreith; he also has Gwenabwy ap Gwen, Gwion, Gwyn and Morien ap Fferog fighting there; Hyffaid Hir, Madog Elfed, Peredur Arfau Dur, Rhufon Hir and Tudfwlch Hir ap Cilydd slain there; Yeates quoting Dumville has the battle in C540 and the poem written C570].

598 – [WSK and JEF] Domangart and Bran, sons of Aedan mac Gabhrain King of Dal Riada, assassinated by Bernicians.  

-

Saint Augustine founds abbey in Durnovaria / Canterbury and [CP quoting Pope Gregory] baptizes ‘more than 10,000 Angli’.  Saint Peter of Canterbury first Abbot. 

-

Eochu /Eochaid macDiarmaid, Abbot [IA has and Bishop] of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Senach, Abbot.  

-

[DOC] King Brandub mac Echach of the Ui Cennselaig of southern Leinster defeats Ui Neill King Aed mac Ainmerech at Dun Bolg. King Domnall mac Aedo succeeds and restores southern frontier against Leinster.

 

C598 – King Aedan of Dal Riada defeats the Miathi / Maeatae.  

-

Gerren / Gereint rac Dehau / For the South, High King, King of Dumnonia / Dyfneint & Duke of Cornubia enters a monastery succeeded by brother Blederic / Bledric ap Custennin [PCB has Bledrus / Bledericus / Bledris, fictional]. 

 

599 – King Aedan of Dal Riada suffers heavy losses against southern Picts in Strathmore but wins the field.

 

C599 – King Beli ap Rhun of Gwynedd d succeeded by Iago ap Beli [MA has fl 590-630, successor to Beli as 7th King of Gwynedd; PCB has d C616, perhaps at Chester, father of Cadfan].  

 

599-600 - Saint Cainnech of Aghaboe / Saint Canice (in Ireland) / Saint Kenneth (in Scotland) / Saint Kenny / Saint Canicus d having written Glass Kinnich (Glas-Chainnigh) or Chain of Cainnech, a commentary on the Gospels.

 

By 600 – Lindisfaras form kingdom in Lindsey.  

-

Caer Lundeln / Londinium / London not in British control.

 

7THCENTURY CE/AD

 

600 – King Tytila of East Angles d [other has 617], succeeded by Raedwald [other has C599-616; WSK has king C599-C625].  

-

[WSK] Baithene mac Brenainn / Brendan second Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Laisran abbot C600-605.  [Wikipedia has Baithéne mac Brénaind second Abbot d 598 succeeded by Lasrén mac Feradaig].  

-

Uatu mac Áedo mac Echach King of Connacht d.

 

C600 – Aneirin writes ‘Gododdin’.

-

Kingdom of Mercia forms in lands of Corieltani and absorbs Cynwidion in the lands of the Catuvellauni.  Verulamium survives in south of Cynwidion as Caer Mincip.  East Saxons dominate Middle Saxons and Surrey.  

-

Gold tremissis struck by moneyer Eusebius at Durovernia / Canterbury. 

-

Llan-arth monastery first mentioned in Llandaff charters as property of Saint Dyfrig.  

-

C600-610 – Ynys Manau refugees from attacks by Dal Riada settle as sub-kings in Gwent.  

 

Early 600s - [Chambers] Saint Collen, son of Pedrwn ap Coleddog ap Gwyn / or ap Cawrdaf ap Caradog Freichfras, a contemporary of Arthur, Abbot of Glastonbury and founder of Llangollen d.

601– Pope Saint Gregory I sends reply to Saint Augustine’s questions and letter to King Ethelbert I of Kent by hand of Saint Laurentius with the pallium for Saint Augustine along with second mission with Saint Justus, Rufinianus, Saint Mellitus and teachers including Saint Paulinus of York.  

-

[IA and AC] Sinodus Urbis Legionis [other has 603 two conferences between Augustine and the bishops and teachers of the nearest British province ? on the border of Hwiccas and West Saxons at Augustine’s Oak, Aust near Chepstow; CP has 602-603 and suggests ‘The Oak’, Down Ampney near Cricklade; JEL has 602 or 603, the first held with the help of King Ethelbert at Aust near the Severn. Second with monks from Bangor on Dee following a Sinodus urbis legion held in 601 to prepare; Eagle has 602/603 at Kemble].  Second is at Bancornaburg / ? Bangor with seven British bishops.  

-

Saint Martin of Vertou founder of Vertou Abbey, Apostle of the Herbauges d. 

-

Aed mac Ainmere High King of Ireland d [JEF has slain 600].  

-

Amalgaid mac Éndai Joint King with Garbán mac Éndai (of Eóganacht Áine branch) of the Eoganachta in Munster d.  

-

[CP] Maurice Emperor of the East, campaigning on the Danube against the Avars, overthrown by Phocas [other has 602].

 

C601- [William of Malmesbury] Charter of King of Dumnonia to Glastonbury Abbey giving five hides to Abbot Worgret / Worgrez.  Later British Abbot is Lademund.

 

C601-604 – Laws of King Aethelbert of Kent.

 

601/605/608 - [IA] Lasren Abbot of Iona d.

 

601/604-607/612 - Áed Uaridnach / Áed mac Domnaill / Áed Allán High King of Ireland, King of Tara (founder of church at Fahan with Saint Mura).

 

602– Pictish King Gartnait, son of Aedan mac Gabhrain King of Dal Riada d succeeded by grandson Nechtan / Necton / Neithon grandson of Verb / Nechtu nepos Uerb.  [IA has 603 Bishop Sillan and Gartnaid rex Pictorum d; other has 606/610/612 – Sillan mac Cummine Bishop of Bangor d; WSK has Nechtan r 602-621 and that Gartnait may have been son of Aidan mac Gabhrain; also that Gartnait may have d 599; JEF has Necton nepos Irb/ Erp Southern Pictish King C601–C621]. 

-

Emperor Maurice murdered by his successor Phocas [or 610]. 

 

603 – King Aethelfrith of Bernicia defeats King Aedan mac Gabhrain of the Scots and Dael Reoda / Dalriada [JM and JEF have with Mael Uma, brother of Colman Rimid, High King of Ireland; TMC has 603] raiding into Northumbria at Degsastan / Degsa’s Stone [CP] has Dawston in Liddelsdale; [WSK and JEF have 603]; [JEL] Aidan’s forces include some British of Strathclyde. Aethelfrith’s brother Theodbald killed. 

-

[IA] has Maeluma mac Baitain King of the Cenel Eogain, northern Ui Neill killed at the battle [DOC this is wrong, he d 610].  Eanfrith interpolation Theobald, brother of Ethelfrith [other has 623 Fiachnae mac Báetáin / Fiachnae Lurgan King of Ulster / Ulaid besieging Saxons in Bamburgh; other has 603 Aedan mac Gabhrain takes an army of Saxons, Britons and men of Dal Riada to fight in Ireland; other has Battle of Degsastan in which King Aethelfrith of Bernicia defeats and kills King Áedán mac Gabráin/ Aeddan Fradawg / Áedán the Treacherous of Dalriada, the most powerful monarch in the north at the time; JEF has 603].  

-

Aedan mac Gabhrain King of Dal Riada stripped of his kingdom [WSK has 608 succeeded by son Eochaid Buide]. 

-

[JM] Saint Kentigern d [AC has 612 or 614 Saint Kentigern / Mungo d; Crichton has 601; WSK has C612].

-

Consecration of Christ Church Canterbury [CP has 603 or perhaps 602]. 

-

[DOC] Mael Cothaid mac Maele Umai of the Ui Briuin, King of Connacht, rex nepotum Fiachrach, King of Ua Fiachrach defeated at Battle of Echros / Augris, Sligo by the Cenel Coirpri of the northern Ui Neill.

 

Before 604 – King Sledda of Essex d succeeded by Saebert / Saeberht, son of Ricula, sister of King Aethelberht of Kent.

 

604 - Extinction of remnants of the British Kingdom of Bryneich [JM has this in 603, calling this the Kingdom of the Forth]. 

-

Deira and York overrun by King Ethelfrid / Aethelfrith / Aethelferth of Bernicia [WSK, JEF and JR have 604]. King Aethelric / Aedelric of Deira / Deiri / Deifr killed in battle [JEF has C604; Hunter-Blair has 605 Aedelfrith King of Bernicia conquers Deira].  Aethelfrith becomes King of Northumbria, marrying Saint Edwin / Edwini’s sister Acha.  

-

Prince Saint Edwin takes refuge at court of Cadfan King of Gwynedd [this must be Iago] and is baptised there by Rhun son of Urien of Rheged.

-

London in hands of the East Seaxe. 

-

Saint Augustine consecrates as Bishops Saint Justus for Rochester and [WSK] Saint Mellitus for East Saxons, latter founding Saint Paul’s in the city of London.  

-

King Saeberht of East Saxons, subordinate to King Aethelbert of Kent, converted. 

-

King Aethelbert gives land to Saint Andrew’s Church Rochester.  

-

[IA] Senach Abbot of Clonfert d.  

-

[JEF] Colman Rimid King of Cenel nEogain drives out from Ailech the son of Aed mac Ainmere and the Cenel Conaill, ending the Druimm Cete treaty. [Other] Colmán Rímid / The Counter mac Báetáin King of Ailech, High King slain by a kinsman; DOC has death of Colman Rimid mac Baetain King of Cenel nEogain, maternal grandfather of Northumbrian King Aldfrith and ? brother of Bishop Finan of Lindisfarne].

-

[JEF] Fiachnae Lurgan vanquishes Fiachnae mac Demmain, King of Dal Fiatach. 

-

Kings Aed Ron of the Ui Failgi of north Leinster and King Aed Slaine of the southern Ui Neill dysnasty Sil nAedo Slaine of Brega killed by Conall mac Suibni of the northern Ui Neill Clann Cholmain Mair [Carney in DOC has d 603].

-

[CP] Death of Pope Saint Gregory the Great [CP has 605]; Sabinian Pope (to 606). 

 

C604 - Dagan, Bishop of Inverdaoile, Wexford, takes Rule of Saint Molua to Rome for approval of Pope Gregory.

 

604-605 – Saint Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury d succeeded by Saint Laurentius / Lawrence / Laurence [CP has also 604-610; Wikipedia has 604-609 and 604/610-619].  Canterbury Abbey renamed Saint Augustine’s.

 

605 - Áedán mac Gabráin ex-King of Dal Riata d [CP has or 606, 607; other has 608 Aedan mac Gabhrain, ex-King of Dal Riada d; JM has 609; WSK has C608/608; JEF has 609, succeeded as King of Corcu Reti, rex Dail Riata, by his son Eochaid Buide rex Pictorum or ? ri Cruithne, toppled later by Connad Cerr son of Conall of the Cenel Comgaill of Cowal, but with in 609 Eochaid King of Kintyre and Connad King of Cowal.  He suggests Cowal’s royal seat was at Little Dunagoil near ecclesiastical centre at St Blane’s, Kingarth / Cenn Garad]. 

-

King Aethelbert gives land to Abbey of Saints Peter and Paul, Canterbury. 

-

Lasrén / Laisren mac Feradaig third Abbot of Iona d [IA has 601/605/608] succeeded by Fergno / Virgno Britt / Brit / The Briton mac Faílbi as both Abbot and Bishop [WSK has abbot 605-623]. 

-

Brandub mac Echach of the Uí Cheinnselaig King of Leinster defeated and killed by Áed Uaridnach mac Domnaill King of Ailech, High King [JM has of North Leinster d 608; other has 612 Áed Uaridnach mac Domnaill King of Ailech, High King d]. 

-

Sinell King of North Leinster d.

 

C605 – New king of Cynwidion.  

 

605/606/609 - [IA] Beogain Abbot of Bangor d.

 

606 – King Pybba of Mercia d succeeded by Cearl.

 

607 – King Ceolwulf of the West Saxons fights South Saxons [Storr has Wessex pushing south of Grim’s Ditch to Lambourn, with the British building a series of 10 dykes as they were pushed back, including Bedwyn Dyke, and the Saxons digging dykes on grouns they had won. He suggests Calleva / Silchester is abandoned now, and the British build dykes protecting Winchester, cutting the road and on ground further east at Four Marks and west of Alresford.  Also at Chute’s Causeway, Grim’s Ditch, Hampshire Gate, Devil’s Ditch and Andyke.  Winchester may not have fallen till post 607, when British build Devil’s Ditch along the Great Ridge]. 

-

[CP] Saint Peter Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury drowned in Gaul on royal mission [Wikipedia has or after 614]. Monk John elected Abbot. 

-

Sinlan Moccu Minister Abbot of Bangor, compiler of first Irish annals d.  

-

[JM] Aed Slane King of Meath d [other has Áed Sláine king of the UÍ Néill d 604]. 

-

[JM] Fingen becomes King of Munster to 619.

-

Boniface III Pope [to 608].   

 

C607 – Judual / Iudhael ap Iudwal King of Damnonia / Dumnonee d succeeded by son Haelog ap Iudhael.

-

Storr has C607 Elmet fortifies boundary with Deira with Rudgate, the South Dyke and Grim’s Ditch.  Dykes also built on the Aquae Armetiae / Buxton to Petuaria / Brough road at Grey Ditch, Priestcliffe Ditch and Farditch].  ​

 

608 – [CP] Saint Mellitus leaves Britain. 

-

[JM] King Brandub of the Ui Cennselaig d.

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Accession of Pope Saint Boniface IV (to 615). 

608-610/615 - Máel Coba mac Áedo High King of Ireland.

609 - [IA] Senach Abbot of Armagh d [AC has 606 Dispositio cinauc episcopi; other has Saint Senach, Abbot of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Mac Laisre, Abbot].

609/614/615 - [IA] Luicell (To-Lua) Fota / The Tall Abbot of Clonmacnoise d.

C609 – [JEF] Fiachnae Lurgan emerges intact from an internal war.

610 – [CP] Saint Mellitus, Bishop to the East Saxons, at Council of Rome. 

-

[IA] Neman Abbot of Lismore d.  

-

Dagan, Bishop of Inverdaoile, Wexford, sent to Canterbury to meet Laurentius. 

-

[CP] Saint Columbanus expelled from Burgundy to Bobbio due to controversy over his support for Celtic Easter and tonsure. 

-

[CP] Phocas Emperor of the East overthrown and killed by Heraclius [to 641].  

C610 - Selyf / Selim / Soloman Sarffgadau / Battle Serpent ap Cynan Garwyn becomes King of Powys [PCB b 550; TMC has Selim ap Cinan king 613]. 

-

Erb ap Erbic ap Meurig King of Gwent d succeeded by first son Nynnio ap Erbas King of Gwent and Glywyssing and second son Pebiaw Gladrog/ Peibio Claforg / The Leprous ap Erb [see 575-585] as King of Ergyng [other has C555 Erb King of Gwent d? succeeded by Meurig II; Chadwick has King Pebiaw of Ercyng / Erging / Archenfield born C520, married to daughter of Constantine King of Dumnonia [530-560], who joins with Pebiaw in granting land to Saint Dyfrig; Llandaff Charters have 595 Peibio King of Ergyng; PCB has Nynnio successor to Tewdrig king and martyr and Peibio ab Erb, King of Ercyng, b 525].

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Bellimoor monastery first mentioned in Llandaff charters.  

-

Glastonbury Abbey new building commenced. [GA] Irish saints enshrined there were Indracht, Patrick and Bridget.  

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Saint Cronan founds Roscrea Abbey.

C610–615 –?Vita Samsonis written at Dol [JM has C or pre 600].

C610-630 – Cynwidion falls to Mercia.

611 – [CP] King Ceolwulf of West Saxons d succeeded by Cynegils [WSK has king 611-643].

611-623/628 - Suibne Menn / Suibne mac Fiachnai High King of Ireland [other has Suibne Menn mac Fiachnai King of Ailech kills High King Máel Coba mac Áedo to become High King].  

-

[IA has 615] Diarmait 3rd Abbot of Clonard d. 

612 – Theuderic II King of Burgundy defeats and has killed Theudebert II of Austrasia and takes his lands.

612/613/615 - [IA] Fintan of Antrim Abbot of Bangor d.

C612 – Cyndrwyn Glast King of Dogfeilion and Glastenning d succeeded by Morfael ap Cyndrwyn / Morfael ap Glast in Glastenning and as sub-king of Caer Luit Coyt within Pengwern [AC has 612 Conthigirni obitus et dibric episcopi; other has 610 Cyndrwyn Glas / The Blue ap Einaw King of Dogfeilion and Glastenning d succeeded by son Glast ap Cyndrwyn; other has by 613 Cyndrwyn Fawr / The Great / The Stubborn King of Pengwern / Viroconium / Caer Guriconand his brother Constantine King of Caer Magni / Kenchester. Morfael ap Glast, third brother, King of Glastenning in Letocetum / Caer Luit Coyt / Wall in eastern Pengwern].

613 – Abbey Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul consecrated by Archbishop Saint Laurence in Durnovaria / Canterbury and body of Saint Augustine moved into it.  

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Brunhild Queen of the Franks d.  Sigbert / Sigebert / Sigisbert II, illegitimate son of Theuderic II, King of Metz & Reims / Austrasia and Orleans / Burgundy, his brother Corbo and his mother, Brunhilda are handed to Clotaire / Clothar II, King of Soissons / Neustria, who executes them and unites Kingdom of the Franks. 

C613 – Ribchester / Caer Robais and South Rheged fall to the Bernicians.  

613-617 – [CP] Saint Edwin, Prince of Deira, later King of Northumbria, exiled at court of Redwald, King of the East Angles.

614 – Cynegils and Cwichelm kill 2,065 Welsh at Beandun /Bea’s Mount [Cooper says Brean Down].  

​-

Bishop Justus of Rochester and Abbot Peter of Saint Augustine’s attend Paris Council.

C614 – Rhydderch Hael / Rhydderch Hen / Rederech the Generous King of Alt Clut, patron of Saint Kentigern at Whithorn and Glasgow d succeeded by son Constantine and later post 614 by nephew Neithon, ? Nechtan II the Great, Pict, nepos Uerb, son of Guipno/ Canumap Dumnagual Hen [Ellis has 612; MA has fl 590-630, son of Gwyddno Long Shanks, son of Cawrdaf, son of Garwynwyn, son of Dumnagual Hen; other has C612 Neithon / Nechtan / Nwython becomes King of Alt Clut; WSK has Constantine King C600; JM has C600 Riderch / Rhydderch King of Alt Clut d; PCB has Constantine b 570]. 

-

Princess Saint Hilda of Deirarefugee at court of King Certic / Ceretic / Ceredig ap Gwallog of Elmet, son of King Gwallog ap Llaennog / Marchog Trin/ Battle Horseman.  

615 - [CP] Saint Columbanus d at Bobbio.  

-

[CP] Saint Adeodatus I (Deusdedit) Pope (to 618); first to use lead seals (that became Papal Bulls).

Pre 615 – Peibio King of Ergyng d succeeded by Cynfyn.

C615 - Arthur map Petr King of Dyfed d succeeded by Nowy / Noe ab Arthur / Nennue / Neuue / Naee / Nouguy Hen / The Old, also as King of Brycheiniog [other has 625; MA has fl 600-630 successor to Artuir; PCB has b 580, father of Gwlyddien].  

-

King Eltat / Eldad / Elaed ap Eldoc ap Pawl of Buellt and Gwerthrynion dies, succeeded by Moriud / Morwd / Morudd ap Elaed[MA hasC 600-620fl Morvo successor of Elaed King of Buellt and Gwerthrynion; PCB has b 630, father of Gwyddaint]. 

-

Garway monastery first mentioned in Llandaff charters. 

 

Post 615 – Cynfyn King of Ergyng d succeeded by usurper Gwrfodddw.

 

615-616 – [CP] King Aethelfrith of Bernicia defeats British at Caer Legion / Carlegion / Chester, led by Scrocmail / Scrocmagil / Brocmail [others have 605; ASC has 606/610/613; AC and JM have 613; Hunter-Blair has just before 615; WSK has C615 and C616; JEL has C615; TMC has 615 or early 616].  He kills 1,200 / 2,000 priests / monks of Bangor–is-y-Coed / Bancornaburg / Bangor-on-Dee monastery ruled by Abbot Dinoot, [JEL] supposedly guarded by Brochwel / Brochmail, who flees.  The monastery is destroyed [IA has 611/616/617 Bangor burnt; also 632 interpolation Combustio Bennchoir Moer/ Great Bangor in Britannia].  The British Kings are led by King Selyf / Solomon ap Cynan Garwyn / of the White Car / White Shanks ap Brochfael / Brochwel Ysgthrog / of the Tusks King of Powys allied with King Cearl of Mercia.  British allies at the battle included Cyndrwyn Fawr / the Great / the Stubborn King of Pengwern / Viroconium / Caer Guricon [PCB has b 535 prince of Powys]. [IA 613/614 has Caer Legion Solon mac Conain rex Bretanorum et Cetula rex Etalfraid victor, qui post statim obit; AC has 613 Gueith cair legion et ibi cecidit selim filii cinan. Et iacob filii beli dormitatio.  Tigernach has 613 Et Cetula rex cecidit.  Etalfraidh victor erat, qui post statim obit. 

-

[CP] Prince Saint Edwin of Deira flees to East Anglia where he mets Saint Paulinus who has converted King Raedwald.

King Selyf is buried in Saint Tysilio at Meifod, which becomes Powys royal family mausoleum. Manwgan ap Selyf, new infant King of Powys, usurped by Elfan / Eiludd ap Glas / Eiludd Powys King of Dogfeilion, so Powys independence lost [MA has fl 600-620 Eiludd successor to Cynan / Of the White Chariot King of Powys; other has Gwynedd loses Chester / Caerlleon and its area to Bernicians.  Gwynedd capital moves from Chester to Deganwy].

Bledric ap Custennin, King of Dumnonia, also d at the Battle of Bangor-is-Coed shortly after the Battle of Chester succeeded as King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint by son Clement ap Bledric [MA has fl 615 Tewdr successor to Peredur King of Dumnonia; other has 614 King Cynegils and Cwichelm of Wessex defeat King Clemen of Dumnonia / Dyfneint at Beandun / Bea’s Mount / ?Bindon near Axmouth, putting Wessex in control of Roman port of Axmouth [Storr has Cynegils of Wessex, with his successor Cwichelm, fight the British at Beandun / Bampton on the Thames, ‘killing 2,046’].

King Iago ap Beli of Gwynedd dies in sleep,  or by an axe, or goes to a monastery, succeeded by son, Catamanus / Cadvan / Cadfan ap Iago, High King, claimant to Elmet and Deira [MA has fl 620-666, successor to Iago as 8th King of Gwynedd; JM has 614-C625; PCB has b 565, father of Cadwallon].

[CP] 3rd Bretwalda King Aethelberht I of Kent d succeeded by pagan Eadbald, who mints scillings [Ellis and WSK have , with Eadbald King to 640]. 

King Agilulf of the Lombards d succeeded by son Adaloald.

 

616 – [Yeates quoting Colgrave & Mynors] King Aethelbert of Kent rules South Saxons, East Saxons, East Angles and Northumbrians.

616-617 – Raedwald King of East Angles, 4th Bretwalda, kills King Aethelfrith of Northumbriaat River Idle, Nottingham [CP has 616 or 617, quoting ASC in support of latter; WSK has 617; JR has 616; JEL has 616; JEF has 616; TMC has 616]. Raedwald assists Saint Edwin / Edguin son of Aelle King of Deira to take Northumbrian throne, later to be 5th Bretwalda [WSK has 617-633].  Aethelfrith’s sons (Eanfrid, Oswald, Oswin, Oslac / Osguid/ Oswith, Oswudu, Oslaf & Offa) flee to Pictish and Irish lands [JEF to Corcu Reti and/ or to Antrim, starting at Aedan’s capital Dunaverty?].  [CP] Eanfrith / Anfrith marries a Pictish princess and became father of King Talorcan son of Anfrith. Prince Oswald, son of Aethelfrith, with brother Oswiu and sister Aebbe, takes refuge in Iona and both are baptized [JEF has Oswald in Argyll, Eanfled in Pictland 616; Storr has Angles build Roman Bank at Bawtry on the Lindum / Danum / Doncaster road and the Great North Road crossing of the River Idle]. 

-

[CP] King Saebert / Saeberht of Essex d [WSK has 616/617], succeeded by Sexred, joint King with Saeward [Ellis says 3 kings; see 617], who revert to paganism and are both killed this year by Cynegils and Cwichelm, Kings of the West Saxons. 

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[IA] Petran Bishop of Lusk d. 

 

616-620 - Nechtan King of the Picts and Alt Clut founds Abernethy with Irish nuns.

 

617– [JEF] Battle of Fidnach in riaddai; Kingship of Corcu Reti passes from Eochaid Buide to Connadd Cerr? [other has Eochaid Buide King 608-620].

​-

[WSK] Hereri, nephew of King Saint Edwin and father of Saint Hilda, poisoned at court of Ceredig King of Elmet.   Elmet / Silva Elmete in Loidis falls to the Northumbrians, who expel its King Certic / Ceretic / Ceredig ap Gwallog [other has C616; IA and AC for have 617 .  Ellis has Saint Edwin doing this in 624-625, driving out its last king, Ceretic / Caradoc; JEF has 615; TMC has king 616].

Sexred and Saeward Joint Kings of East Saxons (other has Sigeberht the Little King of East Saxons) expel Bishop Saint Mellitus who flees to Gaul.  

-

Bishop Saint Justus expelled from Rochester and flees to Gaul.  

-

Saint Laurentius converts King Eadbald of Kentand saves the mission [other has 616 King Eadbald gives land to Christ Church Cathedral, Canterbury].  

-

[Ellis] Slaughter of Donnan and fellow monks on Eigg [other has 618 Saint Donnan the Great and 52/150 of his community killed by pirates / Northern Picts at monastery he founded on Isle of Eigg; WSK has 617].  

-

Saint Méen / Mevennus / Meven of Brittany, founder of Abbey of Saint John the Baptist, later named Abbey of St-Méen or Saint-Méon at Gael d.  

 

C617– King Saint Edwin drains flooded areas of York [AC for 617 has Et guin incipit regnareo.]  

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Sigbert Parvus / the Little / Sigeberht the Little son of Saeward, who was slain in battle against forces from Wessex, becomes King of Essex.

 

617/618/619 - [IA] Bishop Comgall and Eogan Bishop of Rashee (Ardstraw) d [JM has 605 Saint Comgall d].

 

617-619 - [JM] raiders from Iardomnan / western lands ravage Ireland.

 

617-622 – Guaire Aidne King of Connacht.

 

618 – Abbot John of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury d succeeded by monk Rufinianus. 

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[IA] Destruction of Macha (Armagh). Fíngen mac Áedo Duib King of the Eoganachta in Munster (from the Eóganacht Chaisil branch) d.  

-

Aedh I Bennán mac Crimthainn King of Iarmuman in west Munster d.  

-

[CP] Death of Pope Deusdedit. 

 

619 – Gwrfoddw King of Ergung d succeeded by Gwrgan Fawr.

-

[CP & WSK] Saint Laurentius / Laurence Archbishop of Canterbury d succeeded by Saint Mellitus [WSK has Archbishop 619-624]. 

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Saint Paulinus covers wattle of Glastonbury with planks.  

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[DOC and JM Fingen mac Aedo of Eoganacht Chaisil, King of Munster d. 

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[JM] Cathal mac Aeda becomes King of Leinster (to 628). 

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[CP] Boniface V Pope (to 625). 

619-624 – [CP] Pope Boniface V writes letters to Saints Mellitus and Justus encouraging them to persevere.

620 - [IA; Chambers] Arthur ap Bicuir, a British prince, kills Ulster chief Mongan in Caledonia.

C620 – Irish settle in the Shetlands.  

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Isaag / Isaac ap Einion King of Dunoding d succeeded by Pobien / Podgen Hen / The Old ap Isaag/ Isaac [MA has fl 620-660 Pobien successor to Isaac King of Dunoding; PCB has b 600 father of Pobddelw].  

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King Idwallon ap Llywarch of Brycheiniog d succeeded by Rhiwallon ap Idwallon, last male descendent of Brychen [MA has fl 600-620 Rhiwallon successor of Idwallon King of Brycheiniog’ PCB has b 570 father of Ceindrech the mother of Cathen ap Gwlyddien of Dyfed].  

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Nynnio ap Erb King of Gwent and Glywyssing d succeeded by Llywarch ap Nynnio[MA has fl C550-580 Llywarch / Teithfall successor to Nynnio as King of Gwent; PCB has b 550 father of Tewdrig, king and martyr].

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Llandaff charters have 620 Gwrgan ap Cinuin ?King [?prince] of Ergyng [PCB has b 580 mentioned in two charters in time of Bishop Inabwy. Sons Morgan and Caradog]. 

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Llandaff Charters first mention abbots of Bellimoor, Caerwent, Dewchurch, Garway, Llancarfan, Llandogo, Llandough, Llantwit, Moccas, Saint Michael’s, Welsh Bicknor, Lancaut, Dixton, Foy, Doward and Sellack.  Ballingham, Llanloudy and Llancillo monasteries. 

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Daniel Unua succeeds Iahann Reith as King of Cornouaille ‘King of Brittany’.  

 

From C620 - English gold coins produced, thrymsas. 

 

C620–660 - [MA] fl Idgwyn / Iddon / Idwm / Ytigoy successor to Cadwal Crysban King of Rhos [PCB has b 590 father of Einion].  

 

621 [other has C616] - Nechtan the Great / Nechtan meb Guipno, King of the Picts, nepos Uerb, son of Guipno/ Canumap Dumnagual Hen, King of Alt Clutd [other has 621 Pictish King Nechtan d; WSK has Nechtan d 621 succeeded as King of the Picts by Ciniath mac Luthrenn / Cinioch filius Lutrin/ Cinedon filius Lugthreni/ Ciniod king 621-631; JEF has Verturian King 614-633 and says house of Guipno was related to house of Clinoch in Miaitian territory Clyde-Strathearn, and that Guipno is Uepogenus/ Fife-born].

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[JM] Death of Aed Brennan mac Crimthann, King of West Munster.

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Death of Saint Malo / Maclou / Mac'h Low / Maclovius/ Machutus.  

 

C621- Bili / Beli ap Neithon ap Gwyddno / Beli meb Nwython / Neithin / son of Nechtan becomes King of Alt Clut; Beli marries a daughter of King Saint Edwin / Edwini; other has 625; WSK has C625; PCB has b 570 father of Owain and – as Bile – father of Brude, King of the Picts 672-693.  Beli married sister of Talargan, King of the Picts 653-657]. 

 

622 - Domnall Brecc, later King of Dal Riata, on winning side at Battle of Cend Delgthen in Ireland [JEF has Domnall Brecc in internal war in southern Ui Neill kingdom of Meath 624].

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Colmán mac Cobthaig King of Connacht slain by his successor [DOC] Rogallach mac Uatach of the Ui Briuin (to 649) at Battle of Cennbag / Cambo.  

 

622/623/624 - [IA] Mac Laisre Abbot and Bishop of Armagh and Finnia Abbot of Ner d [other has 623 Saint Mac Laisre, Abbot of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Tómméne / Tommine, Bishop; JEF has 625 death of Uineus Abbot of Ner].

 

Pre 623 [other has 628] Suibne Menn mac Fiachnai King of Ailech, High King killed by the king of Ulster, Congal Cáech.

 

623 - Fergno / Virgno Britt mac Faílbi fourth Abbot of Iona d [IA has 622/623/624 Fergna Brit Abbot of Iona d], succeeded by Ségéne mac Fiachnaí [JEF has 625; CP has Segene / Seghine becomes Abbot of Iona; WSK has abbot 623-652].  

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Fiachna mac Baetan King of Ulster destroys Raith Guaili / the Fort of Guaille of Aed Bole King of Munster. 

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[DOC] Fiachnae mac Baetan of the Dal Riata, over King of Ulster, attacks Bamburgh, ?expugnatio Ratho Guali; [JEF has Bamburgh / Din Guaire attacked by Fiachnae Longshanks? 625].  

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Dagobert I made King of Austrasia by his father Clothar II, King of the Franks, who retains Neustria and Burgundy.

 

Post 623 - Oswald / Oswalt fights with Dal Riadans in Ireland for Ulster King Congall Caech against Domnall Mac Aedh of the Ui Neill.

 

624 – King Cadfan of Gwynedd d [LA has 625; stone at Llangadwaladr Church, Anglesey: ‘Catamanus rex sapientis(s)imus opinatis(s)imus omnium regum’ [Chadwick has fl 625; WSK has C625; JM has C625; JEL has it that he claimed the hereditary title gwledig]. Cadwallon / [Bede; JEL says influenced by Wessex Caedwalla] Caedualla ap Cadfan, grandson of Iago, becomes King of Gwynedd [MA has fl 650-690 but d 634, successor to Cadfan as 9th King of Gwynedd; other has 625 King Cadfan ap Iago of Gwynedd d buried at Llangadwaladar / Cadwaladar’s Church on Anglesey, mausoleum of the Kings of Gwynedd, succeeded by son Cadwallon ap Cadfan / Cadwallo, High King; JM has C625-634; PCB has d 634 father of Cadwaladr].  

-

Saint Mellitus Archbishop of Canterbury d succeeded by Saint Justus [WSK has Archbishop 624-627], who consecrates Romanus at Rochester. 

-

King Eadbald of Kent founds Church of Saint Mary in Durnovaria / Canterbury which becomes burial place of royal family of Kent.  

-

Rónán mac Colmáin King of Leinster d.  

-

Eastern Empire’s province of Spania (except for Balearic isles) extinguished by Visigoth King Suinthila.  

-

Pepin I Mayor of the Palace of the Franks.  

 

624/625 - [IA] Colman Stellan Abbot of Terryglass d. 

 

624-639/642 - Domnall mac Áedo / Domnall II High King of Ireland.

 

Pre 625/627 – King Raedwald of East Anglia, 4th Bretwalda d, succeeded by Eorpwald [MH has 624/625; other has 625].  Sutton Hoo burial includes 40 Merovingian gold tremisses.  

 

625 – King Saint Edwin of Northumbria invades Lindsey. [WSK] King Saint Edwin of Northumbria marries Saint Aethelburgh / Aethelburh, daughter of King Aethelberht of Kent. She brings Saint Paulinus, [CP] consecrated by Archbishop Justus, as her chaplain to York [WSK has C625; other has 619? Saint Paulinus goes to Deira].  

-

[CP] Romanus Bishop of Rochester drowns [other has C624 – Romanus Bishop of Rochester d].   

-

Honorius I Pope (declared heretic at Third Council of Constantinople in 680; to 638). 

-

King Adaloald of Lombards deposed by Arioald.

 

C625 - Llywarch ap Nynnio King of Gwent and Glywyssing d succeeded by Saint Tewdrig ap Llywarch / Theoderic [MA has fl 575-605; Llandaff charters have Athrws King of Gwent; PCB has king and martyr b 575].  

-

Llandogo, Llanddowror, Llandeilo Fawr, and Penally monasteries first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.  

-

?Northern History in Nennius started by Rhun of Rheged [or 635].

 

626 – [CP and WSK] King Cuichelm joint King of West Saxons sends assassin Eumer to kill King Saint Edwin of Northumbria but fails when thegn Lilla intervenes and is killed in his place.  King Saint Edwin lays waste his lands and kills five kings there. 

-

[ASC and CP] King Cearl of Mercia d succeeded by Penda, grandson of Creoda [WSK has king C626-655].  

-

[CP] Rufinianus, Abbot of SS. Peter and Paul, Canterbury d succeeded by Graciosus.  

-

[DOC] Fiachnae mac Baetan of the Dal Riata, over-King of Ulster replaced by Fiachnae Demmain of the Dal Fiatach [JEF has 627 Mongan mac Fiachnae Fiachnae Lurgan / Longshanks mac Baetan mac Eochaid, King of Ulster / Uliad / Ui Choelbad killed in Islay [home to the Cenel nOengusso] by British / Pictish force from Kintyre; Carney in DOC has Mongan son of Fiachnae Lurgan, King of the Ulaid, who d 626, d 625].   

 

626–637 - Congal Cáech / Congal Cláen, King of the Cruithne of Dál nAraidi, King of Tara (?High King of Ireland).

 

627 – [CP] King Saint Edwin of Northumbria baptised by Saint Paulinus in York / Eorforwic [AC has 626 Etguin baptizatus est et run filius urbgen baptizauit eum: IA has 627; WSK and JR have 627; JEF has Run son of Urbgen attends; TMC has 627].  

-

Church of Saint Peter, York, made Saint Paulinus’s seat.  Start of first York Minster by Saint Paulinus.  

-

Elmet formally incorporated into Northumbria.  Saint Paulinus mission to Lindsey [other has 628; other has 625 Paulinus received by the Praefectus / Prefect of Lindum / Lincoln; other has 627 Paulinus converts Blecca, Praefectus / Reeve of Lindsey / Lincoln; CP has 627-631]. 

-

[WSK] Saint Justus Archbishop of Canterbury d succeeded by Saint Honorius of Canterbury, who goes to Lindsey to be consecrated by Saint Paulinus. 

-

[JM] Aedan of Ferns d.  

-

Cathal mac Áedo Flaind Chathrach King of the Eoganachta in Munster (from the Eóganacht Chaisil branch) d. 

-

[DOC] Fiachnae mac Demmain of the Dal Fiatach nephew of Baetan mac Carrill slain by Dal Riata. [other has Connad Cerr / Left-handed mac Conall / Comgall named Joint King of Dal Riata when victor over Fiachnae mac Demmáin, king of the Ulaid at Ard Corann in Ireland; other has Fiachnae mac Demmáin / Fiachnae Dubtuinne King of Ulster / Ulaid slain by the King of Dalriada, Connad Cerr / Left-handed at the Battle of Ard Corainn.  [JEF] has Connad wins at Ard Corad and ? becomes King of Ulster, with ? Oswald present. 

-

[DOC] King Crundmael Bold Luatha of the south Leinster Ui Cennselaig besieged by the Ui Neill.  

-

[DOC] Failbe Fland Feimin of the Eoganacht Chaisil, King of Munster, defeats Guaire Aidni, King of Connacht, at Battle of Carn Feradaig, Cahernarry, Limerick [or 629].

 

C627 – [JEL] King Edwin of Northumbria invades Gwynedd and ejects King Cadwallon. Prince Belyn of Gwynnedd / Melyn ap Cynfelyn resists King Saint Edwin of Northumbria at Bryn Edwin / Bryn yr Odyn and Erethlyn neat Eglwys Fach, both in Rhos and is killed in the LlynPeninsula. [AC has 627 Belin moritur; TMC has Belin King of Allt Clud / Alclud in 627; PCB has d? 628; Storr has Edwin builds Nico Ditch around Mamucium / Manchester].

 

627- 628 – [CP] King Eorpwald / Earpwald of East Angles converted, then murdered by Ricberht, who succeeds him. 

 

628 - Kings Cynegils and Cwichelm of West Saxons fight King Penda of Mercia at Cirencester and come to agreement [WSK has 628].  

-

Hwicce dominated by Mercia.  

-

[JM] Failbe becomes King of Munster [to 639]. 

-

[JEF] Fiachnae Fiachnae Lurgan / Longshanks mac Baetan mac Eochaid, King of Ulster / Uliad / Ui Choelbad, slain by Fiachnae mac Demmain / Demmann, King of Dal Fiatach, succeeded by Congal Caech to 639 [other has 626 Fiachnae mac Báetáin / Fiachnae Lurgan King of Ulster / Ulaid killed at the Battle of Leithet Midind by his successor Fiachnae mac Demmáin / Fiachnae Dubtuinne].

-

[DOC] King Faelan mac Colmain, rex Laegen, of the north Leinster Ui Dunlainge kills King Crundmael Bold Luatha of the south Leinster Ui Cennselaig. 

-

Ui Neill High King Domnall, son of Aed mac Ainmerech, invades Leinster, vastatio Lagen. 

-

[DOC] Cathal mac Aedo of Eoganacht Glendamnach, King of Munster d.

 

629 – [WSK] Eochaid Buide and Connad Cerr d.  AU calls Eochaid Buide King of the Picts.  Eochaid Buide / Eochaid mac Áedáin King of Dal Riata d preceded by his Joint King Connad Cerr /Left-handed / Connad mac Conaill, defeated and killed in battle at Fid Eóin by Congal Cáech, King of Ulster / Ulaid [JEF has Eochaid Buide d 631 and Connad slain at Fid Euin in 631; DOC has Cruthin defeat Dal Riata at Battle of Fid Eoin, killing King Connad Cerr, two grandsons of Aedan mac Gabrain and two princes of Bernicia]. 

-

Domnall Brecc becomes King of Dal Riada with Joint King Ferchar mac Connad / Connaid; WSK has Domnall Brecc King 629-642 [JEF has Ferchar son of Connad becomes King of Corcu Reti 639 and Domnall Brecc slain in 642].  

-

Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib King of the Eoganachta in Munster defeats Connacht at Battle of Carn Ferradaig. 

-

[DOC] Ui Neill defeat the Dal nAraidi under Congal Clain at the Battle of Dun Ceithernn. 

-

Chlothar II, earlier King of Neustria, from 613 King of the Franks d succeeded by Dagobert I [to 634], who appoints Charibert II King of Aquitaine [to 632]. [Other has 629-632 Clothar II, King of Neustria and Burgundy d.  Dagobert becomes King of the Franks [to 639].  

 

629-632 – King Saint Edwin of Northumbria besieges King Cadwallon of Gwynedd on Glanauc / Priestholme / Puffin Island or Ynys Seiriol / Island of Saint Seiriol off Anglesey and Cadwallon escapes to Ireland. Cadwallon is hemmed in on the island of Priestholm / Ynys Lannog off Anglesey and escapes to Ireland. [IA interpolation and AC have Obsessio Catguollan Regis in insula Glannauc; CP has ?632; TMC has Catguollaun King of Gwynedd 631].  King Saint Edwin goes on to take Anglesey and the Isle of Man [CP says 630; JEL has Edwin tales Mona / Mon / Anglesey and Mevania / Isle of Man]. 

 

630 – Áed Dub mac Colmáin / Áed(h) of Kildare ex-King of Leinster becomes Bishop of Kildare.  

-

Máel Fithrich mac Áedo Uaridnach King of Ailech d. 

-

[CP] 1st South Irish synod, Synod of Irish bishops and abbots at Magh Lene considers date of Easter. 

 

C630 -  Arthlwys King of Ceredigion  succeeded by Clydog ap Arthlwys [MA has fl 680-720, so grandson of Arthlwys; PCB has b 650 father of Seisyll].  

-

Cloten / Clothen / Eliothen / Gwlyddien successor of Nowy as King of Dyfed [MA has fl 625-655; PCB has b 600 father of Cathen].  

-

Pebiaw Gladrog / Peibio Claforg / The Leprous ap Erb King of Ergyng d succeeded by Gurcantus Magnus / Gwrgant / Gwrgan Mawr / Fawr / the Great [other has has 570 Glywys becomes King of Ergyng; other has 550 Peibio Clafrog King of Ergyng d succeeded by Gwrgan Fawr / the Great who obtains sway over Glamorgan as far as the River Neath; MA has fl C550-580 Cynfyn and Gwrgan, successors to Peibio King of Ercyng.  PCB has b 580 father of Onbrawst, wife of Meurig II ap Tewdrig; may be Gwrgan ap Cynfyn].  

-

Major English raid on Gwent.  

_

? King Ricberht of East Angles d succeeded by Sigeberht / Sigbert ? son of Raedwald, ruling jointly with Ecgric [other has 629; CP has 630-631; WSK has king 630/631-635].  

-

Verulamium / Caer Mincip / Saint Albans falls to Mercia.

-

Crondall hoard contains 69 English tremisses.

-

Clement ap Bledric King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint d succeeded by son Petroc Baladrddellt ap Clemen [MA has fl 585-615 Peredur successor to Cadwy King of Dumnonia].

-

Some major Roman buildings remain occupied in Isca Dumnonorum / Caer Uisc / Exeter.

 

630-631– Bishop Saint Felix of Burgundy, called by King Sigbert / Sigeberht of East Angles, who had been baptised in exile by Columbanus, commences mission to East Angles at Soham then is translated to Dunwich.  

-

[CP] Sigeberht invites Fursa / Fursey of Loch Corrib from Ireland, with Foillan, Ultan, Gobban and Diciul and gives them lands at Burgh Castle [other has 633 Saint Fursey / Fursa / Fursy / Forseus / Furseus, grandson of Finlog King of Connacht, leaves Inisquin and takes party including brothers Bishop Saint Foillan / Faelan / Faolan / Foelan / Foalan and Ultan to East Anglia, carrying relics of Bishops Saints Medlan and Beoan].

 

630-633 – [CP] Southern Irish accept Roman date for Easter.

 

630s – Sustained production of Anglo-Saxon gold scillingas (thrymsas) commences.

 

631 – [JEF] Eichaid Buide, King of Kintyre / Dal Riata d three months before the death at Battle of Fid Euin / Birdwood of King Connad Cerr of the Corcu Reti / Dal Riata, with: Rigullon, son of Conaing, brother of Eochaid Buide; Faelbe, son of Eochaid Buide, ?King of Kintyre; Dicuill, King of Larne, Antrim, part of the Cruithian nation Dal nAraidi; and a Saxon prince Osiric mac Albruit [but this was Osric of deiura who died in 634].  Successor was Domnall Brecc, son of Eochaid Buide, 631-643.  The victor at Fid Euin was a brother of Congal Caech / One-eye, King of the Ui Choelbad; grandsons of Fiachnae Longshanks.  Congal was King of Ulster after Fid Euin, and had killed the northern Ui Neill king of the Cenel nEogain, annexing Corcu Reti lands in Mag nEilni. Congal is then defeated at Battle of Dun Ceithirn by new King of Ailech, Domnall son of Aed. 

-

[CP] Irish deputation in Rome for advice on Easter.  

-

[CP] Letter of Pope Honorius to the Irish [CP has 629-634]. 

-

King Charibert II of the Franks d succeeded by Dagobert I, King of Austrasia.

 

631/633 - [IA interpolation] Cinaed mac Luchtren King of the Picts, King of Alba d [WSK has succeeded by Gartnait son of Foth / Garnard filius Uuid / Gwidking 631-635; JEF has Ciniod, Verturian King, dies 633].

 

632 - Dumnonia defends Exeter against King Penda of Mercia, rescued by King Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd who has come via Guernsey. 

-

Dagobert I, King of the Franks, makes his son Sigibert III King of Austrasia.  Dagobert assassinates half-brother Charibert and his son Chilperic and takes full control of Aquitaine.  He later forces Iudicael, High King, King of Dumnonia and Bro Erech, to his court to submit. 

632/633 – [IA interpolation] Strages Sabrinae Iudris King of the Britons.

-

[CP] 2nd Southern Irish Synod and southern Irish go over to Roman Easter. Abbot Cummian of Durrow writes unsuccessfully to Abbot Segene / Seghene Abbot of Iona to persuade him of Roman Easter [CP, WSK and Chadwick have 632-633] after Synod of Mag-Lena in Offaly held with Bishop Ailbe (coarb of Imblech-Ibair), Ciaran Abbot of Clonmacnoise, Brendan, Nessan, Lugid (Mo-Lua, patron saint of Clonferta-Molua / Clonfertamulloe / Kyle in Leix; other has 633 Synod of Mag-Ailbe near Slievemargy, at which Laisren / Molaisse Abbot of Leighlin / Leithglin advocates Roman Easter and Fintan / Munnu Abbot of Taghmon the Celtic rite].

 

633 – [JEL] has King Cadwallon of Gwynedd allies with King Penda of Mercia and marries his sister. 

-

[AC, CP, WSK] King Saint Edwin of Northumbria and his son Osfrith / Osfrid [AC and a second son] killed by Cadwallon, King of Gwynydd & High King of the Britains and Penda King of Mercia at Hatfield Chase / Gwaith Meigen / Meicen near Doncaster [JM has 633; WSK and JR have 633; Maund 633/634; LA has 632/633 and says Meicen was Meigen on borders of Powys, Hatfield in the north; Bede has 633; JEL has 633; JEF has 633; TMC has 633; Bede his second son Eadfrith captured and killed by Penda; IA interpolations have 632 Edwin mac Alli King of the Saxons d; 630/633 Meicen / Haethfelth Edwin killed by Catawallaun and Penda; et combustio (canis priami); AC has 630 gueith meicen et ibi interfectus est etguin cum duobus filiis suis. Catguollaun autem uictor fuit. Storr has Edwin builds two lines of Roman Ridge along valley of River Don]. 

-

King Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd sacks York and Northumbria laid waste.  

-

Queen Saint Aethelburh / Ethelberg / Ethelburga and Saint Paulinus flee to Kent where latter is consecrated Bishop of Rochester; [CP] they leave James the Deacon, but the church in York falls into decay.  She founds monastery at Limninge / Liming [LA has post 633 Church of Saint Mary’s, Lyminge, founded].  

-

[CP] Eanfrith / Eanfrid son of Ethelfrith returns to succeed to throne of Northumbria. 

-

[CP] Lindsey taken by Penda of Mercia. 

-

King Eorpwald of East Anglia baptised. 

-

[DOC] Crimthann mac Áedo Dibchine Ui Mail King of Leinster slain by an alliance including the Kings of Mide, Conall mac Suibne of the Ui Neill, Failbe Fland King of Munster and Faelan mac Colmain Ui Dunlainge of north Leinster at Battle of Áth Goan in western Liffey, succeeded as King of Leinster by Fáelán mac Colmáin.  

-

[WSK] Irish cleric Ernene mac Crasen visits Iona and meets Failbe mac Pipan.  

-

British church in Galicia accepts Latin rite at fourth Council of Toledo.  

 

C633 – Eugenius / Eugein / Ywain / Hoah / Owen / Owain meb / map / ap Beli / Bile King of the Picts becomes King of Alt Clut [JEF has Eugein fl 643; PCB has b 600 father of Elffin, half-brother of Brude King of the Picts].  

 

634 – [CP] King Eanfrith / Eanfrid of Northumbria killed by King Cadwallon of Gwynedd when he goes to him to make peace.  [IA Battle of Cadwallon and Anfraith qui decollatus est; Ellis has by Osric King of Deira].    

-

Osric, cousin of Saint Edwin, succeeds to Deira and Oswald[JEL who had lapsed to paganism]brother of Eanfridto Bernicia [WSK has 634-642; JEF has Osric son of Yffi rules Deira 633-634]. 

-

[CP] King Osric of Deira killed [other 633; IA interpolation has 629/631 Osric mac Albruit / Aethelferth (heir to the throne of the Saxons) d]. Oswald Lamnguin / Bright Sword (nephew of Aethelfrith and Eanfled] succeeds as King of Northumbria.   

-

[JEF] Oswald captures Deira ?639 after besieging King Cadwallon of Gwynedd.  [JEL suggests York. Storr has Oswald build King Lud’s Entrenchments cutting the Viking Way and Washdike Lane cutting Ermine Street protecting Lindsey from the south].

-

[CP] King Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd / Catlon Britonum rex fortissimus/ Caedualla rex Brettonum / Cathluan son of Gub / Caitmind / ? Catguollan Liu / the Plough, son of Guitcun, son of Samuil, son of Pappo, son of Ceneu, defeated in battle near Hadrian’s Wall by Oswald of Northumbria at Battle of Hefenfelth / Heavenfield / Bellum Catscaul / Cantscaul / Cad-y-gual / Battle within the Wall near Hexham and killed at Deniseburn / Denis’s Brook, Oswald having had a vision of Colmcille [JEL says that Oswald erected a cross at his camp at Hefenfelth and marched at night to defeat Cadwallon in a surprise dawn attack at Denisesburna on the Rowley Water; JEF calls this the Battle of Hexham 634; JEF suggests this may have been Catguollaun Liu of the House of Ceneu, kinsman of Guallauc, rebel against Edwini; [IA interpolation has 631/634 Cantscaul / Hefenfelth / Deniseburn Oswald killed Catwallaun; AC has 631 Bellum cantscaul inquo catguollaun corruit].

-

[CP] ? Lindsey passes back to Oswald of Northumbria.

-

Saint Aebbe, sister of King Oswald becomes Abbess of Coldingham. 

-

Cadwallon the penultimate High King of Britain, succeeded by Cadafael ap Cynfeddw /Cadafael Cadomedd / Battle-Seizer / Battle-Decliner, Saint Cadwaladr Fendigaid, Cadwallon’s son being too young. Cadafael remains in alliance with Penda King of Mercia [PCB has Cadafael not of the stock of Maelgwn].  

-

[ASC and CP] Bishop Saint Birinus / Berin / Birin arrives in West Saxons, builds cathedral at Dorchester [other has 635]. 

-

King Sigebert / Sigeberht of East Angles abdicates to become a monk leaving Ecgricsole ruler, having given Gariannonum / Cnobheresburg / Burgh Castle to Fursey as a monastery, making him Abbot.  -

 

[CP] Saint Paulinus at Rochester receives, too late, the pallium for his previous archbishopric from Pope Honorius, who also writes to the now dead King Saint Edwin ofNorthumbria.  

-

Sigebert III made King of Austrasia by his father Dagobert I, King of the Franks [to 656/660].

-

Arabs take Damascus.

 

634-642 – [CP] plague in Northumbria.

 

635 – Domnall Brecc, King of Dal Riata, defeated by the Picts at Calathros.  

-

[CP] King Oswald of Northumbria requests Segene 4th? Abbot of Iona (kinsman of Lairsan, 3rd Abbot) for a bishop and he sends Colman, who returns a failure. 

-

[CP] Saint Aidan mac Lughar sent from Iona / I-Shona as first Bishop of Ynys Metcaut / Lindisfarne [IA interpolation has 627/632/635 - Inis Metgoit / Medcoit / Medcaut / Lindisfarne founded by Aedan; WSK has 634 and Bishop of Northumbria 634-651, also 635; JEF has Lindisfarne founded 634].  Aedan chooses 12 disciples, including Aebbe, half-sister of Oswald, Oswald’s daughter Elfleda and Hild / Hilda. 

-

Eowa becomes joint King of Mercia.  

-

[ASC & CP] Cynegils Co-King of the West Saxons is baptised. 

 

C635 – [IA] Garnan mac Foith King of the Picts dies [other has 632; WSK has d 635 succeeded by Bruide son of Foth / Breidei filius Uuid king 635-641]. 

-

Idris Gawr King of Meirionydd killed by King Oswald of Northumbria on the Severn succeeded by son Swalda [MA has fl 620-660 Idris successor to Gwyddno King of Meirionydd killed by Arthur in 632? and fl C650-690 Sualda or Yswalt successor to Idris King of Meirionydd [TMC] Iudris King of ? Merioneth 632; PCB has b 630].

-

Haelog ap Iudhael King of Damnonia / Dumnonee dies succeeded by son Judicaël / Saint Iudicael ap Iudhael (or ap Hoel III) who merges Bro Erech with Damnonia and is ‘King of the Bretons’. MA has fl C615-645 Haelog successor to Iuthael King of Domnonie].  Canao II King of Bro Erech dies C640-670.  Kingdom merged with Damnonia under King Judicael.  He founds a monastery at Painpont.  

 

636 – [JM] Domnall King of Dal Riada defeated by Picts [JEF has at Calathros, near or in Lorn, so this may have been by Lorn Gaels].  

-

King Cwichelm of West Saxons baptised in Dorchester and d leaving Cynegils / Cynglis sole ruler.   King Oswald of Northumbria defeats Cynegils in battle and marries his daughter Cynegburga, making condition he accept Christianity or Bishop Birinus converts / baptises King Cynegils of West Saxons / Gewissae, with King Oswald of Northumbria standing as his godfather.  

-

Bishop Felix preaches to East Anglians. 

-

Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib King of the Eoganachta in Munster and allies defeat Leinster at Battle of Áth Goan. 

-

Ernaine mac Fiachnai King of Ailech killed.  

-

King Arioald of the Lombards d succeeded by Rothari.

 

637 – [DOC] Domnall mac Aedo of the southern Ui Neill High King of Irelanddefeats the Ulaid, Congall of the Ui Choelbad, Cruthin King, and Domnall Brecc King of Dal Riada at Battle of Magh / Mag Rath, Moira, County Down, Dal Riada losing Irish mainland lands and the Ui Neill establishing final supremacy in the north over the Ulaid. [JM has 639 Domnall King of Dal Riada defeated by the High King of Ireland at Mag Roth in Ulster; WSK has 637].  [JEF has 639 Congal, king of the Ui Choelbad, ally of Domnall Brecc, killed by Domnall ac Aedo of the northern Ui Neill at plain of Moira / Mag Roth ear lough Neah and Cenel Conaill territory laid waste.  Gartnait son of Vuid d]. 

-

Saint Carthage / Cathac Mochuda of Lismore d. 

-

Congal Cáech / Congal mac Sgánnail / Congal Cláen King of Ulster / Ulaid d. 

-

 Crundmáel mac Suibni Menn King of Ailech with Dal Riata defeated by the Cenél Conaill in the naval Battle of Sailtir. 

-

[DOC] Failbe Fland Feimin of the Eoganacht Chaisil, King of Munster d.

-

Iudicael King of Dumnonia & Bro-Guerech makes lasting peace with Dagobert King of the Franks [other has 635 Judicael agrees treaty with Dagobert King of the Franks establishing Breton frontiers; other has 635 Judicaël / Saint Iudicael ap Iudhael (or ap Hoel III) King of Damnonia and Bro Erech does homage to King Dagobert of the Franks at Clichy.].  

-

Arabs take Jerusalem. 

 

638 – Domnall Brecc King of Dal Riata defeated by the Picts at Glenn Mureson [JEF has 640 at Glend Mureson by ? Gael forces and says Ferchar, son of Connad Cerr of Cowal, becomes king of Dal Riata in 638/639 to 650].  

-

Votadini / Gododdin / Lothian, North Rheged and Carlisle / Caer Ligualid fall to the Bernicians [Ellis says Gododdin falls before 617; Crichton says 640; Ellis has 660 Northumbria attacks Rheged. Kingdom of Rheged absorbed by Northumbria as Prince later King Oswy marries Princess Riemmelth, granddaughter of ? King Run / Rhum of ? Rheged [but see 671; is this of Alt Clut?]. 

-

King Oswald of Northumbria fights Alt Clut at the Battle of Glenn Muiresan and Domnall Brecc, King of Dalriatabesieges Eten / Din Eidyn / Edinburgh [other has 641;Ellis has Oswald besieging Edinburgh; UA has obsession Etin; Morris has 640 Domnall King of Dal Riada defeated at Glenn Mureston near Eitin / Edinburgh and Eitin besieged; JEF has Oswald besieges Eten / Edinburgh 640; TMC has Oswald ending the final independence of Gododdin by taking Lothian].  

-

[CP] King Oswald of Northumbria fights Mercia.  [CP] Tigernach has congregation Saxonum contra Osualt. [JEF quoting Irish Annals has 639 an alliance / congregatio of Saxons against Oswald].

-

Gratiosus / Graciosus Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury d followed by a two year interregnum. 

-

[CP] Laisren Abbot of Leighlin d [or 639]. 

-

[JM] Muirisce King of Connacht d.  

-

Dagobert King of the Franks sends an emissary to Bro Erech to try to stop them raiding.  

-

Pope Honorius I d; interregnum to 640

 

639 – [CP] Bishop Saint Birinus baptises Cuthred son of Cwichelm King of the West Saxons at Dorchester. 

-

Áed Dub mac Colmáin / Áed(h) of Kildare ex-King of Leinster, Bishop of Kildare d and becomes Saint Aed.  

-

Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib (Blood Red; from the Eóganacht Chaisil branch of the Eoganachta) King of the Eoganachta in Munster d.  

-

[JEF] Battle of Moira.

-

Bishop Dagan of Inbher Daeile / Ennereilly d.  

-

Pepin I Mayor of the palace of the Franks d.  

-

[Chadwick & TMC] Dagobert I, King of the Franks d succeeded by Clovis II in Neustria and Burgundy [to 655; other has 638].  

 

640 – [CP] King Eadbald / Eodbald of Kent d succeeded by Eorconberht / Eorconbert / Earconbert [WSK has king 640-664]. 

-

Petronius made Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury.  

-

Saint Tysilio / Suliac, Abbot of Ynys Tysilio / Church Island, evangeliser of Anglesey and founder of Saint-Suliac monastery d.  

-

Saint Beuno / Bonus / Bono, founder and first Abbot of Clynnog Fawr on the Llŷn Peninsula d. 

-

Segene of Iona writes to Pope Severinus to explain his adherence to Celtic Easter. Severinus elected Pope then d.  John IV Pope (to 642). Pope John IV replies to Northern Irish [JEF has to Segene].  

-

Saint Cronan of Roscrea d. 

-

Iudicael King of Dumnonia and Bro-Guerech / Bro Erech retires to monastery of Meven / Saint John at Gwazel, succeeded by his son Alain ap Iudicael.  

-

Arabs invade Egypt. 

 

C640 - [JM] Hilda Abbess of Whitby active.  

-

Tomene mac Ronain becomes Abbot and Bishop of Armagh.

 

C640-641 – King Penda of Mercia attacks East Angles and slays King Ecgric and ex-King Sigebert / Sigeberht who has been dragged out of his monastery [others have 636 and 641; CP has 644; JM has 636/640]. Anna son of Eni, the brother of Raedwald, succeeds as King of the East Angles [other has 636 and 641; CP has pre 644; WSK says date is unknown].

 

640-656/658 - Cellach mac Máele Coba and Conall mac Máele Coba, called Conall Cóel d 656 Joint High Kings of Ireland.

641 - [IA] Bruide mac Foit King of the Picts dies [WSK has succeeded by Talorg son of Foth / Talorc Filius Uuid king 641-653; JEF has Talorcan son of Eanfrith, half brother of Oswy, king 653-656/657].  

-

[DOC] Cúán mac Amalgado / Amalgaid of the Eoganachta Aine, King of Munster d. 

-

Heraclius Emperor of the East d succeeded by Constantine III and Heracleonas / Heraklonas and Martina, then solely by the latter, who are suspected of poisoning him. Constans II, son of Constantine III, overthrows Heraklonas, mutilates and exiles him, then rules to 668.

 

Pre 642 – Cyndrwyn the Stubborn King of Pengwern succeeded by Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn [other has C620 - Cyndrwyn Fawr / The Great / The Stubborn King of Pengwern / Viroconium / Caer Guricon dies succeeded by Cyndyllan; other has 644; WSK has Cyndyllan fl 642; PCB has b 570 father of Caranfael].

 

642 – [WSK & JEF] Domnall Brecc / Domnall mac Echdach King of Dal Riada killed with prince Conall Crandomna by Owen / Eugein map Beli, King of Alt Clut / King of Strathclyde at Battle of Strathcarron / Upper Carron Stirlingshire [IA has 640/642/643 Strath Caruin / Srait Cormaic Domnall Brec killed by Ohan King of the Britons; other has Britons of Alt Clut led by King Eugein son of Beli defeat the men of Dál Riata and kill King Domnall Brecc / Domnal Breac, grandson of Áedán, at Bannawg / Strathcarron; JM has 643 Dal Riata disintegrates; JEF has 643 in Strathcarron fighting Eugein son of Beli, son of Neithon son of Guipno, ?meaning an alliance between Alt Clut and Cowal (and was Eugein of the Miathi, not Alt Clut?);WSK has 642 and Conall Crandomna mac Eochaid Buide, brother of King Domnall Brec, King of Dal Riata 650-660 [JEF has Cenel Comgaill king Ferchar son of Connad king of Dal Riada to 650 then Conall Crandamnae King 650-660] with joint king Dunchad mac Conaing / Dubhan / Little Black One [WSK has Dunchad king 650-654; JEF has d at Strathyre in 654]; other has Conall Crandomna / Conall Crannamna / Conall mac Echdach King of Dal Riata d 660] succeeded by Fergar / Fercar mac Connad Cerr (Fota/ Fearchar Fada) Longus? [JEF has post 639 succession struggle between descendants of Aedan and of Eoganan for Kintryre].  

-

[CP & JEF] King Saint Oswald of Northumbria killed by King Penda of Mercia with King Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn of Pengwern at Maserfelth / Maserfeld / Maes Cogwy at Oswaldes-treow / Oswald’s Tree / Oswestry [WSK and JR have 642; JEL has 642; JEF has 642; TMC has 642; IA interpolations have 642/644 Cocboy / Maes Cogwy / Maserfelth / Oswestry Penda killed Oswald; Eoba King of the Mercians [TMC] brother of Penda killed at Cocboy; AC has 644 Bellum cocboy in quo osuuald rex nordorum & eoba rex merciorum corruerunt].  

-

[JEL] Penda, with British allies, controls Deira and harries Bernicia. 

-

[CP] Oswy / Oswiu brother of Oswald succeeds in Bernicia and marries Saint Eanfled / Eanflaed, daughter of King Saint Edwin and Queen Aethelburh with Oswin / Oswini son of Osric ruling in Deira [CP has Oswin accedes to Deira 644; WSK has King 642-670; JEF has Oswy’s wife as Reinmelth / Raegnmaeld, daughter of Royth, son of Run son of Urbgen / Urien of Rheged, with a son Alchfrith King of Deira 655-666 and daughter Alchfled fl 653; also Oswini son of Osric rules Deira 642-651and Oswy marries Eanfled daughter of Edwini pre 645]. 

-

King Eowa of Mercia’s death in battle leaves Penda sole ruler [TMC suggests Eowa was in the Northumbrian camp, Penda for independence, and that Penda also had an earlier period of rule; Bede has r 633-655, HM gives him 10 years only].  

-

[CP] Lindsey passes back to Penda of Mercia.  

-

King Eiludd ap Glas / Eiludd Powys of Powys and Dogfeilin killed at Maes Cogwy, succeeded by Beli ap Eiludd in Powys [MA has fl 630-660 Beli successor to Eiludd King of Powys] and Elaed ap Eiludd in Dogfeilion. 

-

King Domnall mac Aedo, southern Ui Neill High King d, rex Hiberniae, the only Ui Neill king in the 7th Century to be so called.

-

Grimoald Mayor of the Palace of the Franks. 

-

Theodore I Pope (to 649).  

-

Arabs invade Persia.  

 

C642 - King Oswy of Northumbria commences/completes conquest of Rheged [IA interpolation has 642 Battle of Oswy against Romans and the Britons; JEL has 645 Oswy defeats the Strathclyde Britons with Penda probably having a supporting role to latter; Annals of Tigernach has Cath Ossu inter eum et Britones; JEF haswar between Oswy and the British].   

-

Cronan Bec (the Little) Bishop of Nendrum or Inishmahee d [CP or 643].

 

643 – [TMC quoting Bede] Oswiu led an army to Oswestry to site of brother’s defeat [other has 642 - Beli ap Eiludd King of Powys replaced by ? usurper Manwgan ap Selyfan]. 

-

[CP] King Cynigils of West Saxons d [or 641-643]succeeded by son King Coenwalh / Cenwalh / Cenwealh, a pagan, who puts away his wife, sister of King Penda of Mercia, and takes another wife [WSK has king 643-672]. 

-

Building of Old Minster at Winchester [CP has 641-643]. 

-

Saint Fursey / Fursa resigns Abbacy of Burgh Castle to brother Foillan and joins brother Ultan as a hermit.

 

C643 – [JEF] death of Talorg son of Accidan / Acithaen, brother of King Gartnait of the Cenel nGabrain, founder of the Cenel nGartnait.

 

644 – [JEF] death in a fire of Iarnbodh, son of Gartnait of the Cenel nGartnait. 

-

[WSK] Saint Oswin / Oswine son of Osric made Sub-King of Deira [TMC says 644-651 Oswiu loses control of Deira].

-

[CP] Saint Paulinus, Bishop of Rochester d [other has 643].  

-

[DOC] Dúnchad mac Fiachnai King of Ulster / Ulaid d after slaying his brother Mael Duin mac Fiachnai ay Oenach Deiscirt Maige.

 

644-645 – [CP] King Penda of Mercia drives out King Cenwalh of the West Saxons.

 

645 – [CP quoting Tigernach & UA] bellum Ossu contra Britones. 

-

[AC] Overthrow of Demetia by Gwent.  

-

King Anna of the East Angles gives refuge to Cenwalh of Wessex and converts him [WSK has C644]; [CP] he is baptised by Felix [other has 646].

-

Saint Fursey and Ultan leave East Anglia for Gaul, settling at Lagny [CP has 640-644].  

-

Diciul misson to the South Saxons at Bosham where he converts King Aethelwalh.  

-

[JM] Maelochtraig King of the Desi d. 

-

[DOC] Tocca mac Aedo of the Ui Failgi of north Leinster d and ends the bid of the Ui Mail for Leinster kingship.

 

C645 – Guret / Gwriad becomes King of Alt Clut [PCB has d 658].  

-

Swalda / Sualda King of Meirionydd d succeeded by son Brochfael / Brochwel ap Sualda [PCB has b 670 or 630, father of Einudd Bach; MA has C680-720 fl Brochwel successor to Sualda or Yswalt King of Meirionydd].  

-

Gwrgan Gurgantius / Fawr / The Great / Fergus last King of Ergyng dies, his kingdom inherited by Saint Clydog ap Cyndwun but seized by son-in-law Meurig II King of Glywysing and Gwent [other has 590 Glywys King of Ergyng d kingdom absorbed by King Meurig ap Caradog of Gwent-Glywyssing; Chadwick has this 3 generations later at Meurig II; MA has fl 575-605].  MA has fl C575-605 Caradog successor of Cynlyn and Gwrgan as ?King [?prince] of Ercyng and united under grandson Arthwrys / Andres / Andrusandhas fl 630-660 fl Athrwys successor to Meurig King of Gwent and Glywyssing and Medrawd successor to Cawdraf as ?King [?prince] of Ercyng / Ergyng; other has C610–615 Gwrfoddw ?King [?prince]  of Ergyng [Llandaff Charters; MA has 660-690 fl Gwrfoddw successor to Medrawd as last ?King [?prince] of Ergyng; MA has fl C605 – 635 Cawdraf successor to Caradog ?King [?prince] of Ercyng.  Life span 610-680? other has 650 Gwrgant Mawr / The Great King of Ergyng d kingdom absorbed by Gwent.  Princess Onbraust of Ergyng marries Meurig II of Gwent, and their son Athrwys becomes king of both kingdoms].  

-

Morfael ap Cyndrwyn / Morfael ap Glast King of Glastenning and sub-king of Caer Luit Coyt within Pengwern d succeeded by Morgan Glas / the Blue.

 

646 – British in Galicia sent representatives to seventh Council of Toledo.

 

Pre 647 – [CP] Heruten / Hartlepool monastery founded.

 

647 – [CP] Hild / Hilda takes the veil. [CP has post 647; WSK has as Abbess of Hartlepool].

-

[AC] Slaughter in Gwent [IA has 647/649 – Guentes Stragis/ Battle in Gwent]. 

-

Hereswitha / Hereswith, sister of Saint Hilda, wife of Aethelric, brother of King Anna of the East Angles and Queen Mother of King Ealdwulf of East Anglia, enters a nunnery at Chelles in Gaul.  

-

[WSK] Queen Saint Aethelburh Abbess of Lyminge, which she founded, d. 

-

Máel Cobo mac Fiachnai King of Ulster / Ulaid killed by nephew, Congal Cennfota (Long-headed) mac Dúnchada, later King of Ulster / Ulaid.  

-

Arabs invade Africa.

 

647-648 – [CP] Saint Felix Bishop of Dunwich and the East Angles d at Dunwich succeeded by Deacon Thomas [other has 646; WSK has 647 at his foundation of Soham].

 

648 – [JM] Picts fight chiefs of the Kintyre Scots.  

-

[CP] Saint Wilfrid enters Lindisfarne [other has 647 Saint Wilfrid [WSK] sent to Lindisfarne by Queen Eanflaed]. 

-

King Coenwalh of West Saxons is restored to kingdom [CP has 647 or 648].  

-

[CP] Consecration of Old Minster of SS Peter and Paul at Winchester.  

-

Coenwalh gives land to Cuthred / Eadred at Ashdown.

-

Death of Bishop Saint Birinus / Birin / Berin of the West Saxons at Dorcic / Dorchester [CP has 648-650; WSK has 650].  

 

C648 – English slave Saint Baithild marries King Clovis II.

 

649 – Rogallach mac Uatach King of Connacht killed [other has 656; DOC has Rogallach mac Uatach of the Ui Briuin comes to a violent end, guin, at the hands of Mael Brigte mac Mothlacan and the Corcu Cullu; JM has King Ragallus / Rhagallach of Connacht d succeeded by son Cellachus (King 654-703; other has Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin later King of Connacht defeated by High King Diarmait of Brega at Battle of Carn Conaill.  

-

Saint Cronan of Movilla / Magh Bile d.  

-

Saint Martin I Pope (to 655); the last martyr Pope. 1st Lateran Council.

 

649-650 – [ASC & CP] Bishop Saint Agilbert arrives, replacing Saint Birinus, as Bishop of Dorcic / Dorchester [WSK has 650 from Ireland]. 

 

C649–662– Senchan Torpeist is chief bard of Ireland. He visits Isle of Man.

 

650 – South Saxon kingdom holds all Sussex.

-

Saint Fursa / Fursey d of disease en route to visit Burgh Castle at Mézerolles [CP and other have 649; WSK has 649-650].  Foillan and Ultan go to Gaul.

 

C650 – [WSK] Ferchar King of Dal Riata and prince Cathusach mac Domnal Brecc d succeeded by Dunchad mac Conaing mac Aedan [to 654] [JEF has 650 death of Ferchar of Cowal, last Cenel Comgaill King of the Corcu Reti, succeeded by Conall Crandamnae of the Cenel nGabrain to 660]. 

-

Podgen Hen / The Old ap Isaag King of Dunoding d succeeded by Poedlew ap Podgen [MA has fl C650-690 Pobddelw successor to Pobien King of Dunoding; [PCB] b 630 father of Eifion].

-

Cloten King of Dyfed marries Princess Ceindrech of Brycheiniog, uniting the two kingdoms [MA has fl 630-660 and marries Ceindrech daughter of Rhiwallon of King of Brycheiniog].  

-

King Moriud / Morwd ap Elaed of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d succeeded by Guoidcant / Gwyddgan ap Morwd [MA has fl 630-660 Gwyddaint successor to Morvo King of Buellt and Gwerthrynion].

-

Llancarfan, Llandough, Llantwit, Rhosli and Bishopston monasteries first mentioned in Llandaff Charters. 

-

Welsh Bishop Saint Gudwal fl in Cornwall. 

-

See of Kildare unsuccessfully suggested as primate of Ireland.  

-

[CP] Saint Ernan Abbot of Tory Island and Laisren Mac Masca, Abbot of Ard mic Nasca fl.  

-

Book of Durrow written.

-

Cogitosus’s Life of Saint Brigit.  

-

Gradlon / Gradion ap Alain I / Flam son of King Alain I of Vannetais becomes King of Cornouaille. 

-

The quantity of gold in coins is falling quickly, such that by the 670s they are more or less completely silver. 

 

650-660 - [Dobbs] compilation of Senchus Fern Alban – Chronicles of the Picts and Scots [MacNeill has C670; Chadwick has C 8].

 

C650–690 - [MA] fl Einion successor to Idgwyn King of Rhos [PCB has b 620 father of Rhufon].  

 

C650-C700 - Saint Oudoceus / Euddogwy third Bishop of Llandaff or a Bishop at Llandeilo Fawr. 

 

651– Bamburgh besieged by ‘pagan’ army of King Penda of Mercia [JEL has including British allies], saved by Saint Aidan’s prayers [other has 655; CP quoting Nennius has Penda forces Oswy to restore loot in Iudeu to the British kings; JEL – a fortress in or near the Firth of Forth; urbem quae vocatir Iudeu or urbem Giudi: Atbret Iudeu/ the Restoration of Iudeau; other has King Penda of Mercia leads alliance of King Aethelwold of Deira, Aethelhere of East Anglia and British to besiege King Oswiu / Oswy of Bernicia 7th Bretwalda in urbs Iudeu / Giudi / ? Stirling compelling him to make peace and give tribute including spoils of Gododdin; JEF has Resitution of Iudeu 655 but the same as Penda’s campaign of 651 ravaging as far as Medcaut].  

-

[CP & JEF] King Saint Oswine / Oswin / Oswini Sub-King of Deira murdered by ?Oswiu / Oswy King of Bernicia , succeeded by Aethelwold / Ethelwald / Oidilwald son of King Oswald of Northumbria as King of Deira. [IA interpolation has 650 Oswin / Oissen mac Oisrig d; other has C652; WSK has 651; JEF has Oswy subdues Deira 651; JEF has Deira and Bernicia clash at Gilling north of Catterick, near the River Tees, the frontier between the two, and Queen Eanfled pressed husband Oswy to do penance by building a monastery at Gilling with Trumhere as first abbot; TMC has Oswiu kills Oswine and takes back control of Deira 651]. 

-

[CP] Saint Aidan Bishop of Lindisfarne dies, succeeded by Saint Finan [WSK has bishop 651-661; IA interpolation has 648/650 Aedan Bishop of Saxons d; WSK has Bishop 651-660; JEF has d 651].  

-

King Penda of Mercia ravages East Anglia including the monastery of Burgh Castle, which is defended unsuccessfully by King Anna, who is driven into exile to King Merewalh of the Magonsaetyan. 

-

Abbot Foillan ransoms / removes relics and monks from Burgh and leaves for Gaul, reaching Péronne in Neustria, but is expelled by Erchioald, Mayor of the Palace to King Clovis II.  

-

[CP] Saint Cuthbert enters Melrose Abbey [WSK has C651 & 651].  

-

Saint Wilfrid leaves Lindisfarne for Kent [CP has 652 Saint Wilfrid in Kent].  

 

652 – King Cenwalh of West Saxons fights at Bradford on Avon / Wirtgernes burg / Vortigern’s stronghold against the Britons or Mercians [JM has civil war; Storr has Battle of Broad Ford / Bradford-on-Avon after Wessex entrenches opposite Wansdyke on Morgan Hill and British are pushed west across the Avon, losing Amesbury, and digging dyke south of Market Lavington to the Avon north of Sorviodunum / Old Sarum.  British build Grim’s Ditch on the Great Ridge west of Sorviodunum].

-

[CP] Marriage of Tondbert / Tonbert, prince of the South-Gyrwas [JM has r 650-653] and Ethelthryth, daughter of King Anna of the East Angles.  She receives Ely from him as a dowry. 

-

[JM and CP] Segene / Seghine / Ségéne mac Fiachnaí, fifth Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Suibne / Suibhne moccu Fir Thrí [WSK has abbot 652-657; JEF has d 652]. 

-

Saint Foillan founds Nivelles and Fosse-la-Ville monasteries in Namur.  

-

King Rothari of the Lombards d succeeded by son Rodoald.

 

652-653 – [CP] Bishop Thomas of East Angles d succeeded by Brigilsus / Beorhtgils / Berhtgils / Boniface.  

-

Saint Wilfrid studies under Archbishop Honorius and goes to Rome for the 1st time [CP has ?652 in Kent; WSK has enters religion 653].  

-

Colman mac Ui Telduib, Abbot and Bishop of Clonard d [CP or 654].

 

Pre 653 - Saint Cedd a priest.

 

653 – [WSK & JEF] Talorg son of Foth King of the southern Picts succeeded by Talorgan / Talorcan son of Eanfrith son Adelfrith & half brother of Oswy / Talorcen filius Enfret king 653-657].

-

[WSK] Saint Cedd, with priests Adda, Betti and Diuma, sent by Saint Finan and King Oswiu of Northumbria to convert Middle Angles.  [CP] Middle Saxons / Middle Angles under Ealdorman Peada convert, Peada baptised by Saint Finan of Lindisfarne [WSK has at Wallbottle], marrying Alhflaed / Alchflaed / Alchfled, Oswiu / Oswy’s daughter, while Penda’s daughter Cyneburg married Oswy’s son Alchfrith.  

-

Peada becomes joint King of Mercia. 

-

[CP and WSK] King Sigbert Parvus / the Little of the East Saxons d; reconversion of the East Saxons by his successor King Sigbert Sanctus / Bonus / the Good, friend of King Oswy of Northumbria and baptised by Saint Finan [CP perhaps with Peada]. 

-

[CP] Saint Honorius Archbishop of Canterbury d.  

-

[CP] Saint Benedict Biscop and Saint Wilfrid go to Gaul, former to Rome, latter stays in Lugdunum / Lyons for a while with Archbishop Annemundus and his brother Dalfinus, Count of the City, then goes to Rome. 

-

Battle of Airthir Seola between Ui Briuin and Ui Fiachrach for control of lands of Ui Maine.

-

British in Galicia sent representatives to 8th Council of Toledo.  

-

Rodoald King of Lombards d succeeded by Aripert I.  

-

Pope Martin I sent to Constantinople and imprisoned there then in the Crimea by the Emperor Constans II. 

 

C653 – [CP] Ad Caprae Caput / Gateshead, Ythanceaster and Tilbury monasteries founded.

 

654 - Dúnchad mac Conaing / Dúnchad mac Dúbain / Duban Joint King of Dal Riata defeated and killed by Talorcan, son of Anfrith King of the Picts,in theBattle of Strath Ethair / Ethairt.  [CP 654-655; WSK has d 654; JEF has in Strathyre / Straith Ethairt 654] succeeded by Domangart mac Domnal Brecc [WSK has 660-673; JEF has 660-672]. 

-

[CP] Saint Wilfrid returns to Lugdunum / Lyons [CP Saint Wilfrid at Lyons 654-655].

-

[CP] King Anna of East Angles and his son Jurmin return from exile to be killed by Penda King of Mercia at Bulcamp near Blytheburgh, succeeded by two brothers Aethelhere and Aethelwold [ASC has 653; WSK has C654 – also date unknown -with Aethelhere king to 655]. 

-

[CP] Saint Botulf / Botolph / Botolphus commences his monastery at Ikanho / Icanho / Ikanhoe / Iken, Suffolk, to commemorate King Anna [WSK has 654].  

-

[CP] Election of Deusdedit / Frithuwine / Peace Friend as Archbishop of Canterbury [WSK has 655-664].  

-

Petronius Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury d. 

-

[CP] Saint Eugene / Eugenius I Pope (to 657).

 

654 – [JM] Cellachus becomes King of Connacht [to 703].

 

Pre 655 – Cynddylan King of Pengwern expels Morfael from Lichfield area. [JM has C655 British refugees under Morfael from Lichfield / Pengwern reinforce Dumnonia].  

-

Ithamar consecrated Bishop of Rochester.  

 

655 – [CP] King Oswy of Northumbria kills King Penda of Mercia at Winwidfeld / Winwaed Field / Uinwaed / strages Gai campi/ Maes Gai / ?River Went near Leeds with other ?30 kings, including [CP] King Ethelhere / Aethelhere of the East Angles and Prince Tondbert [other has 654; AC has Pantha slain 657; WSK has 655; JEL quotes Bede in regio Loidis, and says this is the final Northumbrian defeat of Mercia and its British allies; JEF has 655; TMC has 655 and quotes HB that Cadafael King of Gwynedd was at the battle with Penda] King Cadafael ap Cynfedw of Gwynedd and Aethelwold / Oidilwald son of Oswald of Deira decline the battle but lose their thrones; JEL says Cadafael escaped destruction by fleeing the night before the battle and so became Cadafael Cadomedd / Battle Seizer Who Battle Declines. Storr has Oswy builds the Ridge, Becca Banks and the Rein cutting the road from Doncaseter at Cockbeck].

-

[Other has 654/655] Oswy / Oswiu ? reassumes kingdom of Deira from King Aethelwold / Oedilwald; CP and JEF have 655].  Aethelwold / Ethelwald King of Deira d [JEF has disappears] succeeded by Alchfrid / Alchfrith / Alhfrith, son of Oswy as sub-king of Deira [other has Alchfrith becomes joint King of Deira and Bernicia; WSK has king 655-664 and fought at Winwaed; JEF has Oswy establishes regnum Nordanhybrorum].  

-

[CP] King Oswy takes Lindsey back from Mercia. 

-

[JEF Oswy give 6 Bernician and 6 Deiran estates to Iona for monasteries]. 

-

King Cadafael ap Cynfeddw / Cadafael Cadomedd / Battle-Seizer / Catgabail Catguommed / Battle-Decliner of Gwynedd succeeded by Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon / Cadwallader / Cadwalader Fendigaid, the last of the High Kings of Britain [MA has fl 680-720 but d 664 or 682, successor to Cadwallon as 10th King of Gwynedd; PCB has d 664 in plague according to HB, 682 according to AC].

-

Penda is succeeded by Peada in south Mercia [WSK has king of Middle Anglia 655-656]; he loses north Mercia and Elmet which fall under Northumbrian control.  Aetheling Egfrid / Ecgfrith / Egferth son of Oswiu a hostage in Mercia returns home.  

-

Powys successful campaigns against Mercia [JM hasKing Cyndyllan of Pengwern defeats Saxons at Caer Luitcoet / Wall-by-Lichfield]. 

-

Mercia converts. King Peada of Mercia founds Medehamstede / Peterborough Abbey with Sexwulf / Seaxwulf as Abbot [WSK has 654].  

-

[CP] Ethelwald / Aethelwold (brother of Ethelhere) succeeds to kingdom of East Angles[WSK has king 655-663].  

-

King Arthwrys of Glywysing, Gwent and Ercyng d predeceasing father Meurig, succeeded by his son Morgan ap Arthwrys, King of Morgannwg (Glywysing, Gwent and Ercyng), father of Ithel / Iudhail [Chadwick has Morgan born just post C670; Llandaff Charters have 655 Meurig King of Morgannwg; MA has fl 660-690 Morgan successor to Athrwys King of Gwent and Glywyssing; other has C665 Meurig ap Tewdrig King of Gwent and Glywyssing, having married a princess of Ercyng, d succeeded by Athrwys ap Meurig, who also takes kingdom of Ercyng; Llandaff Charters have C670– 710 Morgan ap Athrwys King of Gwent; other has 685 Meurig ap Tewdrig King of Gwent, Glywyssing and Ergyng d succeeded by Athrwys ap Meurig; Llandaff charters have 695 and 698 King Morgan of Morgannwg; other has C715 Athrwys ap Meurig, King of Gwent, Glywyssing and Ergyng d succeeded by Morgan ap Athrwys as Over-King; PCB has b 650 father of Ithel].  

-

Deusdedit [CP - Frithonas, the first Saxon Archbishop] consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury by Bishop Ithamar of Rochester, who d and is succeeded by Damian [other has pre-664 Ithamar Bishop of Rochester; [CP] the first Saxon Bishop d succeeded by Damianus].  

-

Nathaniel made Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury. 

-

Loingsech mac Colmáin King of Connacht d [DOC] succeeded by Guaire Aidni mac Colmain of the Ui Fiachnach Aidne (to 663). 

-

[JM] Diarmait and Blathmac, Kings of the southern Ui Neill, become Kings of Ireland (to 664).

-

[CP] Saint Foillan is killed by bandits and buried at Fosse.  

-

Clovis II, King of Neustria and Burgundy d succeeded by Clothar III [to 673; other has 656].

 

C655 - Manwgan ap Selyfan King of Powys overthrown by restored Beli ap Eiludd [see 642]. 

 

655-658 - [JM] King Oswy / Oswiu of Northumbria supreme.  

-

King Oswiu sends Saint Cedd to East Saxons at request of King Sigeberht / Sigebert Bonus / Sanctus/ the Good, who travels to Northumbria and is baptised by Finan with Oswiu standing godfather.  Saint Cedd is then consecrated in Northumbria by Finan as Bishop [of London?] and the East Saxons.

 

656 – [CP; other has 652] King Oswy of Northumbria overruns southern Pictland, imposing an English sub-king Talorgen / Talorcan, son of Anfrait / Anfrith / Enfret / Eanfrith, son of Aethelfrith and Oswald & Oswiu’s brother [other has nephew; WSK has King 653-657].  

-

Pengwern falls to King Oswiu / Oswy of Northumbria in a surprise attack, which massacres royal family of King Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn in the palace of Llys Pengwern [JM has 655; other has C570-613 – Pengwern, the eastern half of Pagenses / Powys lost to Mercia, last King Mawn or Iago ap Brochfeol; other has 658 Kingdom of Pengwern (eastern Powys), which is destroyed.  Cynddylan King of Pengwern d [other has C660, replaced by Anglo-Saxon Wroconsaet / Caer Guricon and Magonsaet / Caer Magnis; JEF from AC has Oswy plunders the Britons].  

-

[CP] King Peada of Mercia murdered [WSK has murdered at Northumbrian court 656 or 657].  

-

Oswiu / Oswy destroys Dogfeilin, allowing King Manwgan ap Selyg to regain control of Powys. 

-

[CP] Diocese of Mercia and Middle Anglia founded by King Oswy of Northumbria at Repton by Irish Bishop Diuma / Dwyna / Duma from Northumbria, consecrated by Finan [WSK has 655]; he d almost immediately and is buried at Charlbury succeeded by Irish Bishop Ceollach / Cellach.  [Other has 655 Diuma made first Bishop to the Mercians].  

-

[CP] Alleged endowment of Peterborough by Wulfhere and Oswy.  

-

Burial of the Staffordshire hoard. 

-

Crundmáel Erbuilc mac Rónáin King of Leinster d.

 

656/660 – Sigibert III, King of Austrasia, dies, succeeded by Childebert the Adopted to 661, with Grimoald, Mayor of the Palace to 676.

 

657 – [JM] Talorgen / Talargen English King of the Picts d succeeded by Irishman [other has 656 by Gartnait son of Domhnull; WSK has succeeded by Gartnait son of Domnall / filius Donuel king 657-663; JEF has d 656/657 ].  

-

[JEF] Death of Guret son of Guryan / Gwryat vab Gwryan yn y Gogled / Gwryat son of Guryan in the north, King of Alt Clut; first mention of a King of Clyde Rock / rex Alo Cluaithe perhaps the first evidence of the Kingdom of Strathclyde succeeded by Elfin ap Eugenius / Owain [other has 658 Elfin son of Eugenius succeeds Guret as King of Alt Clut; triad ‘Three Kings Who Sprang from Villeins’].

-

Abbess Hild / Hilda of Hartlepool moves to found Whitby [WSK has 657]. 

-

Suibne moccu Fir Thrí, 6th Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Cumméne Find [CP Cuimene Ailbe / Cummene Find Abbot of Iona; WSK has abbot 657-659; JEF has abbot 656]. 

-

Queen Saint Baithild regent for King Clothar of the Franks.  [CP] Ebroin / Ebrinus becomes Mayor of the Palace of the Franks or the first time. 

-

[CP] Saint Vitalian Pope (to 672). 

 

657-658 – [CP] Saint Wilfrid leaves Lyons after murder of Annemundus, Archbishop of Lyons and flees as seen as a partisan of King Dagobert II.  

-

Clovis II, King of Neustria and Burgundy d succeeded by Clothar III.

 

657–664/665 - Diarmait mac Áedo Sláine and Blathmac mac Áedo Sláine Joint High Kings of Ireland.

 

Pre 658 - Petroc Baladrddellt ap Clemen King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint d succeeded by son Culmin / Cwlfyn ap Petroc.  

 

658 – [CP] Sillan, Bishop of Devenish d.  

-

[DOC] Diarmait and Blathmac, sons of Aed Slaine, joint High Kings of Tara (to 665) establish Ui Neill’s firm hold on Tara kingship.

-

Ercinwald / Erchinoald [CP has 657] Mayor of the Palace of the Franks d succeeded by Ebroin.  

 

C658 – [CP] Wulfhere becomes King of Mercia and expels King Oswiu / Oswy of Northumbria’s ealdormen and succeeds to throne of Mercia as first converted King of Mercia [WSK has 658; King 658-675]. 

-

Mercia retakes [CP] Lindsey and moves west into Pengwern and recovers lands south of the Humber from Northumbria.  

-

[CP] Alchfrid / Alhfrith Sub-King of Deira sends for Saint Wilfrid, grants him Stanford / Stamford on the Derwent [WSK has gives him Ripon, expelling Eata and Saint Cuthbert], ? intending him to be Bishop of Deira.  

-

[CP] Bishop Ceollach / Cellach of Mercia and the Middle Angles resigns [other has 657].  Abbot Trumhere of Ingethling consecrated Bishop of Mercia and Middle Anglia at Repton [CP has 659]. 

-

King Cenwalh of the West Saxons fights at ad Peornum/ Peonnum / Penselwood or Pinhoe [Cooper has Pen Hill or Ben Knowle] defeating King Culmin / Cwlfyn ap Petroc of Dumnonia, ? at or in the Selwood Forest and drives British to the Parret in Somerset, taking Kingdom of Glastenning / East Somerset / eastern Dumnonia.  Morgan Glas / the Blue King of Glastenning loses Glastenning.  Abbey of Glastonbury now in Wessex hands but remains a British style monastery at first with Abbot Bregored left in post [Storr has this was unlikely and Wessex took only the River Nadder Valley and advanced down west side of River Avon. British build Grim’s Ditch south of River Ebble and Bokerly Dyke south of the River Allen cutting the road southwest, the Ackling Dyke. Wessex builds dykes to defend its new areas and headwaters of the River Nadder east of Shaftesbury]. 

-

Dima Dubh (the Black) Bishop of Connor d [CP or 659].

-

Salomon / Solomon / Salaun II King of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais d succeeded by Alain II Hir / the Tall, King of Dumnonia and Bro Erech, son of Saint Iudicael King of Dumnonia. 

 

659/660 – [JEF] death of King Conall Crandamnae of the Corcu Reti / Dal Riada succeeded by Domangart son of Domnall Brecc king to 672

-

? Cano of the Cenel nGartnait takes Skye, killing Eoganan son of Tuathalan, ? grandson of Aedan. 

-

[WSK] Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid enters Tunberht’s monastery at Gilling.

 

660 – [CP] Marriage of Egfrid, Sub-King of Deira, and Ethelthryth.  

-

Saint Derfel Gadarn d.  

-

King Coenwalh of Wessex invites Bishop Wini / Wine from Gaul and divides diocese, giving Wini Venta / Wintancaestir / Winchester and Saint Agilbert Dorchester [WSK has C660 and Wine Bishop 660-675].  

-

Saint Sigeberht the Good King of East Saxons is assassinated due to his favour for Christianity by Swithelm, who, with his brother Swithfrith, succeeds him [WSK has C653]. 

-

Aedelwealh becomes King of South Saxons, the first South Saxon King to convert. He marries Eafe, princess of the Hwicce, daughter of Christian King Eanfrith / Eanfrid / Eanfridi of the Hwicce, brother of his predecessor Eanhere.  

-

Crundmáel mac Suibni Menn King of Ailech d.

 

C660 – King Merewalh of the Magonsaete converted by Eadfrith, Northumbrian priest, and founds Leominster.

661 – [CP] Death of Boisil, prior of Melrose [others have 659 & 660].  

-

Saint Finan mac Rimedo / Rimid, Bishop of Northumbria / Lindisfarne d succeeded by Saint Colman, sent from Iona by Abbot Cummene Find [WSK has 661 but also has Bishop 660-664].  

-

[WSK] Abbot Cummene Find of Iona visits Ireland and stays at Rathlin Island monastery. 

-

Expulsion of Saints Cuthbert and founder Eata from Ripon, which is given to Saint Wilfrid as Abbot [CP has ?661).  Saint Ceolfrid / Ceolfrith goes to Ripon.  

-

King Cenwalh / Cenwealh of West Saxons fights at Posentes byrg / Posentesburh / Posent’s stronghold / ?Posbury [Cooper has Ponter’s Ball nesr Glastonbury]. [WSK has 661 bringing Somerset under control; JM and shortly thereafter Exeter is absorbed. Storr has Wessex fighting Mercia at Postcombe on the River Thame and losing Oxford and Buckingham. Wessex builds a dyke on the Icknield Way against Mercia at Swyncombe Down].  Prince Cuthred and King Coenberht of Wessex d. 

-

King Wulfhere of Mercia raids as far as Ashdown and Wight, where he organises Eoppa’s mission to convert and which he gives to Aethelwald King of the South Saxons, his godson. When Wulfhere leaves, Wight reverts to paganism.  

-

Saint Wilfrid given two provinces of the South Saxons by King Wulfhere of Mercia and converts them: the Isle of Wight and Meanwaras / Eastern Hampshire / Meonstoke. 

-

Máenach mac Fíngin King of the Eoganachta in Munster d.  

-

Saint Tómméne / Tommine, Bishop of Armagh d [CP has Tomene mac Ronain Abbot and Bishop of Armagh and Bishop Saran Ua Critain d- or 662] succeeded by Saint Ségéne / Segenus, Bishop.  

-

Cynifrid ex-Abbot of Gilling d of the plague in Ireland.  

-

Death of Saint Cumméne Fota / Cummian, Bishop and fer léignid (Lector) of Cluain Ferta Brénainn / Clonfert (or 662). 

-

Childebert the Adopted, King of Austrasia d leaving lands to Clothar III, who becomes King of the Franks.

-

King Adipert I of the Lombards d succeeded after civil war by Grimoald.  

 

660s – Benedictine monastery founded as Mailduff’s Burgh / Meildulfesburh / Maidulfsbury / Maelduib-byrig by the Irish / Scotti scholar monk Abbot Maelduib / Maildubh / Moeldubh / Mailduff.  Saint Aldhelm is a pupil.  

-

Tribal Hideage compiled as census of Mercia.

 

662 – [CP] Bishop Trumhere of Mercia and the Middle Angles d at Repton, succeeded by Jaruman. 

-

King Swithelm of East Saxons converted, persuaded by King Aethelwald of East Anglia.  

-

[CP] Bishops Dimna and Seghine Mac Ua Cuinn d [or 663].  

-

Clothar III, King of the Franks, gives Austrasia to Childeric II [to 675].

 

663 – [WSK] Gartmait son of Domnall King of the Picts succeeded after Battle of Luith Feirn by brother Drust / Drest son of Domnall / Donuelr 663-672 [JEF has King of Fortriu 664-671]. 

-

Lademund Abbot of Glastonbury.  

-

[CP] Bishop Saint Agilbert offended at Wine’s appointment to Winchester, resigns, leaving Dorchester vacant, and going to Northumbria [ASC and WSK have 660].  

-

Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin King of Connacht d.  

-

[CP and UA] plague in Ireland.  

-

Grimoald King of the Lombards defeats Emperor Constans II’s attempt to reconquer Italy. Constans visits Rome and strips it of decoration.  He repudiates the Pope’s authority over the Archbishop of Ravenna, where his Exarch rules.

 

663-664 – [CP] Saint Wilfrid ordained priest by Saint Agilbert [other has 664 Saint Agilbert is a friend of Saint Wilfrid, whom he makes a priest in monastery of in-Hyypum / Ripon].  

-

Archbishop Deusdedit consecrates Minster of Saints Peter, Paul and Andrew at Peterborough Abbey in presence of Bishops Ithamar of Rochester, Wine of London, Jaruman of Mercia, Tuda of Lindisfarne and priest Saint Wilfrid [other has 658-659].

 

Pre 664 – [CP] founding of Barking.

 

664 – Malduinus / Maelduin becomes joint King or prince of a section of Dál Riata to 680/688.  

-

[CP] Death in rebellion of Alchfrid / Alchfrith / Alhfrith, Sub-King of Deira against his father Oswy / Oswiu King of Northumbria (to 672) leaving Oswy sole ruler, and/or succeeded as Sub-King of Deira by brothers Egfrid / Aegfrid and Aelfwine [WSK has Alhfrith exiled or killed 664; other has Rebellion of Alchfrid; JEF has Alchfrith disappears around 666 after attacking his father and after sending Wilfrid to Gaul for consecration to York, and Oswy taking western British lands and ending Rheged].   

-

Saint Agilbert and priest Agatho in Northumbria. Agilbert is a friend of King Alchfrid of Deira, son of King Oswy of Northumbria, and Saint Wilfrid, whom he makes a priest in monastery of in-Hyypum / Ripon. Synod at Streanaeshalch / Whitby decides Oswy for Roman rite [CP; GA has 663; WSK has 664; JEF has 664].  Saint Agilbert goes to Paris. 

-

Saint Colman Bishop of Lindisfarne returns to Ireland, succeeded by Tuda [JEF says of York] who d of plague, succeeded as Bishop of Northumbria with a see at York by Saint Wilfrid [JEF says by Ceadda / Chad, who goes south for consecration but Canterbury has d of plague] who goes to Gaul [JEF follows Bede and says sent by Alchfrith, not Oswy] for his consecration [other has ?Archbishop Deusdedit ?merges – translates -  diocese of Lindisfarne with York].  

-

[CP] Saint Cuthbert becomes Prior / Provost of Lindisfarne. 

-

Saint Ecgberht / Egbert travels from Northumbria to study at the monastery of Rathelmigisi / Rathmelsigi in Connaught. 

-

Plague strikes Gwynedd, killing Saint Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon Fendigaid (The Blessed) King of Gwynedd, last High King of Britain, succeeded by his son Ifwr ap Cadwaladr [LA has ?684 as has AC; WSK has Nennius has 664, Harleian Annals have 682].  

-

Aethelwold King of East Angles d succeeded by Ealdwulf / Aldwulf [CP has or 663; WSK has 663 with Ealdwulf king 663-713]. 

-

King Swithelm of Essex d succeeded by Sighere, joint King with Sebbi, who, prompted by plague, revert to paganism, but Bishop Jaruman is sent by King Wulfhere of Mercia and succeeds in reconverting them [WSK has Sighere r 663-688 and Saint Sebbir 663-693/694].  

-

[CP] Bishop Saint Cedd of London and the East Saxons, Abbot of his foundation Lastingham d of the plague succeeded at Lastingham by Saint Chad, his brother [WSK has 664; other has Egbert and Saint Chad in Ireland, the former being sick ? of the plague there this year, the latter returning to become Abbot of Lastingham].  

-

[CP and JM] King Eorcenberht / Eoconbert / Erconbert of Kent d, probably of plague, succeeded by Ecgberht / Egbert I, with his mother Queen Seaxburh / Sexburg, daughter of King Anna of East Anglia, ruling [WSK has king 664-673 and Seaxburh / Sexburg becoming Abbess of Minster-in-Sheppey.  He murders Aethelings Saints Aethelred and Aehelberht, and their sister Saint Eafa, wife of Merewalh King of the Magonsaete, demands founding of Minster-in-Thanet abbey as blood price].  

-

[CP] Queen Bercta / Ethelberg, wife of King Aethelbert / Ethelbert of Kent. d 

-

[CP and WSK] Saint Deusdedit Archbishop of Canterbury d of the plague [other has in 662].

-

[CP] Bishop Damianus / Damian of Rochester d.  

-

[CP] Plague in Britannia. [CP, WSK and UA] Plague in England and Ireland. 

-

[WSK] Death of Saint Aethelburh, daughter of King Anna of East Anglia, Abbess of Faremoutiers-en-Brie.  

-

Queen Saint Baithild enters monastery of Chelles, which she had founded (as she had Corbie). 

-

Arabs take Syracuse.  

 

665 – Clydog ap Arthlwys King of Ceredigion d succeeded by Seisyll ap Clydog [PCB has b 690].

-

2nd Battle of Badon / Bedanheafod [CP has Great Bedwyn; Cooper has Liddington]. Morgan / [AC has 665 Bellum badonis secundo. Morcant moritur]. This is the Bedan-heafod / Biedan-heafod in the ASC for 675.   Morgan/Morcant King of Morgannwg d succeeded by brother Ithel ap Arthryws ap Ffernfael [MA has Morgan King of Gwent and Glywyssing d? Other has 725 Morgan ap Athrwys, Over-King of Gwent, Glywyssing and Ergyng d succeeded by Ithel ap Morgan, King of South-East Wales; PCB has b 650. Storr has Cenwalh of Wessex breaking out to the west and taking Somerset]. 

-

Bishop Wini at Winchester the only consecrated Bishop in England at the time, with two British bishops, consecrates Saint Chad as Bishop of the Northumbrians at York as King Oswiu has despaired of Saint Wilfrid who is in Gaul [CP has Ceadda / Chad going to Kent then Wessex with Eadhed / Eadhaed 664; WSK has Chad intended to be Bishop of Bernicia, leaving Deira for Wilfrid; JEF has this 666 Chad as Oswy’s appointment, Wilfrid as Alchfrith’s; TMC has Chad consecrated 664-665].  

-

[CP] Third visit of Saint Benedict Biscop to Rome [WSK has 666].

-

Saint Agilbert becomes Bishop of Paris [other has post 666] and with 11 other bishops consecrates Abbot Saint Wilfrid bishop at Compiegne [others have 664 or 668]. 

-

Baeithin Abbot and Bishop of Bangor d. 

-

Cathal Cú-cen-máthair mac Cathaíl / Cú-cen-máthair King of the Eoganachta in Munster d of plague.

 

665-667 – Benedict Biscop at Lerins.

 

665/668 - Kings Blathmac and Diarmait of Ireland d [JM has them d of plague 664].

 

665-669/671 - Sechnassach mac Blathmaic High King of Ireland.

 

666 – [CP] Bishop Wilfrid returns from Neustria to Northumbria via Sussex, where he is attacked by heathens, so lands in Kent, where he officiates, then goes north to remain at Ripon [to 669]. 

-

[CP] Bishop Wine / Wini of Winchester driven out by King Coenwalh of Wessex and takes refuge with King Wulfhere of Mercia, buying from him the Bishopric of London.  West Saxons have no Bishop.  

-

[CP] foundation of Chertsey.  

-

[CP and UA] plague in Ireland.  

-

[DOC] Faelan mac Colmain of the north Leinster Ui Dunlainge d. 

 

C666 - [TMC] Pope Vitalian replies to a letter from King Oswiu offering to use his power to impose Roman Easter on areas in his power.

 

667 – [CP] Benedict Biscop’s 3rd visit to Rome [other has C666].

-

[CP] Wighard sent to Rome by Saint Egbert and King Oswy. 

-

[CP] Bishop Jaruman of Mercia and the Middle Angles d at Repton. 

-

Lademund abbot of Glastonbury d succeeded by Bregored [Storr says this was the first Saxon abbot].  

-

Nathaniel Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury d followed by an interregnum of about two years.  

-

[CP] Saint Colman founds Inisboffin.  

-

[CP and UA] plague in Ireland.  

 

668 – Wighard / Wigheard appointed Archbishop of Canterbury but d in Rome (having met Saint Benedict Biscop on his 3rd visit) of plague before consecration [WSK has 668; JEF has pre 668]. 

-

[CP] Saint Theodore of Tarsus consecrated in Rome [JEF by Pope Vitalian as archiepiscopus Britanniae insulae; Pope writes to Oswy as rex Saxonum and refers to Canterbury as ‘your bishop’] and sets out for Canterbury [669?; WSK has Archbishop 668-690, reaches Canterbury 669; JR has appointed 667], perhaps accompanying the Emperor Constans II, who reaches Syracuse and is murdered at the Baths of Daphne, succeeded by his son Constantine IV, who crushes the usurper Mezezius in Sicily and r to 685.  [WSK] has accompanied by assistant African Abbot Hadrian and Saint Benedict Biscop and staying with Saint Agilbert in Paris. 

-

[DOC] Bellum Fertsi / Battle of Belfast inter Ultu et Cruitne / between the Ulaid / Dal Fiatach and the Cruthin / Cruithni / Dal nAraidi.

-

Saint Judoc / Josse /Jost / Joyce, hermit prince of Brittany d. 

 

C668 - Ferg mac Crundmaíl King of Ailech d.

 

669 – Cumméne FindAbbot / Cuimine Ailbe / Cummene Find 7th Abbot of Iona, author of Miracles of Colmcille d succeeded by Fáilbe mac Pípáin. [AC has Cuimine Fota, Abbot of Clonfert d 661; WSK has 669 d of great plague and Failbe 8th Abbot of Iona to 679; JEF has d 668-669].  

-

[Ellis] King Oswiu of Northumbria has dominion over Picts and exacts tribute from puppet kings. 

-

[CP and WSK] Saint Theodore reaches Canterbury accompanied by Abbot Hadrian and Saint Benedict Biscop.  

-

Saint Chad / Ceadda removed as Bishop of the Northumbrians at York by Archbishop Theodore. [CP] Saint Wilfrid restored as Bishop of the Northumbrians [WSK and the Picts] at York by Theodore [MH has Saint Wilfrid confirmed by Theodore 669/670; JEF has 669 and Wilfrid as metropolitan of north Britain with his seat at York as Pope Gregory had envisaged. He restores church in stone; TMC Saint Wilfrid Bishop of York 670-678].

 

[CP] Saint Wilfrid ordains Ceolfrid priest.  

-

[CP] Archbishop Theodore confirms Saint Ceadda / Chad as Bishop, and retires him to Lastingham, then appoints him Bishop of Mercia, Middle Anglia and the Lindsey people, moving see to Lichfield, where he builds a monastery [JM has Wilfrid making the see at Lichfield; WSK has Chad appointed following death of Jaruman in 667].  

-

King Wulfhere of Mercia gives land at Ad Barwae / Barrow upon Humber for a monastery. -

-

Putta consecrated Bishop of Rochester.  

-

Adrian made Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury by Pope but imprisoned in Francia en route from Naples; Benedict Biscop made acting Abbot for two years.  

-

Bassa the priest appointed first Abbot of Saint Mary’s Reculver by King Ecgberht of Kent. 

-

Saint Ceolfrith studies at Iken monastery.  

 

C669 – Abbot Bregored of Glastonbury d succeeded by Beorhtwald, who builds a cross in the precinct.

 

669-670 – [JEF] Cenel nGartnait returns to Skye from Ireland. 

-

[CP] Bishop Brigilsus / Boniface of East Angles d succeeded by Bifus / Bisi [CP has consecrated 669-673]. 

 

670 – Saint Adomnan arrives on Iona from Ireland [WSK has C670].

-

[JEF] King Oswiu / Oswy of Northumbria d succeeded by son Ecgfrith [WSK has King 670-685; CP has 671 King Oswy / Oswiu of Northumbria, 7th Bretwalda d succeeded as King of Northumbria by son Egfrid / Egfrith / Ecgfrith / Egferth with brother Aelfwine / Aelfwini as Sub-King of Deira; Bede has 670; other has 670; AC has 669 Osguid rex saxonum moritur; JEL has 671; JEF has 670 and married to East Anglian princess Ethelthryth / Aedilthryd; TMC has dies in his bed 670].  

-

Oswy’s wife Saint Eanflaed joins her daughter Saint Aelfflaed at Whitby Abbey. 

-

Mercia acknowledged overlord of Chiltern Saxons and Suther-ge.  

-

King Coenwalh of Wessex asks Saint Agilbert to come back but he refuses. In his place he sends nephew Hlothere / Leuthere / Leutherius / Lothar who is consecrated as Bishop of Winchester by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury and is sole Bishop of the West Saxons [WSK has bishop 670-676].

-

Benedict Biscop resigns as Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury, succeeded by Hadrian / Adrian [CP has in office 671]. 

-

Cenn Faelad, chief scholar of Tuaim Drecain/Toomregan in Brefne, Ireland’s premier school of poetry d.  

-

Blathmac mac Máele Cobo King of Ulster / Ulaid d.

 

C670 - Irish settle in the Faeroes. 

-

Meurig ap Elaed last King of Dogweilion fl, with no offspring, so his territory is later absorbed into Gwynedd [PCB has b 570]. 

-

Caten / Cathen ap Cloten King of Dyfed and Brycheiniog [MA has fl 655-685 or fl 660-690 Cathen King of Dyfed and Brycheiniog]. 

-

[JM] Osric becomes King of the Hwicce [WSK has king C675-685].  

 

Post 670 – [TMC] King Ecgfrith of Northumbria expels British clergy from churches in his realm.

 

670s – Aetheling Coenred, father of King Ine of Wessex, gives land for Wimborne Minster Abbey.

670-672 - [Eagle] Cenwalh gives charter to Lanprobi near Sherborne.

 

670-673/675 - Cenn Fáelad mac Blathmaic High King of Ireland.

 

670-684 – [CP] Saint Cuthbert resides on Farne. Most of the monks are killed by plague.

 

C670-700 - [MA] fl Budic successor [actually son but not successor to Alan II High King, King of Damnonia and Bro-Erech] to Alanus King of ?Armorica / ?Bro-Erech.  

 

671– Picts break free [JEF has Pictish rebellion] and expel Drest son of Donuel, Oswiu’s puppet King [other has Picts attack King Ecgfrith / Egferth of Northumbria and expel their Irish king, choosing another Bridei, son of Bili / Beli mac Neithon, British king of the Clyde / Strathclyde, [JEF] as Verturian King 671-692, grandson of Neithon son of Guipno and much younger brother of Eugein who killed Domnall Brecc in 643 [PCB Brude son of Bile, King of the Picts, Briton of Strathclyde, mother sister of Talargan. Obtained Pictish throne 672; WSK has 672 Drust / Drest son of Domnall King of the Picts succeeded by Bruide son of Bili / Bredei filius Bili r 672-693].  

-

The Picts invade Northumbria but Egfrith / Egferth overwhelms them [WSK has 672, with Bruide son of Bili King 672-693; JEF has 671 Ecgfrith and Beornhaeth, ? sub-regulus of the Niudera in Fife, win at Battle of Two Rivers and start reign of Bridei son of Beli]. 

-

King Ecgfrith of Northumbria re-commences absorption of Rheged, pushing British from Dent in West Riding of Yorkshire and Ribble Valley in Lancashire [WSK has 660-680 and 671-678 King Ecgfrith of Northumbria attacks Rheged and gives lands to church at Ripon].  

-

[CP] Saint Benedict Biscop’s 4th visit to Rome.   

-

Saint Aldhelm writes to Bishop Eleutherius of the West Saxons excusing himself for staying in Canterbury for Christmas.  

-

King Cenwalh of Wessex grants Abbot Beorhtwald of Glastonbury charter with land at Meare, near Glastonbury, and Downton in Wiltshire, plus exemption from secular dues for see of Sherborne.

Saint Máel Ruba / Maelrubha / Máelrubai / Maol Rubha / MoRubha / MaRuibhe / Malruibhe leaves Ireland to proselytise in Pictish lands.  

-

Grimoald King of the Lombards d succeeded by Perctarit. 

 

671-675 – [CP] King Egfrid of Northumbria reconquers Lindsay from Mercia.

 

671-678 – [CP] church at Ripon built. 

 

672 – King Egfrid / Ecgfrith of Northumbria attacks Picts, massacring many, expelling Picts, ? at Land-Abae [IA 676; other has 671 at Battle of the Two Rivers, securing land between the Forth and Tweed for 14 years], assisted by sub-king Beornhaeth.  Southern Picts subject to English rule. 

-

[CP] Benedict Biscop returns from Rome.  

-

[CP] Separation of King Ecgfrith / Egfrid and Ethelthryth / Aedelthryd, who receives veil from Bishop Saint Wilfrid to enter Coludesbyrig / Coldingham near Berwick [WSK has Queen Saint Ethelthryth / Aethelthryth / Etheldreda, wife of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria and daughter of King Anna of East Anglia, becomes nun at Coldingham].  

-

[CP and WSK] Saint Ceadda / Chad Bishop of the Mercians and the Lindsey People d of plague succeeded by Wynfrid / Winfrith / Winfride / Winfrid [WSK has Winfrith bishop 672-674]. 

-

 [JEF] Wulfhere son of Penda of Mercia leads ‘all the southern kingdoms to war againbst Ecgfrith’ but is defeated and loses Lindsey [WSK has 674 King Egfrid / Ecgfrith / Egferth of Northumbria successfully defends Kingdom against King Wulfhere of Mercia; TMC has between 670 and 675].  

-

Bishop Bifus of the East Angles resigns, succeeded by Acca / Aecci / Aecce.

-

[CP; ASC] King Coenwalh / Cenwalh / Coinualch of Wessex d and kingdom divided by under kings for about 10 years [CP has anarchy 672-685].  Queen Seaxburh, widow of Coenwalh rules 1 year [WSK has Queen 672-673]. 

-

Bishop Wine / Wini of London d.  

-

[CP] Pope Vitalinus d.  Adeodatus II Pope (to 676). 

 

C672 –Aethelthryth / Etheldreda, Queen of Northumbriagrants lands to Saint Wilfrid, Bishop of York for Hexham Abbey [JR has 674; WSK has land given by King Ecgfrith].

-

Queen Osryth of Mercia takes relics of King Oswald of Northumbria to Bardney monastery.

672-674 – Sub-king Frithuwold of Surrey grants charter to Chertsey.

672-678 – [CP] church at Hexham built.

 

673 – Saint Máel Ruba / Maelrubha / Máelrubai / Maol Rubha / MoRubha / MaRuibhe / Malruibhe founds Aporcrosan / Applecross [WSK has 673 with the evangelising of the Picts of northwest; JEF has 672].  

-

Domangart mac Domnaill / Domnal Brecc King of Dal Riata d [other has 660; JEF has slain in 672] succeeded by Eochaid mac Domangart [JEF has 672 Domangart slain and two possibly Pictish royals, one Elphin, possibly Bridei’s kinsman, captured in Argyll; the other Conamail son of Cano of the Cenel nGartnait, leader of the Cenel back from Ireland to Skye.  Domangart succeeded by Mael Duin son of Conall].

-

[JEF] Synod of Hertford on the River Lee in which Archbishop Saint Theodore seeks to establish small bishoprics [WSK and other have 672, the first Synod of the English church] and attempts to reconcile Roman and Celtic churches.  [CP] Saint Wilfrid sends representatives and is declared Nordanhymbrorum gentis episcopum, ?Theodore rejecting Wilfrid’s claim to be episcopus metropolitanus Eboracae civitatis and promulgating codes of episcopal practice antipathetic to Wilfrid.  

-

Theodore gives Lindsey to a bishop outside Wilfrid’s authority. 

-

Bisi, 4th Bishop of East Anglia, resigns and [CP] Archbishop Saint Theodore divides diocese into two: the north at Elmham; the south at Dunwich. 

-

[CP] Queen Saint Ethelthryth / Aethelthryth, daughter of King Anna of the East Angles, and wife of King Egfrith / Egfrid of Northumbria founds Ely [others have 672 & 674; WSK has 673].  

-

[WSK] Saint Eafa / Aebbe / Domneva Queen of King Merewalh of the Magonsaete becomes Abbess of Minster-in-Thanet which she had founded.  

-

[CP & JEF] King Egbert I / Ecgbert / Ecgberht / Egbert of Kent d succeeded by Hlothere [other has 675 reigning jointly with Eadric; other and CP have Eadric sole King of Kent in 686, having initially reigned jointly with his uncle Hlothere; WSK has king 673-685 with Eadric joint King from 684]. 

-

Adrian Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury arrives from Francia to take post.  

-

[WSK] Abbot Failbe mac Pipan of Iona visits his Irish paruchia.  

-

Clothar III, King of Neustria and Burgundy d and Theuderic III becomes briefly King, but is displaced by King Childeric II of Austrasia who becomes King of the Franks [to 675].

 

673-675 – Arabs besiege Constantinople. 

 

673-674 - Mercians invade Kent and detach Suthrige from it.  

-

Mercians consecrate Aetla Bishop of Dorchester [CP suggests Dorchester is Mercian by 679 and Etheldred King of Mercia establishes Aetla as Bishop there 675-685].

 

674 – [CP] Saint Benedict Biscop given land for Monkwearmouth Abbey by King Ecgfrith / Egfrid of Northumbria and is first Abbot [WSK and JR have 674].

-

[WSK] Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid enters Monkwearmouth.  

-

[WSK] Bishop Winfrith / Wynfrid of Lichfield deprived by Archbishop Saint Theodore, replaced by Saint Sexwulf / Seaxwulf, Abbot of Medehamstede / Peterborough, who is replaced by Cuthbald [CP has before 675; WSK has 673/674, with Saint Saexwulf becoming Bishop of the Mercians in 675; other has Saint Sexwulf / Seaxwulf / Saxulf / Sexulf, Abbot of Medeshamstede / Peterborough consecrated Bishop of Lichfield; WSK has 675; Cuthbald made Abbot of Peterborough].  

-

King Wulfhere of Mercia grants lands at Dilington to Berhferth, a kinsman. 

-

[CP] Aescwine son of Cenfus succeeds as King of the West Saxons [other has 673; WSK has king 674-676].  

-

[CP] Death of Saint Colman at Inisboffin [WSK has 676; other has 675]. 

-

Congal Cennfota / Long-headed mac Dúnchada King of Ulster / Ulaid slain by his cousin's son Bécc Bairrche mac Blathmaic, later King of Ulster / Ulaid.  

-

[JM] Fianachta High King of Ireland (to 694).

 

C674 – King Eanfrith of the Hwicce d.

 

674/675 – King Aescwine of West Saxons and King Wulfhere of Mercia fight at Biedan heafde / Bedan heafde / Bieda’s / Beda’s Head / Great Bedwyn [Cooper has Beedon near Ashdown]. Mercia is repelled.

 

674-693/695 - Fínsnechta Fledach mac Dúnchada, King of Brega, High King of Ireland.  

675 – [JEF] Picts drown in the land of Awe / I Llaind Abae? Loch Awe in Argyll. 

-

[CP & JEF] King Wulfhere of Mercia, son of Penda, invades Northumbria but is defeated and d succeeded by Aethelred / Ethelred I, his brother, who marries Saint Osthryth, daughter of King Oswiu of Northumbria [other has 674 King Wulfhere of Mercia leads southern alliance to invade Northumbria; other has 671 King Aethelred grants land for founding of Saint Peter’s Monastery, Gloucester; WSK has King 675-704; TMC has Ecgfrith achieves dominance 675-679].  

-

Mercia loses Lindsey but by now has total control of Pengwern [WSK].

-

Osric King of the Hwiccefounds Bath Abbey with Bertha / Bertana first Abbess [other has 675 Osric King of the Hwicce grants Abbess a convent at Bath, under the patronage of the Bishop of Worcester].  

-

[CP] Abbot Saint Earconwald / Erconwald / Eorconwald / Eorcenwald of Chertsey consecrated Bishop of London [WSK has bishop 675-693]. 

-

Fritheuuald, sub-king of Surrey, grants lands to Chertsey Abbey and Barking.  [CP has Hildilid becomes Abbess of Barking; WSK has death of Saint Aethelburh, Abbess of Barking, an Abbey founded for her by her brother Eorcenwald Bishop of London, succeeded by Hildelith].

-

[CP] Leutheri / Liuthari Bishop of the West Saxons grants charter to Saint Aldhelm, priest, to build monastery on land at Malmesbury, called Ealdelmsburg [WSK has C674].  

-

British in Galicia sent representatives to 3rd Council of Braga.  

-

Childeric II King of the Franks d leaving Theuderic III to again become King of Neustria and Burgundy [to 691] and Clovis III to become King of Austrasia [to 676].

 

C675 - Brochfael King of Meirionydd d succeeded by son Einudd Bach / the Shortap Brochwel [MA has fl C710-750 Einudd successor to Brochwel King of Meirionydd; PCB has b 700 father of Ednyfed].  

-

Saint Aldhelm gains patronage from Aethelred, King of Mercia; he is a classically learned Latinist writer and poet, and tutor of the scholar King Aldfrith, King of Northumbria.

-

[CP] Ethelberg, wife of King Saint Edwin of Northumbria d.  

-

Tirechan’s Memoir.  

-

Muirchu’s Life of Patrick

-

Silver peningstarts to replace gold scillingas.  

-

Saint Goeznovius / Goueznou, Cornish-born Bishop of Léon d.

 

Post 675 – [other has 670s] Osric King of Hwicce d entombed in Gloucester Cathedral.

 

675-676 – [CP] Saint Benedict Biscop goes to Gaul.

 

675-691 – [WSK] Ealdorman Frithuric founds Breedon-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire with Hedde / Haedde / Headda first abbot.

 

676 – [JEF] son of Eoganan, son of Tuathalan, ?killed on Skye.-

 

[CP and WSK] Saint Cuthbert becomes hermit on Inner Farne.  

-

[CP & JEF] King Aethelred / Ethelred / Aedilred of Mercia sacks Hrofaescaestre / Rochester and ravages Kent. 

-

Putta consecrated first Bishop of Magonsaete at Hereford and refounds Cathedral, so known as Bishop of Uuestor Elih; he takes refuge with Sexwulf [MSK has Hereford founded in 679-680 by Archbishop Theodore].  

-

King Aescwine of West Saxons and Bishop Leuthere / Leutherius of Winchester d [other has 685].  

-

[CP] Centwine becomes King of the West Saxons [other has 677; WSK has king 676-685] and [ASC and CP] Saint Haeddi / Haedde, latter consecrated by Archbishop Saint Theodore in London [WSK has bishop 676-706]. 

-

Beorhtwald resigns Abbacy of Glastonbury, succeeded by Haemgils [Morris has 678 Abbot Beorhtwald of Glastonbury resigns succeeded by Hemgisl, who had studied in Ireland].  

-

Putta Bishop of Rochester translated to Hereford, succeeded by Cwichelm.  

-

Suaebhard King of Kent grants land to Abbess Aebba in Thanet. 

-

The defeat of King Máel Dúin mac Máele Fithrich and the destruction of Ailech by High King Fínsnechta Fledach.  

-

Donus Pope (to 678).  

-

Clovis III, King of Austrasia d and Dagobert II returns from exile in Ireland since 656 to become King [to 679].

 

677 – [JEF] ex-King Drest of the Fortriu Picts, earlier expelled, d in Iona.  

-

King Aethelred of Mercia raids across Kent. 

-

[CP] Saint Wilbrord goes to Ireland to join Egbert and Wigbert / Witbert. 

-

[CP and UA] plague in Ireland.  

 

678 – Ferchar Fota (Ferchar the Tall) King of the Cenél Loairn and of Dál Riata defeated on Tiree by the Britons of Alt Clut succeeded by Eochaid mac Domangart / ?Eochal Lyus. [JEF has 677 Ferchar Fota ? King ofCenel nEchdach in upper Lorn defeated by British].  

-

[CP] 5th visit to Rome of Saint Benedict Biscop with Ceolfrid and Hwaetbert [WSK has 679-680 4th pilgrimage].  -

 

 [CP and JEF] Bishop Saint Wilfrid of York driven out by King Ecgfrith of Northumbria [TMC and Archbishop Theodore] due to the enmity of Eormenburg / Eormenburh, his second, ? Kentish, wife,and goes via Saint Ethelthryth at Ely to preach to the Frisians, given refuge by King Aldegisel / Aldegisl / Aldgillis / Aldgisl / Aldgils / Eadgils probably at his capital at Utrecht [WSK has 678; Bede misdates this to 676 to fit comet of that year].  

-

[CP & JEF] Saint Theodore-Archbishop of Canterbury visits Northumbria, divides the dicocese, making Saint Bosa Bishop of York, Saint Eata Abbot of Lindisfarne Bishop of Hexham [WSK has bishop 678-686]and Eadhaed Bishop of Lindsey.  Theodore dedicates church on Lindisfarne. [CP] Saint Bosa, monk of Whitby, made Bishop of York / Deira.  [CP] Saint Eata first Bishop of Hexham.  Eadhed Bishop of Lindisfarne.  [JM has 678 Archbishop Theodore reinstates diocese of Lindisfarne, at first under Hexham]. 

-

Ex-Bishop Wynfrid travels to Continent but returns to d in Peterborough monastery.  

-

King Osric of the Hwicce founds minster at Ripple, Worcestershire. 

-

[CP] Drought in Sussex followed by famine.  

-

[Stubbs] Cwichelm Bishop of Rochester resigns, succeeded by Gebmund.  

-

Colgú mac Faílbe Flaind King of the Eoganachta in Munster d.  

-

[CP] Saint Agatho Pope (to 681).

 

C678 - [JM] Caedmon d [CP suggests 680; WSK has 680].  

-

Saint Willibrord a monk in the Abbey of Rathmelsigi / Rath Melsigi in Connaught (till C690).

 

679 – [JEF] son of Eoganan son of Tuathalan killed ? on Skye.  

-

Fáilbe mac Pípáin 8th abbot of Iona d succeded by  Adomnan [CP has Failbe, 8th Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Saint Adomnan / Adamnan / Adomnán mac Rónáin; WSK has 679; JEF has 678-705 and shows his relationships with the Ceenl Conaill]. 

-

[CP, WSK, JEF] Aelfwine / Aelfwini, Sub-king of Deira, killed in battle against King Aethelred / Aedilred son of Penda of Mercia at River Trent, leaving brother Egfrid / Ecgfrith sole ruler of Northumbria ending Northumbrian supremacy [TMC has 679].  

-

Lindsey retaken by King Aethelred / Ethelred of Mercia.  [JM has 678 Archbishop Saint Theodore persuades Northumbria and Mercia to recognise Trent as frontier]. Lindsey is finally incorporated into Mercia.  

-

[CP and WSK] Saint Wilfrid in Rome for first appeal. [WSK] Pope Agatho confirms division of dicocese but appoints Saint Wilfrid to York and orders he be allowed to appoint his co-Bishops. 

-

[CP] Diocese of Lindsey formed at Sidnacester / Syddensis / Lincoln with Eadhaed consecrated its first Bishop].  

-

[CP] Eosterwine ordained priest. Bishop Eadhaed expelled from Lindsey.  

-

Cuthwine consecrated first Bishop of Leicester. 

-

[JR and WSK] Queen Saint Ethelthryth / Aethelthryth Abbess of Ely d succeeded by sister Saint Seaxburh, Queen of Kent, whose daughter Eormenhild, widow of King Wulfhere of Mercia, becomes Abbess of Minster-in-Sheppey [CP has 679-680 death through plague of Saint Ethelthryth].  

-

[CP] King Hlothhere of Kent grants land of Reculver to Abbot Bertwald / Berhtwald / Brihtwald in the oldest extant original charter in England.  

-

Cennfaelad, author of The Little Primer d.  

-

Bécc Bairrche mac Blathmaic, King of Ulster / Ulaid, invades Ui Neill lands but is defeated by High King at Tailltin and d.  

-

Dagobert II King of Austrasia d succeeded by Theuderic III of Neustria and Burgundy, who becomes King of the Franks [to 691]. Mayor of the Palace Pippin II [to 687].

 

679-680 – [CP] Return of Saint Benedict Biscop with John the archchanter to Monkwearmouth.  

-

Diocese of Worcester founded in Kingdom of Hwicce as Episcopus Hwicciorum with Bosel first Bishop [CP has 679 possible founding of Diocese of Hwicce; WSK has 679-680].  

-

[CP] Council of Rome; first trial of Saint Wilfrid’s appeal [to 680].

 

679-685 – [Chadwick, following Mommsen] initial stage of the Historia Brittonum written in Northumbria. 

 

679-686 – Saint Adomnan writes De Locis Sanctis / The Holy Places.

 

680 – Ferchar the Tall, chief of the Cinel Loarn, King of Dal Riada restores kingdom.  

-

[JEF] Dunnottar / Dun Foither in north of southern Pictland besieged ? by Bridei.  

-

[CP and JEF] Saint Wilfrid returns from Rome with a papal petition for his restoration but his case is dismissed at Saint Theodore’s Synod of Hatfield and he is imprisoned by King Egfrid for 9 months at Inbroninis then Dunbar / Dynbaer.

-

Aethelwine / Ethelwine / Elwin consecrated Bishop of Lindsey [WSK has bishop 680-692].

-

Venerable Bede given to Saint Benedict Biscop and enters Monkwearmouth [CP has 679 or 680; WSK has 680]. 

-

[JM, CP, WSK] Hilda Abbess of Whitby d succeeded by Saint Queen Eanflaed and her daughter Saint Elfled / Aelfflaed as joint Abbesses.  

-

[CP] Saint Ethelthryth Abbess of Ely d.  

-

Fiannamail mac Máele Tuile King of Leinster slain.  

-

[CP] Murder of Ebroin / Ebrinus, Mayor of the Palace of the Franks, succeeded by Pepin II [or 681; but see 679].  

-

Death of Bishop Saint Agilbert.

C680 – Monastry of Hackness dependent of Whitby built just before Abbess Hilda d.

-  

Poedlew ap Podgen, King of Dunoding d succeeded by Iddon ap Poedlew [MA has fl 680-720 Eifion successor to Pobddelw King of Dunoding; PCB has Eifion ap Pobdedeliw b 670 father of Brochwel].  

-

Beli ap Eiludd King of Powys d succeeded by Gwylog ap Beli [MA has fl 660-690 Gwylog successor of Beli King of Powys; other has C695 Gwylog ap Beli becomes King of Powys; PCB has b 640 father of Elise]. 

-

Llandaff and Llowes monasteries and Abbey of Penally first mentioned in Llandaff Charters. 

-

Mildburg, daughter of King Merewalh of the Magonsaetan, founds Much Wenlock with help of Frankish nun Liobsynde. 

-

Saint Botwulf / Botolph / Botulph / Botulf of Thorney d.  

-

Winfrid / Saint Boniface educated at an abbey in Escanceaster / Exeter. 

-

King Aldegisel / Aldegisl / Aldgillis / Aldgisl / Aldgils / Eadgils of the Frisians d succeeded by his ?son Radbod / Redbad.

-

The age of the sceatta (to 750], small, thick silver coins which evolved out of the latest, debased gold coins, pennies or denarii as in weight and fineness they approximated the form the English penny was to retain for centuries, and contemporary references suggest this is how they were known, initially in Kent and Thames estuary [Musset has 670].

 

C680-720 - [MA] fl Rhufon successor to Einion King of Rhos.  

By 681 - Bertha / Bertana first Abbess of Bath dies, succeeded by Beorngyth.

 

681 – [CP] Bruide Mac Bili/Brude mac Bile, Strathclyde King, son of Neithon and a Pictish daughter of Eanfrith King of Bernicia, and brother of Owain of Strathclyde, leads Pictish resistance, [CP] recovering the Orkneys from Dal Riada[WSK has 682; JEF has Bridei ravages Orkney 681]. [JM has Bridei II King of the Picts recovers the Orkneys from Dal Riada; WSK has prince Connel Cael mac Dunchad d 681 and possible attack by Bruideon Dunnotar and the Pictish kingdom of Circhenn]. 

-

[JEF] British invasion of Mag Line.  

-

[CP] Theodore makes Trumberht / Trumbert / Tunbert Bishop of Hexham, Trumwine / Trumuni Bishop of the Picts [JEF has at Abercorn near Iudeu, n Beornhaeth’s sub-kingdom of Niudaria / Niuduari] subject to him [other has post 680 – Monastery of Abercorn becomes episcopal see of Trumuni / Trumwine, Bishop of the Picts; WSK has Northumbrians establish Anglian bishopric at Abercorn near Queensferry on the Forth C681]. 

-

Jarrow given to Saint Benedict Biscop of Monkwearmouth by King Ecgfrith [WSK] who appoints Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid its first abbot [CP has 681 or 682; WSK has 681; JR has 682].  Commemoration slab of dedication of Saint Benedict Biscop’s church at Jarrow the first recorded Northumbrian writing [other has 685]. [CP] Benedict appoints Eosterwine to represent him at Monkwearmouth, Ceolfrid at Jarrow. 

-

[CP] Saint Wilfrid released at the urgings of King Egfrid’s aunt, Ebba, Abbess of Coldingham, and goes to Mercia and Wessex, then Sussex [to 686; other has Saint Wilfrid goes to Sussex; CP has 681-686; other has 684; he is made first Bishop of Selsey and founds Selsey Abbey on land granted by King Æðelwealh / Aethelwalh of Sussex].  

-

Baldred of Mercia gives charter with land to Glastonbury. 

-

Máel Dúin mac Máele Fithrich King of Ailech defeated and slain at the Battle of Bla Sléibe (County Londonderry) by the Ciannachta of Glenn Geimin and by his successor Fland mac Máele Tuile of the rival Cenél Feradaig. 

-

Dungal Eilni King of the Dal nAraidi and his ally Cenn Faelad the Ciannachta of Derry killed by the Ui Neill in the fortress of Dun Cethirnn, combustio regum i nDun Ceithirnn.

 

Post 681 – [CP] destruction of Coldingham double monastery by fire.

 

681-686 – [CP] plague at Selsey.

 

682 – Dundurn in southern Pictland besieged ? by Bridei and Verturians.   

-

Saint Benedict Biscop of Monkwearmouth Abbey goes to Rome and leaves cousin Eosterwine abbot at Monkwearmouth and Saint Ceolfrid / Ceolfrith at Jarrow.  

-

[CP] King Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon / Cadwallader / Cadwalader /Kadwaladyr Vendigeit / Cadwaladr the Blessed / Catgualartof Gwynedd d of plague succeeded by Ifwr ap Cadwaladr [AC has 682 Mortalitas magna fuit in brittannia in qua catgualart filius catguollaun obit; TMC has Catgualart f. Catguolaun King of Gwynnedd 682]. 

-

King Centwine of West Saxons puts Britons to flight as far as the sea, defeating King Ifr ap Cadwalladr of Gwynedd and local British forces. He grants lands at Quantock Wood and Crycbeorh / Creechbarrow Hill [Cooper has Creech St Michael and Creech Hill, near Glastonbury] to Haemgils, Abbot of Glastonbury.

-

[DOC] Cenn Fáelad mac Colgan / Colggen, Ui Briuin Seola King of Connacht, rex Connacht, killed by sub-tribe he is subjugating.  

-

[JEF] Mag Line of the Ui Choelbad in Ulster invaded by British, Raith Mor Maige Line assaulted and king slain.  Dunadd / Dun At in Argyll besieged by Britons a year later. 

-

Mermin Prince of Alt Clut killed in Man or Ulster.  British fight in Irish battle of Rathmore in Moylinny.

 

[CP and UA] plague in Ireland.  

-

Saint Leo II Pope (to 683).

 

C682 - Culmin / Cwlfyn ap PetrocKing of Dumnonia / Dyfeint d succeeded by son Dungarth ap Culmin, under whom Durotriges land lost to West Saxons [MA has fl 640-670 Erbin successor to Tewdr King of Dumnonia].  

 

683 – [WSK] Saint Aebbe, Abbess of Coldingham d. 

-

[CP] King Sighere of East Saxons d leaving Sebbi sole King.  

-

Eadwulf and Ecgwald (to 685) are sub-kings in Sussex. 

-

[AC] Mortalitas in hibernia. [CP and UA plague in Ireland]. 

-

Finguine mac Cathail Con-cen-máthair King of the Eoganachta in Munster enacts Cáin Fuithirbeat Mag Fuithirbe on the borders of Cork and Kerry. 

-

[DOC] Dúnchad Muirisci mac Tipraite / Mailduib, King of Connacht killed by his own people. 

 

684 – [CP and JEF] King Ecgfrith of Northumbria sends Ealdorman Beorht/ Bert / Berctred, son of sub-king Beornhaeth, to raid the Irishin Campus Breg / Brega / Meath, having ignored the plea of Saint Ecgberht not to do so [WSK has 684; JEF has British allied with Finnsnechtae Fledach, King of Sil nAedo Slane in the southern Ui Neill kingdom of Brega; TMC has 684].  

-

[CP] Synod of Twyford; Bishop Tunbert of Hexham deposed, Saint Cuthbert installed [CP consecrated 685; WSK has 685; JEF has 684]. 

-

[WSK] Eadric with South Saxon backing invades Kent and forces King Hlothere to make him joint King of Kent.  

-

Saint Benedict II Pope (to 685).

 

C684 – [CP] Saint Benedict Biscop’s 6th visit to Rome [WSK has 5th]. 

 

Ifwr ap Cadwaladr, King of Gwynedd d succeeded by his son Idwal / Idwallon Iwrch (The Roebuck) [other has 682 Cadwaladr succeeded by Idwal Iwrch / Idwal the Roebuck / Idwal ap Cadwaladr / Intgual; MA has fl 710-750, successor to Cadwalladr as 11th King of Gwynedd; PCB has b 660 father of Rhodri Molwynog]. 

 

685 –King Ecgfrith / Egferth / Egfrid of Northumbria has Cuthbert made Bishop of Hexham [CP & other has 684 Bishop Trumbert / Tunberht of Hexham deposed, succeeded by Saint Cuthbert, consecrated 685; WSK has 685].  [WSK] Bishop Saint Cuthbert of Hexham swaps his see for Lindisfarne, succeeded by restored Saint Eata.  

-

[CP] King Egfrid / Ecgfrith / Egferth of Northumbria is killed by his fratuelis / cousin Bruide mac Bili / Bridei II King of the Picts, King of Fortrenn (north of Firth of Forth), son of half-sister of Eanfled, in battle at Gueith Lin Garan / Linn Garan / the Battle at the Heron Pool / Dun Nectain / Dun Nechtain / Nechtansmere / Nechtanesmere / Donnichen / Dunnichen Moss,south of Forfar, Angus [JEF says Dunachton northeast of Kingussie and suggests Bridei’s capital and episcopal seat was at Abernethy south of the Tay, where the monastery was founded by ‘a son of Irp’; TMC has this ends Northumbrian domination in 685, and quotes Bede: Picts, Irish in Britain, and some of the British – TMC suggests Alclud and Man, with Manau Gododdin becoming an area of dispute -recovered their freedom from Northumbrian overlordship ‘and they have retained it for about 46 years’ 685-731; CP liberating the Southern Picts from Northumbrian control; WSK has 685; JEF has 685 and the slaying of Dargart son of Finnguine, King of Brega]. 

-

King Ecgfrith is buried on Iona.  [CP] His wife Iurminburg / Eormenburg takes the veil.  

-

[CP] Bishop Trumwine of the Southern Picts leaves his see at Abercorn monastery on the Forth and retires to Whitby and nuns flee to Cuthbert’s diocese [other has Goddodin sacks Northumbrian Abercorn monastery near Edinburgh, regaining their freedom from Northumbria, but are later reabsorbed].  

-

Aldfrith / Ealdfrith / Aldfrid becomes King of Northumbria,a philosopher king,son of Oswiu / Oswy, the first King named on a silver sceatta and who had married Fin, daughter of Colman Rimid, the northern Ui Neill High King of Ireland [WSK has King 685-705].  He is called back from Ireland [CP he had also been in Iona] to be King by his half-sister Saint Aelfflaed Abbess of Whitby on Saint Cuthbert’s advice. [JEF] had been a monk on Iona and married Wessex princess Cuthburh. 

-

[WSK] Saint Theodore meets Saint Wilfrid at London and they agree that Saint Wilfrid be Bishop of Ripon [other has 686 Archbishop Theodore is reconciled to Saint Wilfrid and with King Ethelred of Mercia and Elfled, Abbess of Whitby, Aldfrid’s half-sister, writes to persuade King Aldfrid of Northumbria to allow him to return from Wessex; he is restored to York, Hexham (Saint Acca retiring but staying with him) and Ripon].  

-

Jarrow church consecrated. 

-

[CP] Caedwalla forced into exile gathers forces then begins to fight for Wessex [WSK has r 685-688 or 689].  

-

[CP] King Hlothere of Kent d succeeded by Eadric [WSK has king 684-686]. 

-

Emperor Constantine IV dies succeeded by Justinian II [to 711].

-

John V Pope (to 686). 

 

C685 – fl Anarawd / Anarawc Gwalchcrwn / Gallgrwn / Walltgrwn ap Merfyn Mawr prince of Man [PCB has b 655 father of Tudwal].

-

[WSK] King Meerwalh of the Magonsaeta d succeeded by sons Merchelm and Mildfrith. 

-

King Guoidcant / Gwyddgan ap Morwd of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d succeeded by Pascent / Pasgen Buelltap Gwyddaint [MA has fl 660-690 Pascensuccessor of Gwyddaint King of Buellt and Gwerthrynion; PCB has father of Tewdr and Gloud, b C700]. 

-

Winfrid / Saint Boniface studies in monastery ruled by Abbot Wulfhard in Escancastre / Examchester / Exeter.

 

686– Bishop Saint Eata of Hexham dies, succeeded by Saint Acca [CP has 686-687].  

-

Abbot Eosterwine of Monkwearmouth d of plague, succeeded on return of Saint Benedict Biscop by deacon Sigfrith / Sigfrid.  

-

[WSK] Coldingham Abbey destroyed by fire.  

-

[CP] First visit of Saint Adamnan / Adomnan to court of Aldfrith King of Northumbria [other has 685; WSK has 686]. 

-

Colman Rimid, the northern Ui Neill High King of Ireland, raises ransome to release 60 Irish prisoners and King Aldfrith of Northumbria sends back the prisoners in exchange for Saint Adomnan’s copy of De Locis Sanctis

-

Saint Herbert of Derwentwater makes last visit to Saint Cuthbert. 

-

King Centwine of the West Saxons deposed and forced to enter a monastery by Caedwalla [ASC has 685]. [Other has 686 King Caedwalla / Cadwalla of West Saxons defeats under kings and assumes sole rule for 2 years; other has 682 King Cedwalla of Wessex grants land at Kemele / Kemble to Malmesbury Abbey]. 

-

King Aethelwalh/ Aedelwealh / Ethelwalh of South Saxons killed by King Caedwalla, succeeded by Berhtun and Andhun [WSK has pre 685]. 

-

Saint Wilfrid in Wessex with Caedwalla, who confirms Wilfrid’s charters in Selsey [CP has C686; other has 680 Caeduealla King of Wessex grants land to Bishop Wilfrid in Pagenham and other places; other has 683 King Caeduualla of Wessex grants lands to Bishop Wilfrid to found Selsey Abbey].  

-

King Caedwalla and brother Mul ravage Kent and Wight [CP has C686; WSK has 687], killing its Jutish King Arwald and his two nephews who are first forcibly baptised, becoming the single Saint Arwald [JR has Arwald as England’s last pagan king].  They vow to extirpate heathenism and confirm ¼ of the island to Bishop Wilfrid. Jutes forcibly converted or killed and made to speak West Saxon.  

-

[WSK] Sighere King of Essex conquers Kent with Mul, brother of Caedwalla.Caedwalla and Mul give the island of Hoo in the Thames / Medway to Peterborough Abbey.  Cadwalla driven out of Sussex by ealdormen Berthun and Andun but he kills them and Wessex holds sway in Sussex to 726

-

West Saxons take Suther-ge from Mercia and [CP] recover Dorchester, ending the Mercian see.  

-

Saint Wilfrid resigns Bishopric of Selsey to see of Winchester. 

-

[CP] King Eadric / Edric of Kent d leaving an interregnum.  

-

Conon Pope (to 687).

 

C686 – Saint Aldhelm writes treatise on virginity for Cuthburga, sister of King Ine / Ini of Wessex, Abbess of Barking.  

 

686-687 – [CP] Saint Wilfrid restored as Bishop of Hexham [JEF has Wilfrid restored to communion in Northumbria 687, maybe at Ripon].

 

687 – [JEF] Cano son of Gartnait of the Cenel nGartnait slain ?on Skye.  

-

[CP] Saint Johannes / John of Beverley consecrated Bishop of Hexham [others have 685, 686; WSK has bishop 618-717]. 

-

[CP] Bishop Saint Cuthbert of Lindisfarne resigns to resume life as hermit then d succeeded by Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid Abbot of Jarrow [WSK has d on Inner Farne 687].

-

Mul of Wessex succeeds as King of Kent [WSK has 687].  King Caedwalla ravages Kent after Mul and 12 others burned there. [Other has 685 Caedwalla is wounded].  

-

Pepin / Pippin II of Heristal wins Battle of Testry and establishes the ascendancy of Austrasia over Neustria; he accepts Theuderic III, King of Neustria and Burgundy as king [to 691].  He becomes dux et princeps Francorum [to 695].

-

[CP] Saint Sergius I Pope (to 701); introduces singing ‘Lamb of God’ in the mass.  

 

687-688 – [CP] Saint Wilfrid administers the see of Lindisfarne [TMC says 687-688 leaving a scar on the community there].

-

Waebheard / Swaefheard King of Essex succeeds as King of Kent with Oswine and Wihtred [JM says Wihtred 691; WSK has Wihtred king 690-725].  

 

688 – [WSK] Pictish leader Garnait leads fugitives from Skye to Ireland.  

-

[WSK and JEF] King Maelduin / Mael Duin mac Conall Crandomna of Dal Riata / the Corcu Reti d [other has 680; other has 689 Máel Dúin mac Conaill King of Dal Riata d succeeded by brother Domnall Dond].  

-

Saint Eadberht consecrated Bishop of Lindisfarne.  

-

[CP] Abbot Sigfrid / Sigfrith of Weamouth and Saint Benedict Biscop d and Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid becomes Abbot of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow [CP has 688 or 689; WSK has 689 but also Abbot 688-716; JR has 684; JEF has 689]. 

-

[CP and JEF] Saint Adamnan/ Adomnan’s 2nd visit to court of King Aldfrith of Northumbria; he finds plague still raging.  He visits Wearmouth-Jarrow and meets Venerable Bede. 

-

[CP] Bishop Putta of Hereford d succeeded by Tyrhtel / Thyrtell / Tirhtullus.  

-

[CP] King Caedwalla of Wessex goes to Rome on pilgrimage to d [in 689] of the wounds he received in Kent. 

-

King Ine / Ini succeeds King Cadwalla / Caedwalla of Wessex and holds South Saxons in subjection [WSK has King 688-726; TMC has issues laws 688-694].

-

[WSK] Oswine becomes King of Kent to 690 [JEF has 689 Swaefberht succeeds as King of Kent with Oswine and Swaefheard]. 

-

Saint Ségéne, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Forannán. 

-

[DOC] Sil nAedo Slaine Kings of northern Brega take over lands of the Ciannachta south of the Boyne after Battle of Imlech Pich, at which Uarcride us Osseni is slain.

-

Perctarit King of the Lombards d succeeded by Cunipert. 

688–692 – Saint Adomnan, Abbot of Iona, writes Vita Columbae / Life of Colmcille / Columba [Chadwick has 696; WSK has 688-692; JEF has C700].

689 – [CP] Death of Saint Benedict Biscop [or 690; WSK has 689].  

-

[WSK] Swaefheard, son of Sebbi, King of Essex; Wikipedia has Swaefred / Swaebeard king C695-709.  

-

Saint Guthlac becomes a freebooter.  

-

Forannán, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Fland Feblae mac Scandláin, Abbot and Bishop. 

-

King Radbod of Frisia defeated by Pippin of Herstal at battle of Dorestad and cedes West Frisia / Frisia Citerior/ Nearer Frisia, from the Scheldt to the Vlie, to the Franks.

Pre 690 - [CP] Abortive attempt of Saint Egbert to evangelise Germany.

690 – [JEF] Dal Riada attacks the Cruithni and the Ulaid in NE Ireland.  

-

[CP] King Witred / Wihtred of Kent takes the throne [ASC has ruling jointly with Webheard in 692; WSK has King 690-725; other has 693]. 

-

[CP] Death of Archbishop Saint Theodore of Tarsus [WSK and JEF have 690]. 

-

[CP] Saint Wilbrord’s mission to Frisia.  He arrives at mouth of Rhine and goes to Traiectum / Utrecht.  With him are companions including Adalbert who settles at Egmond. 

 

C690 – Abbot Eadbert of Lindisfarne replaces thatched roof on wooden walls with lead.  

-

[WSK] Saint Curetan / Kiritinus / Boneface, Bishop and Abbot of Ross maic Bairend / Rosemarkie in Ross, fl to C710.  

-

Sigfrith Abbot of Monkwearmouth d succeeded by Abbot Ceolfrid of Jarrow.  

-

Cadwgan / Catgocaun / Gwgawn Tredylig ap Caten becomes King of Dyfed and Brycheiniog [MA has fl 680-710 and fl 690-720 Cadwgon successor in Brycheiniog of King Cathen of Dyfed; PCB has b 650, father of Rhain]. 

-

King Ine / Ini of Wessex exacts wergeld from Wihtred King of Kent [Ellis] for death of Caedwalla.  

-

Laws of King Ine / Ini of Wessex [CP has 690-693; other has C695]. 

-

Saint Aldhelm writes poem to celebrate the church of Withington in the Hwicce for Abbess Bugga, daughter of King Centwine of Wessex.  

-

? Concar Cheroenoc nephew of King Alain II of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais, King of Cornuaille.  He flees overseas at some point with his son Budic Mor / Judon.  

-

[JEF] Kingarth reforms ? Easter calculation.

-

Alain II Hir (The Tall) / Urbien, King of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais and Dumnonia, son of Saint Iudicael King of Damnonia, d succeeded by Urbon son of Alain II, King of Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais and Dumnonia. 

 

690-692 - King Radbod of Frisia defeated by Pippin of Herstal who takes Utrecht; Radbod withdraws into Friesland or Heligoland.

 

C690-720 - [MA] fl Gloud successor of Pascen King of Buellt and Gwerthrynion [PCB has b 730]. 

 

691 – [CP has or 692] Second expulsion of Saint Wilfrid, who leaves with Saint Acca [other has 690 Saint Wilfrid Bishop of Ripon expelled from Northumbria by King Aldfrith due to his continued opposition to division of the old York see into four; WSK has 690 Saint Wilfrid driven from Northumbria by King Aldfrith].  

-

King Aethelred / Aedilred / Ethelred of Mercia gives refuge to Saint Wilfrid [WSK to 702] and grants land signed by Bishop Saint Haedde of Wessex.  

-

[CP and WSK] Bishop Saint Seaxwulf of Lichfield d succeeded by Headda / Headdi / Eatheadus of Sidnachester, Abbot of Breedon-on-the-Hill, but with Saint Wilfrid at first officiating [WSK has 692; CP has Bishop Sexwulf of Lichfield dies pre 692].

-

Bishop Bosel resigns see of Worcester / Hwicce succeeded by Ottfor / Oftfor who is consecrated by Saint Wilfrid at a time when Oshere is Sub-king of the Hwicce [WSK has king 679-693]. 

-

Bishop Cuthwine of Leicester d. 

-

Fergus mac Áedáin King of Ulster / Uliad defeated by Dal Riata, which despoils Ulaid and the Cruithne.  

-

Theuderic III, King of the Franks d succeded by Clovis IV [to 695].

691-692 – [CP] 2nd voyage of Adamnan to Ireland.

 

691-703 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes De Arte Metrica; De Schematibus et Tropis Sacrae Scripturae; and ?De Orthographia

 

692 – [CP and JEF] Bruide Mac Bili / Brude / Bridei mac Bile King of the Picts d, buried on Iona, succeeded by Taran / Tarain, son of Entifidich / Ainbtech who is killed this year.  

-

Dumnagual / Dumngual / Domgal / Dyfnwal brother of Elfin becomes King of Alt Clut / Ala Cluaithi [other has 693; WSK has king 693-697; JEF has d 693; [WSK] has pre C 694 – Donald is King of Alt Clut / Strathclyde].  

-

Venerable Bede made a deacon [CP has 691 or 692; JEF has 692].   

-

Bishop Aethelwine of Lindsey d.  

-

Saint Wilfrid officiates as Bishop of Leicester.  

-

 [JM] King Ine of Wessex unsuccessfully attempts to challenge Mercian supremacy.  

-

Nothelm becomes King of Sussex ruling jointly with Watt, Osric and Aethelstan.  

-

Abbot Bertwald / Berhtwald / Brihtwald of Reculver resigns, succeeded by Heahbert, and is elected Archbishop of Canterbury. He grants lands to found a monastery at Lydesige / Lidsey, Aldingburne / Aldingbourn.  

-

Fergus mac Áedáin King of Ulster / Ulaid slain by own people.

 

C692 – [CP] 1st visit of Saint Wilbrord to Rome.

 

692-693 – [CP] Saint Wilfrid consecrates Swidbert first Bishop of the Frisians.

 

693 – [WSK] Bruide son of Bili King of the Picts / King of Fortriu d succeeded by Taran son of Entifidich king 693-697

-

[JEF] Dumngual / Dyfnwal King of Alt Clut d [WSK has Alpin King of Strathclyde / Alt Clutd]. Succeeded by Bili / Beli map / ab Elffin [PCB has d 722 father of Tewdr; other has C694 Bili / Beli son of Elfin becomes King of Alt Clut; WSK has king to 722; TMC has Beli f. Elfin King of Allt Clud / Alcud 722].

-

Edgar/Eadgar consecrated Bishop of Lindsey.  

-

Bishop Ottfor of Worcester d succeeded by Saint Ecgwine / Ecgwin / Egwin / Eegwineof Evesham [CP has post 693; other has 692; WSK has 693-711].  

-

Saint Earconwald / Eorconwald / Eorcenwald Bishop of London d succeeded by Waldhere / Wealdheri [CP has 692-694; other has 692].

-

[CP] Peace between Wessex and Kent.

-

[CP] Saint Berhtwald / Brihtwald / Beorhtweald / Bertwald / Berthwald / Beorhtwald / Beretuald Abbot of Reculver consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in Gaul [WSK has 692 consecrated by Godin, Bishop of Lyons]. 

-

Land at Battersea granted to Saint Peter’s Westminster. 

-

[DOC] Bran Mut mac Conaill mac Faelain King of Leinster d.

 

693-699 – [WSK] King Osric of the Hwiccefounds minster at Inkberrow, Gloucestershire [but also has ceases to r 685].

 

694 – [WSK] Saint Queen Eafa / Aebbe / Domneva Abbess of Minster-in-Thanet d succeeded by her daughter Saint Mildrith / Milthryth.

 

C694 – [CP has 692-694; WSK has 693/694] King Sebbi of East Saxons abdicates to enter monastery and d succeeded by Sigeheard / Sighard r jointly with brother Swaefred / Swefred [Stubbs has 695]. 

-

Fland mac Máele Tuile King of Ailech makes brother Urthuile mac Máele Tuile Joint King.

 

690s – Abbot Saint Aldhelm founds daughter houses of Malmesbury in Frome and Bradford-on-Avon. 

 

694-701/703 - Loingsech mac Óengusso High King of Ireland.

 

695 – [WSK] death of Prince Domnall Donn mac Conall Crandomna of Dal Riata.  

-

[CP] Translation of Saint Ethelthryth.  

-

Finsnechta Fledach mac Dunchado, High King of Ireland d succeeded by Loingsech mac Oengusso.  

-

[DOC] Finsnechtae Fledach of the Sil nAedo Slaine King of Brega d.  

-

[CP] Wilbrord’s 2nd visit to Rome; Pope Sergius I consecrates Saint Willibrord in Rome in the name of Clement and gives him the pallium as Bishop of the Frisians. Willibrord lands in Frisia with 12 followers, including Saint Suitbert /Suidbert / Suitbertus / Swithbert / Swidbert (who has been consecrated as a missionary bishop by Saint Wilfrid Bishop of York) establishes a monastery at Utrecht and is joined by Saint Adalbert, who becomes Archdeacon of Utrecht. Saint Suitbert establishes a see at Dorostadium / Dorostat / Wijk bij Duurstede on a branch of the Rhine. 

-

Clovis IV King of the Franks d succeeded by Childebert III [to 711].  Pippin II, Mayor of the Palace d succeeded by Grimoald II in Neustria [to 714] and Drogo in Burgundy [to 708].

-

Emperor Justinian II overthrown by Leontius and Tiberius Apsimarus [to 705].

 

C695 – Old Saxons destroy Bructeri and occupy Westphalia.

 

C695-704 – [WSK] Saint Adomnan tries to persuade Picts to adopt Roman usage.

 

696 - Domnall Donn / Domnall Dond / Domnall mac Conaill King of Dal Riada killed. 

-

[CP] Witenagemot of Bersted; laws of King Witred of Kent [WSK has 695 King Wihtred of Kent issues a law code]. 

-

Finguine mac Cathail Con-cen-máthair King of the Eoganachta in Munster d. 

-

Fergal Aidne mac Artgaile mac Guaire King of Connacht d.

 

696-697 -  [CP] 3rd voyage of Adamnan to Ireland. 

-

Ferchar Fota d. [JEF has Cenel Loairn / Cenel nEchdach King of Lorn / Loarn Ferchar Fota d].

 

697 – [JEF] Taran / Tarain, son of Entifidich / Ainbtech King of the Picts expelled to Iona then later flees to Ireland 699-700 and is murdered, succeeded by Bruide mac Derile / Bridei mac Der-Ilei [JEF also has 696/697 expulsion from Pictavia of Tarain son of Enfidaig and also has 696/697 and Der-Ilei his Pictish mother, he a son of Dagart d 685 of the Cenel Comgaill of Cowal, son of Finnguine Fota d 689].

-

Bridei guarantees the Lex innocentium; as does Eochu son of Domangart, kinsman of Domnall Dond of Argyll, who is killed C696-697, along withCoeti, English monk and Bishop of Iona / episcopus Iae, ? chief bishop in southern Pictavia; Curetan Bishop of Ross / episcopus Ruis, prim-escop in Fortriuwith seat at Rosemarkie in Black Isle; Conamail mac Failbe, successor to Adomnan [JEF has Pictish adherence to the Lex innocentium signed by King Bridei, the Bishop of Iona and the Bishop of Rosemarkie].

-

Bridei slays Northumbrian thegn Beorht [other has 699 Picts kill Ealdorman Beorht / Beorhtred / Berctred / Berht of Northumbria; Hunter-Blair has 698; WSK has Bruide son of Derile / Bredei filius Derelei king 697-706 and the battle against Bernicia in 698; JEF has 698 Northumbrian dux Berctfrith / Berctred son of Beornhaeth slain in battle against the Picts].

-

[WSK] Eochaid mac Domangart King of Dal Riata d overthrown by Ainbcellach.  Ferchar the Tall / Ferchar mac Feredaig, Chief of the Cenél Loairn, King of DalRiada d [other has 696] succeeded by Ainbcellach who r 697-698 [WSK has probable slayer of his predecessor and king 697-698, son of Ferchar Fota of the Cenel Loairn; JEF has Fiannamail son of Ossene son of Donnchad Kin of the Cenel nGabrain succeeding Eochu].  

-

[CP, JEF & WSK] Mercian thegns kill Northumbrian Queen Saint Osthryth / Osthfryth / Osthryda, Osthryd, daughter of Oswy, Queen of King Aethelred. 

-

Irish bishops and abbots at Synod of Birr in Offaly (Adamnan’s Synod), led by Flann Feblae, Bishop and Abbot of Armagh, including Muirchu and Aed Bishop of Sletty, accept Roman rite and endorse Saint Adomnan’s code of war, the Cáin Adomnáin, Lex innocentium, ‘Law of Innocents’ [WSK has 697; JEF has 696/7; other has 639 Synod of Birr, where Adomnan Abbot of Iona promulgates Cain Adamnain, freeing Irish women from bondage, ? and ending Roman Easter controversy in Ireland; Chambers has the witness list includes Faradach, grandson of Artur; Bécc Bairrche mac Blathmaic King of Ulster / Ulaid; Fland mac Máele Tuile King of Ailech and brother Urthuile mac Máele Tuile; Saint Ecgberht]. 

-

The Ulaids and the Britons lay waste to Mag Muirtheimne in County Louth. 

-

[DOC] Mael Fothartaig mac Maelduib, Kingof the Airgialla d. 

 

?697/696/716 – King Wihtred of Kent grants lands to Kentish churches and monasteries at the Council of Baccancelde / Bapchild, near Sittingbourne. 

 

698 – Verturian suzerainty reaches the Forth? Iona establishes a principate over Pictland. ? Culross given to Saint Servanus / Serf or his church to replace Abercorn as seat of bishop of Fife and Manau.

-

Ainbcellach mac Ferchair King of the Cenel nEchdach in Dal Riata deposed [WSK] and carried in chains to Ireland, succeeded by Fiannamail ua Dúnchado / Fiannamail mac h-ua Dúnchado[WSK has grandson of Dunchad]. 

-

[CP] Saint Eadberht / Eadbert Bishop of Lindisfarne d succeeded by Saint Eadfrith, author of the Lindisfarne Gospels [WSK has Bishop 698-721].  

-

[JR] Saint Cuthbert’s elevation.  

-

Saint Willibrord establishes a monastery at Echternach.

 

699 – [CP] Ethelwald of Farne d.  

Saint Cuthbert’s body found incorrupted; his cult develops.

-

[WSK] Saint Wilfrid appeals by proxy to Rome and Pope Sergius I orders a Northumbrian synod.  

-

Aurthuile, chieftain of the Cinel Eoghain, takes refuge in Britain.  

 

C699-700 – Saint Guthlac renounces freebooting and moves to the Island of Crowland in the Fens.

 

699-702 - [CP and UA] plague in Ireland.  

 

C699-705 – Anonymous Life of Cuthbert written at Lindisfarne.

 

699-716 – Bishop Gebmund of Rochester d succeeded by Tobias [CP has post 696; ASC has 693].

 

By 700 – Mercia makes Wrocenset and Magonset client kingdoms and controls Middle Angles in east Midlands.  

 

8THCENTURY CE/AD

 

700 – [WSK] Fiannamail ua Dúnchado / Fiannamail mac h-ua Dúnchado King of Dal Riata (or of Dál nAraidi) killed succeeded by Selbach mac ?Eogan [WSK has brother of King Ainbcellach and king 700-723] to 719; JEF has Fiannamail King of the Cenel nGabrain d succeeded by Conamail of the Cenel Gartnait to 706]. 

-

Abbot Saint Aldhelm builds the first organ in England.  

-

Dungarth ap Culmin King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint / Defnas d succeeded by son Geraint / Geruntius / Gerontius / Gerren ap Dungarth [MA has fl C670-700 Geraint successor to Erbin King of Dumnonia; PCB has last independent king of Dumnonia].  

-

Fland mac Máele Tuile / Flann Finn / Flann Albus King of Ailech killed.  His brother Joint King Urthuile expelled to Britain.  

-

Cunipert King of the Lombards d followed by chaos (to 712).

 

C700 – [WSK] Cu-Chuimne the Wise, monk and canonist at Iona (to C747). 

-

Bewcastle Cross erected near Anglian / British frontier.  

-

Lindisfarne Gospels written by Eadfrith Bishop of Lindisfarne with binding made by Saint Aethelwold, later successor to Eadfrith.  

-

Kingdom of Dogfeiling reabsorbed by Gwynedd.  

-

[WSK] Death of Saint Waeburh / Werberga / Werburh / Wærburh / Werburgh / Werburga, Abbess of her foundation at Hanbury, Staffordshire [Wikipedia has d 699].  

-

[WSK] Saint Seaxburh Abbess of Ely d succeeded by her daughter Eormenhild, Abbess of Minster-in-Sheppey.

-

[WSK] Queen Saint Osyth, wife of King Sighere of Essex, Abbess of Chich (Saint Osyth’s), Essex d. 

-

[WSK] Saint Comgan, Abbot of Lochalsh, fl to C730

-

[DOC] Munster law tract ‘Crith Gablach’.

-

Alain II High King of Brittany, Dumnonia and Bro Erech d succEeded by Urbon / Urbien.

701 – [CP] Monks of Wearmouth and Jarrow including Hwaethbert return from Rome with privileges from Pope Sergius.  

-

Ailill mac Cathail Con-cen-máthair King of the Eoganachta in Munster d succeeded by Eterscél mac Máele Umai.

 

[CP] Death of Pope Sergius I.  John VI Pope (to 705).

 

701/702 – [JEF] Cenel Cathboth of Dunollie, Lorn / Loarn slaughtered by Selbach son of Ferchar of the Cenel nEchdach, who destroys Dunollie and becomes Cenel nEchdach King of Lorn and King of Dal Riata. 

 

702 – Saint Wilfrid leaves Leicester.  

-

Eterscél mac Máele Umai, King of the Eoganachta in Munster abdicates. 

-

Muiredach Muillethan mac Fergusso mac Rogallaig / Muiredach Mag Aí King of Connacht d.  

 

702-703 – [CP] Northumbrian Great Council at Austerfield strips Saint Wilfrid of all his sees and possessions except Ripon [WSK has presided over by Archbishop Beorhtwald of Canterbury]. He goes to appeal to Rome and retires to Mercia [JEF has C702 Council of Austerfield convened by Archbishop Berhtwald and including King Aldfrith and Saint Wilfrid to hear Wilfrid’s case.  It rejected his claims to York and monasteries other than Ripon; he rejected and was excommunicated].

 

702-708/710 - Congal Cennmagair High King of Ireland.

703 – Britons and Ulaid fight each other at the Battle of Mag Cuilind / Culind in Ardd Ua nEchdach / the Ards Peninsula. [TMC] The British lose, and the son of Radgann (known for despoiling churches / adversary of the churches of God) is slain [other has 702 British fight Ulaid / Ulster clans at battle of Magh Culinn in Ard nEacach and [TMC] kill Irgalach son of Conaing of Brega at Inis Mac Nesan].  

-

Venerable Bede made priest by Bishop of Hexham, Saint Johannes / John of Beverley  [CP has 702 or 703; JEF has 703] and writes De Temporibus.  

-

Cellach mac Rogallach mac Uatach / Cellach mac Rogallaig / Cellach Locha Cime King of Connacht defeats and kills High King Loingsech mac Óengusso of the Cenél Conaill who had led a large army into Connacht to levy tribute but with many of his sons and other kings of the Ui Neill at the Battle of Corann in southern County Sligo. [JM death of King Cellachus of Connacht]. 

 

703-704 – [CP] Saint Wilfrid and Saint Acca in Frisia with Wilbrord.

 

Pre 704 – [CP] Relics of King Saint Edwin of Northumbria taken to Whitby by Abbess Elfled.

 

704 – [CP has 703-704] Saint Adomnan / Adamnan / Adomnán mac Rónáin / Ronan, 9th Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Conamail mac Faílbi / Failbe. [AC has Dormitatio adomnan; WSK has 704; JEF has 705]. 

-

[WSK] Saint Queen Eanflaed Joint Abbess of Whitby d succeeded by her daughter Saint Aelfflaed. 

-

[CP] Hwaetbert ordained priest.

-

[CP] Saint Wilfrid in Rome for 2nd appeal. 

-

[JEF] King Aethelred / Ethelred / Aedilred I of Mercia takes tonsure in Bardney Abbey in Lindsey [WSK which he founded] then d succeeded by nephew Coenred / Cenred, son of Wulfhere [WSK and TMC has king 704-709].  

-

Middel Seaxe mentioned in a charter.  

-

King Ine of Wessex endows monastery at Sherborne and grants it British monasteries at Congresbury and Banwell.  He builds additional church at Glastonbury dedicated to Dominus Salvator and Saints Peter and Paul, leaving alone the wooden church [other has 712 advised by Bishop Saint Aldhelm, King Ine of Wessex builds Church of Saints Peter and Paul at Glastonbury; Ashe has 704, after which Ine gives Abbey 10 hides at Brent, 10 hides at Sowy, 1 hide at Bleadon, 2,640 pounds of silver and 264 pounds of gold].  

-

King Swefred of East Saxons gives grant to Bishop Waldhere of London. 

-

Cellach Cualann mac Gerthidi King of Leinster wins battle of Claenath with the Ui Neill.  

-

[DOC] King Loingsech mac Oengusso of the southern Ui Neill, grandson of King Domnall mac Aedo, rex Hiberniae, the only Ui Neill High King of the 8th Century, killed at the Battle of Corann, County Sligo, by Cellach mac Roagallaig, King of Ui Briuin Ai of Connacht; two sons of Colgu ? mac Aedo King of the Briuin Seola also killed. The Ui Briuin are dominant in Connacht. 

 

704-714 – Life of Saint Gregory the Great written at Whitby [other has pre 731].

 

Pre 705 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes Vita Metrica Cudbercti.

 

705 – [JEF] British massacre of Dal Riadan forces in Glen Leven / in Glenn Lemnae. 

-

[CP] Saint Wilfrid ill at Meaux then reaches Northumbria with Saint Acca, but King Aldfrith / Ealdfrith / Aldfrid of Northumbria will not see him and d of illness succeeded by son Osred I, with power held by Saint Aelfflaed Abbess of Whitby and Saint Wilfrid, ‘foster father’, and regent Beorhtfrith [AC & Irish Annals have 703, 704; WSK has King 705-716].  

-

Throne usurped by Eadwulf son of King Aethwold of Deira, who expels Osred to Bamburgh [WSK and JEF] where he and Ealdorman Beorhtfrith / Berctfrith, kinsman of Berctred and Beornhaeth, are besieged until relieved when promising to restore Saint Wilfrid to his property.  Eadwulfis then expelled [AC for 704 has Alchfrit rex saxonum obiit; other has705; WSK has king 705; JEF has Aldfrith d 704 and succession of Aldfrith’s 8 year old son Osred challenged by Eadwulf, whose reign lasts only weeks and he flees to Iona; other has 706 King Osred of Northumbria restored to throne and Eadwulf expelled [WSK has king 705-716].

-

Saint Bosa Bishop of York d succeeded by Saint Johannes / John of Beverley [CP or 704; WSK has 705 but also 706 Saint John of Beverley Bishop of Hexham translated to York, succeeded by Bishop Saint Wilfrid [other has 705], who has had a stroke but is rehabilitated at Synod of River Nidd supported by Abbess Aelffled [WSK] and Ealdorman Beorhtfrith and is restored to Ripon; other has 703; CP has Synod on the Nidd 705. Ripon bishopric defunct].  

-

[Bede & CP] Saint Haedde / Hedde / Haeddi Bishop of Winchester d having translated body of Saint Birinus / Berin / Birin from Dorchester to Winchester and having founded Farnham [WSK has 706].  Many miracles at Haeddi’s tomb recorded by Bishop Pecthelm and earth taken away by pilgrims leaving a pit.  

-

Daniel becomes Bishop of Winchester. 

-

[CP] Abbot Saint Aldhelm becomes 1st Bishop of Sherborne or Selwoodshire / bewestan wuda / West of the Wood; Coir Maur / The Great Forest divided Wessex [Ellis has 706; WSK has 706-709; Storr suggests it was Ramsbury]. Diocese is to minister to the Durotriges / Dorsaetan / Dorset now under West Saxon control.  

-

[CP and TMC, after an episcopal council] Bishop Saint Aldhelm writes to King Geraint of Dumnonia about date of Easter [Ellis says 708/709]. 

-

Letter of Bishop Waldhere of London about political state of Britain. 

-

Abbot Hemgisl of Glastonbury d [other has 701] succeeded by Beorhwald. 

-

British fight in army of Irish King Cellach/Ceallaigh at Selg, Glendalough, County Wicklow.  

-

Cellach mac Rogallach mac Uatach / Cellach mac Rogallaig / Cellach Locha Cime King of Connacht [DOC] having been ? forced after 704 into a monastery d post clericatum.  His successor Indrechtach mac Dúnchado Muirisci is entitled teora Connacht, ‘King of the Three Connachta’ [Ui Briuin, Ui Fiachrach, Ui Ailello], ? showing the first true overlordship in Connaught. 

-

Death of John VI. John VII Pope (to 707). 

-

Emperor Justinian II restored [to 711].

 

C705 - Einudd Bach / the Short King of Meirionydd d succeeded by son Ednyfed Meirionydd [PCB b 730 father of Brochwel and Peredur Beiswyn].  

-

Winfrid / Saint Boniface studies in the Benedictine monastery and minster of Nhutscelle / Nursling near Winchester under Abbot Wynberth / Winbert and becomes a priest, writing the Ars Grammatica, the Caesurae uersuum, a treatise on verse and Enigmata, some Aldhelm-inspired riddles.

 

705/716 - Bishop Waldhere of London d succeeded by Ingwald / Ingweald.

 

705-707 – Powys successfully campaigns against Mercia.

 

706 – [CP] King Bruide / Brude / Bridei mac Derile / Derili King of the Picts d succeeded by brother Nechtan son of Derile / Naithon / Naiton IV[WSK has King 706-724; JEF has death of Bridei son of Der-Ilei 707].  

-

[JEF] slaying of Conamail son of Cano of the Cenel nGartnait ?of Skye. 

 

707 – Béc ua Dúnchado, Chief of the Cenél nGabráin, King of Dal Riata d [JEF has Becc, grandson of Donnchad, kinsman of Fiannamail Cenel nGabrain King of Dal Riata, killed].  

-

Conamail mac Faílbi / Failbe 10th Abbot of Iona deposed, succeeded by Dúnchad / Donnchad mac Cinn Fáelad / Cennfaelad [WSK has Conamail alive to 710 with Dunchad principatus from 707; JEF has Donnchad son of Cenn Faelad of the Cenel Conaill, abbot 707/708/710-717 and Conamail d 710 after several years when Dunchad holds the principate]. 

-

British slay Iorgalach ua Conaing at Ireland’s Eye.

-

Cellach Cualann mac Gerthidi reduced to subjection by Congal Cennmagair High King of Ireland. 

-

[DOC] Indrechtach mac Dúnchado Muirisci King of Connacht killed by Fergal mac Máele Dúin, King of Ailech of the Ui Neill. 

-

Bécc Bairrche mac Blathmaic King of Ulster / Ulaid abdicates and takes pilgrim’s staff.  

 

708 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes Epistola ad Plegwinum Apologetica de Sex Aetatibus Saeculi

-

Cú Chuarán mac Dúngail Eilni King of Ulster / Ulaid, King of the Cruithne, killed while attacking the lands of Dal Riata in Antrim.  

-

Drogo, Mayor of the palace in Burgundy d succeeded by Grimoald II Mayor of the Palace of Neustria.

-

Sisinnius Pope. Constantine I Pope (to 715). 

 

709 – [JEF] A battle in Orkney ? against Verturian domination.  

-

[CP] Bishop Saint Wilfrid leaves Hexham, succeeded by Saint Acca, then d at his foundation at Oundle [WSK has d 709/710; JR has 709-710; JEF has 709 at Ripon]. 

-

Headda, Bishop of Lichfield, consecrated Bishop of Leicester [WSK] when his see of Lichfild amalgamated with it.  

-

[CP] Coenred / Cenred King of Mercia abdicates and goes on pilgrimage to Rome with Offa King of Essex to become a monk and is succeeded by Ceolred [WSK and TMC have king 709-716].  

-

Kings Swigeheard and Swaefred of Essex d [CP] succeeded by Offa, son of Sighere, who abdicates to go to Rome [WSK] then d as a monk, succeeded by Saelred / Selred reigning jointly with Swaefbert.  

-

[CP] Bishop Saint Aldhelm d and is buried in Malmesbury Abbey, with crosses erected every 7 miles at resting place of his body [WSK has 709 or 710]. Forthere / Fordhere succeeds as Bishop of Sherborn. 

-

[CP] Abbot Eadbert / Eadberht / Eadbeorht / Eadbertus of Selsey consecrated Bishop of the South Saxons at Selsey by synodal decree [other has 707/716; WSK has 706]. 

-

Cellach Cualann mac Gerthidi King of Leinster aided by British allies, presumed to be mercenaries, exiled members of the warbands of the British kingdoms conquered by expansionist Northumbria, fights a battle at Serg where his sons Fiachra and Fiannamail are killed. 

-

[DOC] Three divisions of the Luigni referred to in phrase dux na tri sloinnte.

Post 709 – [CP] Hildilid, Abbess of Barking d. 

-

709-710 – Abbot Beorhtwald of Glastonbury d succeeded by Ealdberht.  

709-716 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes In ActaIn Epistolas CatholicasIn Lucam.

709-718/722 - Fergal mac Máele Dúin High King of Ireland.

710 – [JEF] Naiton / Nectan son of Dargart / Naiton son of Der-Ilei ’s sons slain in conflict with Cenel Comgaill in Cowal. 

-

Donnchad mac Cend Faelad takes on abbacy of Iona on death of Conamail son of Failbe. 

-

[WSK] Ine King of Wessex builds fortress at Taunton.  

-

[TMC quoting the ASC] Ine and kinsman Nun fight Geraint, King of the Walas. 

-

[William of Malmesbury] Martyrdom of Saint Indract, an Irish prince, murdered with family by thegn Horsa at Shapwick, Glastonbury.  

-

Saint Adalbert d in Egmond [other has 740]. 

-

Arabs invade Spain.

C710 – Northumbrian Ealdorman Beorhtfrith fights Picts. 

-

Nechtan IV King of the Picts of Angus writes to Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid Abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow regarding Roman and Celtic rites. 

-

[JEF] Dal Riadan victory over Britons. 

-

Iddon ap Poedlew, King of Dunoding d succeeded by Brochfael ap Idon / Eifion [MA has fl C710-750 Brochwel successor to Eifion King of Dunoding; PCB has b 700 father of Eigion].  

-

Regin / Rhain / Rein ap Cadwgan becomes King of Dyfed and Brycheiniog [MA has fl 710-745; PCB has b 675 father of Tewdws, King of Dyfed and Tewdwr King of Brycheiniog]. 

-

Gwylog ap Beli King of Powys d succeeded by Elise / Elisedd ap Gwylog [MA has C690-720 fl Elisedd successor of Gwylog King of Powys; PCB has b 680 father of Brochwel and Saint Enghenedl, maybe also of Senan.  The person commemorated in the Pillar of Eliseg in Llangollen Vale].  

-

Bishop Tyrhtel of Hereford d succeeded by Torhthere / Torchtere / Tortherus.  

King Ine of Wessex and [WSK] King Northelm / Northelm / Nunna / Nonna of South Saxons defeat and kill Geraint / Gerontius / Geruntius / Gerren ap Dungarth King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint / Defnas, who is succeeded by brother Ithel ap Dungarth / the Rock [Ellis has 711].  

-

Abbot Hadrian / Adrian of Saint Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury d succeeded by Albinus [CP has 709 or 710; other has 708; WSK has 709-710] other has 

Adrian Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury d succeeded by Albin, the first Englishman in post.    

-

Minting of silver sceattas spreads to east Mercia, Northumbria, East Anglia and Wessex. More coins in circulation than at any time since C 4 and before C 13.  

 

C710–750 - [MA] fl Meirion successor to Rhufon King of Rhos. 

 

711 - Battle between Alt Clut and Dál Riata at Lorg Ecclet [JEF has 711 Selbach son of Ferchar, Cenel nEchdach King of Dal Riata, defeats British at Lorg Ecclet].  

-

Thegn Beorthfrith / Berctfrid / praefectus Berctfrith of Northumbria defeats Picts on the plains of Manaw at Dinas Eidyn / Edinburgh [WSK has 711; JEF has Berctfrith defeats Picts in Manau 711 with a member of the royal family of Atholl, Finnguine son of Deileroth, killed at place between Avon and Carron / betwix Haefe 7 Caere near Falkirk on the Antonine Wall; TMC quotes AU 711 ‘A slaughter of the Picts in the Plain of Manu, where Finnguine son of Deile Roth met an untimely death’].

-

Saint Máel Ruba / Maelrubha / Máelrubai / Maol Rubha / MoRubha / MaRuibhe / Malruibhe dies [WSK has 722 Maelrubai of Applecross d]. 

-

Fergal mac Máele Dúin King of Ailech, High King, defeats and slays the King of Uí Méith, Tnúthach son of Mochloinges, and Cú Raí mac Áedo of the Fir Cúl sept of the Síl nÁedo Sláine of Brega at the Battle of Sliab Fuait (in the Fews, County Armagh).  

-

King Childebert III of the Franks d succeeded by Dagobert III [to 715], but the realm disintegrates, with Burgundy, Aquitaine and Provence splitting.   

-

Emperor Justinian II assassinated, succeeded by Phillipikos Bardanes [to 713].

 

712 – [JEF] Bishop Coeti, ? primate of Pictland d.  

-

[JEF] Selbach son of Ferchar, King of Dal Riata, invades Kintyre, burning Tarbert / Tairpert Boiter and besieging the royal seat at Dunaverty / Aberte. 

-

Idwal / Idwallon Iwrch / The Roebuck King of Gwynedd d succeeded by his son Rhodri Molwynog / the Bald and Grey[other has pre 721– King Idwal Iwrch / Idwal the Roebuck/ Idwal ap Cadwaladr / Intgual of Gwynedd d succeeded by son Rhodri Molwynog /Molwynawg / Rhodri the Bald and Grey / Rhodri ab Idwal; PCB d 754 father of Cynan Dindaethwy].  

-

Abbot Beorhwald of Glastonbury d succeeded by Albert. 

-

Cormac mac Ailello King of the Eoganachta in Munster slain at the Battle of Carn Feradaig. 

-

Liutprand becomes King of the Lombards.

 

C712-713 – Fogartach ua Cearnaigh refugee in Britain.

 

713 – [JEF] Dorbenne succeeds Coeti as ?Bishop of Iona / Primate of Pictland but d in five months, but is still abbot. 

-

Cinaed, brother of Bruide mac Derile and Nechtan IV mac Derile Kings of the Picts slain by Northumbrians.  Nechtan captures his half-brother Talorg [JEF has 711 Naiton binds Talorcan son of Drestan, husband of Der-Ilei, in Atholl]. War ended by peace treaty. 

-

Dúnchad mac Cinn Fáelad 11th Abbot of Iona deposed, succeeded by Dorbbéne mac Altaíni / Dorbbéne Foto, who d as 12th Abbot [WSK] or as Bishop / primatus, then restored.  

-

[WSK & JEF] Saint Aelfflaed Abbess of Whitby d [CP has 713/714 Abbess Aelffled / Elfled of Whitby d].

-

[CP] King Eadwulf / Aldwulf of East Angles d succeeded by his brother Aelfwald / Aelfwold [WSK has king 713-749].

-

[DOC] Eterscel mac Maele Umai, becomes King of Munster (to 721).  

 -

Saint Suiotbert d at Suitberts-Insel / Kaiserswerth, near Düsseldorf. 

-

Emperor Phillipikos Bardanes blinded, succeeded by Anastasius II [to 715] and d this year.

 

C713 – [JR] Anonymous Life of Saint Gregory written at Whitby.

 

713-715 – [CP] Death of Swidbert in Frisia.

 

713–742 - Cathal mac Finguine King of Munster / Cashel, and effectively High King of Ireland / King of Tara.

 

713-749 - Monk Felix fl, composer of Life of Saint Guthlac.

 

714 – [JEF] Selbach rebuilds Dunollie. 

-

Saint John of Beverley resigns Bishopric of York succeeded by Wilfrid II.  

-

King Nunna of the South Saxons grants land to Beadufrid, Abbot of Selsey.  

-

Saint Guthlac d at Welland in the Fens [other has 715; JR and WSK have 714]. 

-

Grimoald II, Mayor of the Palace of Neustria and Burgundy d succeeded by Theudoald, Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy [to 716; CP has death of Pippin of Heristal 713-714].  

-

Aed mac Diarmata King of the Ui Muirdeiag and putative King of Leinster d.

 

715 – [CP] King Ine of West Saxons and King Ceolred of Mercia fight at Wodensbeorg / Woden’s Barrow, Adam’s Grave, Alton Priors, Hampshire, and Ceolred is victor [Storr says Ceolred is defeated and forced to yield Buckingham and Oxford to Wessex].

-

Tewkesbury Abbey founded. 

-

Fogartach ua Cearnaigh becomes High King of Ireland. 

-

Cellach Cualann mac Gerthidi, King of the Ui Mail, King of Leinster, father of Saint Kentigerna d succeeded by Murchad mac Brain Mut, who harries Munster.  

-

Saint Fland Feblae mac Scandláin, Abbot and Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Saint Suibne nepos mac Crundmail / nepos Mruichessaich, Bishop. 

-

Dagobert III King of the Franks dies and Chilperic II becomes King of of the Franks / of Neustria [to 721].  Charles Martel becomes Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia [to 741].

-

Emperor Anastasius II abdicates and is killed in 719, succeeded by Theodosius III [to 717].

-

[CP] Death of Pope Constantine I.  Saint Gregory II Pope (to 731). 

 

C715 - King Pascent / Pasgen Buellt of Buellt and Gwerthrynion d succeeded by Teudor/Tewdwr ap Pasgen [PCB b 730 father of Ffernfael]. 

-

Eddius Stephanus’s Life of Wilfrid written at Ripon [other has C720; WSK has 709-720; other has 709 Stephen of Ripon’s Life of Saint Wilfrid;TMC has 709-715].

 

715-725 – [CP] Nothelm, priest of London, in Rome researches Papal archives under Pope Gregory II [CP also has 715-731 visit of Nothelm to Rome].

 

C715–748 – [Llandaff Charters] Ithel King of Glywysing [MA has fl 715-745 and C685-715 Ithel/Einudd successor to Morgan King of Gwent, Glywyssing and Ercyng – Morgannwg. Llandaff Charters have Ithel ap Morgan King of Gwent C710–745].

 

Pre 716 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes In Apocalypsin

-

Oshere King of the Hwicce d succeeded by Aethelweard. 

-

Abbot Cuthbald of Medehamstede / Peterborough d succeeded by Egbald / Ecgbald [WSK has d C690, Ecgbald succeeding 687-690].  

-

[CP] Witenagemot of Bapchild in Kent.

716 – Nechtan IV King of the Picts of Angus, advised by Saint Ceolfrith / Ceolfrid Abbot of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, adopts Roman practices in his kingdom [JEF Pictish correctio C710/715/716].  

-

[JEF] Gartnait son of Deilerith King of Atholl and Artbran, son of Mael Duin, King of Kintyre d.  

-

[CP and JEF] Iona celebrates Roman rite for first time, persuaded by Northumbrian monk Saint Ecgberht / Ecgberct [other has 712 Saint Ecgberht Bishop of Northumbria preaches on Iona then to Mayo of the Saxons in Ireland, which converts to Roman rite; Bede has 715; WSK has C712 Saint Ecgberht arrives and persuades the monks of Iona; JEF has him d 729; TMC has Ecgberht persuades Iona to accept Roman rite in 716].  

-

Dúnchad mac Cinn Fáelad / Donnchad son of Cend Faelad 11th Abbot of Iona deposed for second time [JEF has 707/708-717 with an interregnum 713-716] succeeded by Fáelchú mac Dorbbéni / Dorbbene. 

-

[CP and JEF] King Osred of Northumbria murdered in Mercia aged 19, succeeded by Coenred / Cenred, son of Cuthwine / Cuthwini, descendant of Idathrough Ecgwulf.  [AC has 717 Osbrit rex saxonum moritur; WSK has king 716-718].  

-

[CP] Saint Ceolfrid / Ceolfrith Abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow resigns to go to Rome, succeeded by Hwaetbert / Hwaetberht. 

-

Saint Ceolfrid / Ceolfrith dies at Langres, Burgundy en route to give Codex Amiatinusto the Pope.  

-

[CP] Venerable Bede writes In SamuelemDe Mansionibus Filiorum IsraelDe Eo quod Ait Isaias ‘Et Claudentur,’ etc.  

-

[CP] King Ceolred of Mercia d probably poisoned, perhaps succeeded by Ceolwald [WSK has king 716] then succeeded by Aedilbado / Aedilbald /Aethelbald / Ethelbald, descendant of Penda’s brother Eowa [WSK has King 715/716-757; TMC has king 716-757; Storr has pushes Gwynedd back from the Chester plain and builds Wat’s Dyke from the River Dee to the Mersey and 23 short ditches along the border with Powys, plus Shire Ditch on the Malverns].

-

[Ellis] Wessex raids Mercia. 

-

[CP] Council of Clofeshoch / Clovesho in Mercia.  

-

Eardred succeeds Bishop Ascwulf of Dunwich. 

-

King Radbod of Frisia defeats Charles Martel of the Franks at Cologne. 

-

Theodoald, Mayor of the Palace in Neustria and Burgundy, d succeeded by Charles Martel [to 741].

 

C716 - Abbot Wynberth / Winbert of Nursling d; Winfrid declines his position and goes to Frisia as missionary with Willibrord.  King Radbod of Frisia expels Saint Willibrord and his monks [other has 714].  Winfrid returns to Nursling.

 

Post 716 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes Historia Abbatum (Lives of the Abbots of Wearmouth and Jarrow); In Marcum.  

-

Anonymous writes Life of Saint Ceolfrith.  

-

Bishop Edgar of Lindsey d; Cyneberht / Embercus / Kinebertus succeeds.

 

716-717 - Saint Winnoc, Abbot or Prior of Wormhout d.

716-727 – [WSK] Bishop Headda of Leicester d succeeded by Bishop Aldwine of Lichfield.

717 – [CP and JEF] King Nechtan IV mac Derile of the Picts of Angus expels the familia Iae / Ionan Celtic clergy and monks [WSK has 717 ‘across the Spine of Britain’]. 

-

[JEF] Donnchad Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Faelchu mac Dobbene. 

-

Battles between Alt Clut and Dál Riata at the rock called Minuirc [JEF has Selbach son of Ferchar of Dal Riata defeats Britons of ?Beli son of Elphin, King of Alt Clut]. 

-

[JEF] Eadwulf son of Ecgwulf / Etulb mac Ecuilb, short King of Northumbria 704/705, d.  

-

[CP] Egwin Bishop of the Hwiccas d succeeded by Wilfrid.  

-

King Nothelm of Sussex d leaving Athelstan sole ruler [other has 725 King Northelm / Nunna / Nonna of the South Saxons grants book right to Bishop Edbert at Huga’s Hill then d; WSK has d C725].  

-

Clothar IV a rival puppet king in Austrasia [].

-

Emperor Theodosius III overthrown by Leo III [to 741] and becomes a priest.  

 

C717 – King Elisedd ap Gwylog moves Powys capital to Mathrafal Castle.  King Aethelbald of Mercia builds Watt’s Dyke against Powys’s successes, giving Oswestry / Croesoswallt to Powys.  

 

718 – [JEF] tonsure reform at Iona.  

-

Ainbcellach mac Ferchair ex-King of Dal Riata killed in battle of Findglen [WSK has perhaps near Loch Avich] by brother King Selbach [other has 719 Ainbcellach mac Ferchair ex-King of Dal Riata killed when he returned and fought brother Selbach; WSK has 719].  

-

[CP & JEF] King Coenred of Northumbria d  succeeded by Osric, son of Aldfrid / Aldfrith [WSK has king 718-729; JEF has death of Coenred son of Cuthwini]. 

-

[PCB quoting AC] 1st Welsh church dedicated in customary manner of the West  in Wales, to Saint Michael in Brycheiniog.

-

Saint Ecgwine Bishop of Worcester, founder of Evesham d succeeded by Wilfrith / Wilfrid [WSK has ends see 711 dies 717].  

-

King Ine of West Saxon’s brother Ingeld d. Their sister Cuthburh founds double monastery at Wimborne.  

-

Saint Wynfryd / Boniface in Rome receives commission from Pope Gregory II to work among Germans.  [CP] He goes to Frisia. 

-

Bécc Bairrche mac Blathmaic, ex-King of Ulster / Ulaid d.

-

King Chilperic II of Neustria becomes King of the Franks with Charles Martel as Mayor of all the Kingdoms.

 

718-719 – Abbot Ealdberht of Glastonbury d succeeded by Ecgfrith [GA has at no date King Ine of Wessex exempts Abbot Etfrith / Ehfrid of Glastonbury from episcopal authority]. 

-

719 – [JEF] Selbach defeats and kills his brother Ainbcellach at Finglen / Findglen in the glan of Allt Braglenmore.  

-

Slaying of Drostan Dairtaige at Ardbraccan; ?grandson of Donnchad son of Conaing of the Cenel nGabrain.  

-

Donnchad Becc, ? grandson of Donnchad son of Conaing, King of the Cenel nGbrain, defeats Selbach son of Ferchar, King of Dal Riata, at sea. 

-

Fogartach mac Néill / Fogartach ua Cernaich High King of Ireland (d 724). 

-

Murchad mac Brain Mut King of Leinster harried five times by Fergal mac Máele Dúin King of Ailech, High King, of the Ui Neill.  

 

[CP] King Rathbod / Radbod / Redbad of the Frisians d and Saint Willibrord returns to Utrecht under the protection of King Charles Martel of the Franks, and destroys the pagan sanctuaries and temples till d in 739.  [CP] Boniface assists Wilbrord for three years. 

 

720 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes In Genesim.

 

C720 – [CP or pre 721] Venerable Bede writes Vita Sancti Cudbercti (Life of Saint Cuthbert).  

-

[WSK] Eddius Stephanus d. 

-

Glowd ap Pasgen becomes King of Buellt and Gwerthrynion. 

-

Llan-gors monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.  

-

Budic Mur / Judon son of Concar becomes King of Cornoauile. 

 

720-722/728 - Cináed mac Írgalaig / Cináed Cáech (One-eyed) High King of Ireland.

 

721 – Dúnchad Bec / Donnchad Becc, King of Kintyre / the Cenél nGabráin, King of Dal Riata d with no successor and the kingdom collapses among seven families.  

-

[CP] Saint Eadfrith / Eadfrid Bishop of Lindisfarne d succeeded by Saint Aethelwold / Ethelwald [WSK has Abbot of Melrose and Bishop to 740].  

-

[CP] Saint John of Beverley, ex-Bishop of York d. 

-

King Ine of West Saxons kills aetheling Cynewulf. 

-

[CP] Bishop Daniel of the West Saxons goes to Rome.

-

[JEF] Murchad mac Brain Mut King of Leinster with Cathal son of Finnguine King of Cashel and paramount King of Munster harries Brega, but the Ui Neill Fergal mac Máele Dúin King of Ailech, High King, invades Leinster; Cathal becomes High King. 

-

Eterscél mac Máele Umai, ex-King of the Eoganachta in Munster d succeeded by Cathal mac Finguine who later becomes effectively High King of Ireland and challenges the Ui Neill [DOC has Eterscel mac Maele Umai, King of Munster d succeeded by Cathal mac Finguine of the Eoganacht Aine (to 742), the first Munster king to advance a serious claim to High Kingship of Ireland].

-

[CP] Defeat of the Saracens; al-Samah, the Muslim governor of Spain, attacks Tolosa / Toulouse and is repulsed by Eudes, the Duke of Aquitaine.  

-

Chilperic II King of the Franks d succeeded by Theuderic IV [to 737].

 

C721 – [CP] Aldwine / Aldwyn / Aldwini (Worr) consecrated Bishop of Lichfield [other has 727 Bishop Headda of Lichfield d].

 

722 – Fáelchú mac Dorbbéni, 13th Abbot of Iona retires or is deposed [WSK has him assisted by co-adjutor Fedlimid in his last 2 years till d in 724 at 85; JEF has d 724], succeeded by Fedelmid, who is deposed succeeded by Cilléne Fota / the Tall [WSK has abbot 724-726]. 

-

Teudebur / Tudor / Tewdur / Tewdwr ap Beli becomes King of Alt Clut [WSK has Bili son of Elfin King of Alt Clut / Stratchclyde and Teudebur king to 752; JEF and TMC quoting AC has Beli son of Elphin d; PCB has d 750 father of Dyfnwal].

-

Powys successfully campaigns against Mercia. 

-

King Ine of West Saxons fights South Saxons.  

-

[WSK] Queen Aethelburgh / Aethleburh forces rebel Ealdberht out of Taunton which she destroys and he flees to Surrey.  

-

Wessex defeated in three battles by Dumnonia and King Rhodri Molwynog of Gwynedd near Camel at Hehil, Garth Maelog and Penconin Cornwall. [AC has 722 Beli filius elfin moritur & bellum hehil apud cornuenses gueith gart mailauc. Cat pencon apud dexterales brittones & brittones victorei fuerunt in istis tribus bellis; TMC has Hehil among the Cornuenses, meaning that Dumnonia had fallen but that Cornwall was secured for another 150 years; Garth Maelong; and Pencon among the southern Britons; Storr says Hale was on the River Cale near Wincanton and that the frontier of Wessex and Dumnonia was still on the Bokerly Dyke]. 

-

Murchad mac Brain Mut King of Leinster kills Ui Neill Fergal mac Máele Dúin King of Ailech, High King, at the Battle of Allen / Almain / Almu, County Kildare.  He is succeeded by Áed Allán mac Fergaile. 

-

Saint Boniface missionary in Germany strives against Celtic missionaries [WSK has 722 Boniface made Bishop in Rome, preaches in Germany and cuts down the sacred oak of Geismar].  

-

[CP] Charles Martel gives Utrecht to Saint Wilbrord. 

 

C722 – Abbess Saint Mildburh / Mildburg of the Magonsaetan, daughter of King Merewalh of the Magonsaete, founder of her nunnery at Much Wenlock nunnery, d [WSK has 727/730].  

 

723 – [WSK and JEF] Selbach mac ?Eogan / mac Ferchair King of Dal Riata abdicates and enters a monastery succeeded by son Dungal / Donngal mac Selbach of the Cenel Loairn [other has 719 by Dúnchad Bec, Chief of Kintyre / the Cenél nGabráin[other has r to 723, d 730; WSK has Dungal r 723-726].

-

Fogartach ua Cearnaigh High King of Ireland d.  

-

Death of Indrechtach mac Muiredaig Ui Briuin Ai King of Connacht.

-

Saint Boniface under the protection of Charles Martel. 

723-729 - Flaithbertach mac Loingsig (d in Armagh monastery 765) High King of Ireland.

724 – [CP and JEF] Nechtan / Naiton IV King of the Picts retires / or is driven to a monastery succeeded by Drest ?King of Fortriu and Elphin ?King of Atholl, ?from 716 [WSK has Drust / Drest king 724-729].

Pre 725 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes De Ratione Bissexti; De Natura Rerum.

 

725 – [JEF] Bishop Brecc of Fortriu d. 

-

Simul son of Drest King of Fortriu captured. 

-

[CP] Venerable Bede writes De Temporum Ratione.  

-

King Gwylog ap Beli of Powys d succeeded by Elisedd ap Gwylog, who recovers Kingdom from the Angles.  

-

[CP] King Wihtred / Witred of Kent d succeeded by son Aethelbehrt / Ethelbert II, Eadberht I and brothers Aedelbert I and Aelfric, later with nephew Eardwulf [WSK has king 725-762 jointly with brothers named Eadberht and Ealric, later with Eadberht’s son Eardwulf].  

-

Obits of scribes at Kildare and Armagh.  

-

Saracens pillage up to Autun (CP has defeat of the Saracens).

 

C725 - Llansoy monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters as property of Saint Dyfrig.  

-

Diciul reports Irish in Iceland and Faeroes [WSK has C725].

 

725-731 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes In Ezram et Neemiam.

 

726 – [CP] Nechtan IV, ex-king of the Picts, comes out of monastery to challenge successor Drest, who captures and imprisons him [JEF has Drest taking Naiton out of the monastery]. Four rivals fight for throne.  

-

[WSK] Alpin son of Eochaid King of the Picts 726-728

-

Dúngal mac Selbaig, Chief of the Cenél Loairn, King of Dal Riata, defeats Drest and r in his stead.  

-

[JEF] Cilléne Fota / the Tall 15th Abbot of Iona d succeeded by Cilléne Droichtech [WSK has 726-752]. 

-

Wessex loses Sussex. 

-

Saint Gerald Abbot / Bishop of Mageo / Mayo d [or 731/732].

 

726-728 – King Ine / Ini of Wessex abdicates and goes on pilgrimage to Rome where he d succeeded by Aethelheard, disputed by aetheling Oswald [CP has or 725; Ellis has 723 King Ine of Wessex abdicates; WSK has Aethelheard king 726-740]. 

 

727 – Drest, ex-King of the Picts, defeated in three battles by Oengus I mac Fergus. 

-

[JEF] Ex-King of Dal Riata Selbach leaves monastery in vain attempt to support son King Dungal / Donngal against Eochaid son of Eochu, descendant of Eochaid Buide, of the Cenel nGabrain but is expelled.  

-

Relics of Saint Adomnnan placed in portable shrine in Iona and brought to Ireland by Abbot Cillene Droichtech / the Bridgebuilder to establish peace between the Cenel Conaill and the Cenel nEogain after they fight and Adomnan’s Law is promulgated anew.  [JEF] ?After this King Oengus of the Picts allies with Cashal King of Munster. 

-

Bishop Tobias d [other has 726]; Aldwulf / Eadwulf consecrated Bishop of Rochester.  

-

Saint Frideswide / Frithuswith, founder of Frideswide’s Priory, Oxford, d.   

-

Murchad mac Brain Mut King of Leinster d.

 

728 – [CP] Nechtan IV King of the Picts restored [WSK has second r 728-729 after [WSK & JEF] Alpin /Elphin King of the Picts is defeated at Crathie / Caislen Credi [other has Oengus / Onuist I mac Fergus, a native of the Mearns / am Mhaoirne / Mag Gergind / Mag Cergin in eastern southern Pictland, defeats Alpin / Elphin King of the Picts at Moncrieffe Hill / Mon Craibe / Monid Chroib, ? a royal centre near Perth, slaying Alpin’s son; WSK has Alpin remains King in Dal Riata to 733; JEF has Onuist defeats Elphin at Montcrieff and then Castellum Credi ?Hill of Scone, with Elphin disappearing ?to d in Glasnevin 758].

-

Flaithbertach of the Cenel Conaill becomes King of Ireland, defeating and slaying High King Cináed mac Írgalaig of the Síl nÁedo Sláine, at the battle of Druim Corcain.  

-

Dúnchad mac Murchado King of Leinster killed by his brother, Fáelán mac Murchado. 

-

Domnall mac Cellaig mac Rogallach King of Connacht d succeeded by Cathal mac Muiredaig Muillethan who kills the son of his brother.

 

729 – [WSK & JEF] Oengus I mac Fergus / Onuist filius Urguist King of the Picts to 761, defeats Nechtain / Nechtan IV [JEF says Drest] at Monith Carno / Monid Carno ? Carn a’ Ghrianain above the Rover Gloy near Loch Lochy / Loch Loogdae, slaying Nectan’s oppressors and his half brother Finnguine of Atholl.  He slays Drest, King of the Picts at Druim / Druimm Derg / Red Ridge Blathuug [other has C727 - Oengus I / Angus Mac Fergus wins Pictish throne and Nechtan IV retires to monastery again and d 732; AC has Bellum montis carno (UA has Monticarno) near Loch Tay; JEF has Onuist defeats Drest at Monid Carno and Druimm Derg Blathuug; Naiton restored].

-

[JEF] Talorcan son of Drestan and Der-Ilei becomes King of Atholl as Vurad son of Finnguine is killed alongside Talorcan’s kin.

-

[CP and JEF] King Osric son of Aldfrith of Northumbria, Osred’s brother d having taken Galloway, and giving Whithorn to Bishop Pecthelm as a see, succeeded by Saint Ceolwulf [WSK and JEF have king 729-737, brother of King Coenred, d 764; Yeates quotes Bede as saying Whithorn taken over by Bernicia C630].  

-

[CP] Bishop Saint Ecgberht / Egbert of Northumbria d at Iona [AU has 728].  

-

Abbot Ecgfrith of Glastonbury d succeeded by Wealhstod.

 

C729 – [JEF] Anglo-Pictish peace treaty concluded.

 

729-731 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes De Templo.  

-

Bishop Torhthere of Hereford d succeeded by Abbot Walhstod / Walchstod / Walstodus / Wastoldus / Ualchstod of Glastonbury [other has 727].

 

By 730– Mercia absorbs the Magonset / Magonsaetan.

 

730 – [JEF] Selbach mac Ferchair ex-King of Dal Riata d.​

-

London, Middel Seaxe and Surrey are Mercian. 

​-

The aetheling Oswald of Wessex d. 

​-

Obit of scribe at Kildare.  

-​

Saint Suibne nepos mac Crundmail / nepos Mruichessaich, Bishop of Armagh d succeeded by Congus, Bishop and Scribe. 

​-

High King Flaithbertach takes the tonsure at Armagh.

C730 – [other has 675] Ceredigion becomes Seisyllwg/ Seissyllwg, named after its King Seisyll ap Clydog, who conquers Ystrad Towy from Dyfed [MA has fl 710-750 with conquest of Dyfed C730; other has 715 during r of King Rhain of Dyfed, Dyfed is invaded by Seisyll, King of Ceredigion, conquering Ystrad Towy, and Rhain's dual kingdom is split in two; other has 730 invasion of Dyfed; MA has C720-750 fl Rhain, successor of King Cadwgon of Brycheiniog].  

-

Teuder / Tewdos ap Regin becomes King of Dyfed, his brother Aust becoming King of Brycheiniog [PCB has b 700 father of Nowy husband of Sanan].

-

Urbon / Urbien King of Brittany /Darioritum / Vannes / Vannetais, King of Damnonia d succeeded by son Judon.  

Post 730 - Seisyll ap Clydog, King of Seisylwg d succeeded by Arthwyr ap Seisyll [other as C700; PCB has d 807 recorded in AC].  

730s - Ithel ap Dungarth (The Rock) King of Dumnonia / Dyfeint / Defnas d succeeded by Dyfnwal Boifunall ap Ithel? 

 

730-738/743 - Áed Allán / Áed mac Fergaile King of Ailech, High King of Ireland, King of Tara.

 

C730-740Irish Annals source commences in Ulster (at Bangor?).

 

Pre 731 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes De Locis Sanctis; In Libros Regum Quaestiones XXX (written for priest Nothelm of London); In ProverbiaIn Cantica Canticorum; In Canticum HabacuccIn Librum Beati Tobiae; The Martyrology; The HomiliesHymni; Epigrammata; Epistola ad Wicredam de Aequinoctio Vernali Iuxta AnatoliumVita Sancti Felicis; Vita Sancti Anastasi; Excerpts from St. Jerome: ‘In Isaiam, Danihelem, XII Prophetas, Et Partem Hieremiae; Capitula Lectionum in Totum Noveum Testamentum Excepto Evangelio; In Apostolum quaecumque in Opusculis Sancti Augustini Exposita Inveni;? De Minutione Sanguinis; ? De Schismaticus.   

 

731 – [JEF] Donngal and Bridei, rex Fortrenn, son of Onuist / Oengus attack Kintyre.  

-

Selbach of the Cenel nEchdach King of Dal Riata d.  

-

Eochid son of Eochu of the Ceenl nGabrain enters a monastery and d 733 succeeded in Kintyre by Talorc son of Congus of the Cenel nGabrain, who fights Bridei son of Oengus and flees.  

-

Donngal of Lorn, King of Dal Riata, burns Tairpert Boitir / Tarbert in Kintyre and attacks northeast Ireland.  

-

[TMC quoting Bede] says a treaty of peace was in force between Picts and Northumbrians. 

-

[CP and JEF] King Saint Ceolwulf of Northumbria seized, forced into a monastery but then restored, [CP] Saint Acca, Bishop of Hexham, deprived or expelled with him [JEF has Acca ? expelled from Hexham 716 but also 731].  

-

[CP] Venerable Bede writes Epistola ad Albinum.  

-

[JEF] Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum uses Anno Domini dates.  

-

Northumbrian Bishop Pechthelm takes over Whithorn [WSK has C731]. 

-

Bishop Cynberht of Lindsey d [other has 732 Bishop Cyniberctum / Cynibert of Lindsey d].  

-

Ealdbeorht / Alberht I succeeds Cuthwine / Cuthwinus Bishop of Dunwich.  

-

Bishop Daniel of the West Saxons an informant of the Venerable Bede about the West Saxons. 

-

[CP] Saint Beorhtwald / Bertwald / Berhtwald Archbishop of Canterbury d succeeded by Saint Tatwine / Tatwin / Tatuini / Tadwinus, monk of Breedon-on-the Hill. 

-

Bishop Eolla of Selsey, successor to Bishop Eadberht, d. 

-

[CP] Death of Gregory II. Saint Gregory III Pope (to 741).

 

731-735 – [CP] Venerable Bede writes Retractationes in Acta.

 

732 – [CP and JEF] Nechtan IV, ex-king of the Picts d in monastery and Oengus becomes rex Pictorum.  

-

[CP] Wilfrid II resigns see of York, succeeded by Ecgbert / Egbert/ Ecgberht [WSK has 732-766 as bishop to 735 then Archbishop; other has 734].  

-

Albin Abbot of Saint Augustine’s Canterbury either d or moves to become Abbot of Tournay and is succeeded by Nothbald. 

-

[DOC] Cathal mac Finguinne King of Munster defeated by the Ui Neill.  

-

Obit of a scribe at Armagh.  

-

Saint Boniface makes 2nd [WSK has 3rd in 732] trip to Rome and Pope Gregory III gives him pallium as Archbishop of the Germans [WSK has 732 made Bishop of Mainz]. 

-

Saracen Sultan Abd el-Rahman defeated and killed by Charles Martel and Duke Eudes at Moussais-la-Bataille (Vienne), 20 km from Poitiers [CP has Battle of Tours]. 

 

Post 732 – Abbess Saint Mildrith / Milthryth of Minster-in-Thanet d succeeded by Eadburh.

 

733 – [WSK] Dungal King of Dal Riata drags Bruide / Bridei mac Oengus I King of the Picts from sanctuary at Tory monastery [other has Eochaid Angbad / Eochaid mac Echdach King of Dal Riatad [WSK] succeeded by Alpin to 736; WSK has Alpin’s rule ending in Dal Riata in 733]. 

-

[JEF] Donngal King of Dal Riata raids Inis Cuirenrigi and supports Flaithbertach son of Loingsech, King of the Cenel Conaill with a fleet from Fortriu against Cenel nEogain of the Ui Neill (with Bridei?), but is defeated at the River Bann; Donngal captures Bridei at Tory Island. 

-

Muiredach son of Ainbcellach becomes King of Lorn / Cenel Loairn, Ainbcellach having been deposed in 698 or 699 and later killed by brother Selbach [other has Muiredach mac Ainbcellaig, Chief of the Cenél Loairn, King of Dal Riata succeeded by ?Alpín mac Echdachin 733; other has Muiredach r 733-736]. 

-

Anchoress Saint Kentigerna of Loch Lamond d [WSK has 733 and 734].

-

Venerable Bede visits Egbert at York. 

-

Alwig / Alwigh consecrated Bishop of Lindsey.  

-

[CP] King Aethelbald / Ethelbald of Mercia subdues Wessex [Storr has and takes Somerton, not that in Somerset but the Somerton on the Oxfordshire-Buckimghamshire border. Wessex builds Grim’s Ditch between the Rivers Evenlode and Glyme and Ave’s Ditch east of the River Cherwell]. [CP] Sigeferth / Sigelmus / Sigfridus /Sigfrid / Sigga / Siggca / Sicgg consecrated Bishop of Selsey. 

C733 – Monmouth monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.

734 – [JEF] potestas of Onuist in Argyll.

-

Talorcan of Atholl captured at Donollie to be drowned by Oengus 739 [other has Talorc son of Congus, King of Kintyre, overcome by his brother Cu Bretan son of Congus and is drowned by the Picts].

-

Donngal son of Selbach King of Lorn escapes from an attack on Dun Lethfinn and flees wounded to Ireland, with Muiredach now King of Lorn.  

-

Saint Frithubeorht / Frithbert consecrated Bishop of Hexham [CP has 734-735].  

-

[CP] Ecgbert / Egbert consecrated Bishop of York. 

-

[CP] Venerable Bede’s Epistola ad Ecgberhtum episcopum (Letter to Bishop Ecgberht) catalogues failings of the church. 

-

[CP] Tatwine Archbishop of Canterbury and Aldwulf Bishop of Rochester d. 

-

Albinus Abbot of St Peter and St Paul Canterbury d [CP has C732 and 733 or 734].

-

Flaithbertach son of Loingsech King of the Cenel Connail abdicates, the last Cenel Connaill King to dominate the northern Ui Neill [other has Flaithbertach of the Cenel Conaill King of Ireland d in Armagh monastery as a monk, succeeded by Aedh Allan of the Cenel Eoghain]. 

-

[DOC] Accession of King Aed Allan of Cenel nEogain of Ailech as High King (to 743, commencing alternation of High Kingship between Cenel nEogain of Ailech and Clann Cholmain in Mide). 

 

735 – [JEF] York becomes Archbishopric, with Ecgbert / Egbert / Ecgberht / Ecgberct son of Eata as first Archbishop, given pallium by Pope Gregory III, the first since Saint Paulinus in 633 [WSK has 735].

-

Egbert founds School of York and later writes Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis (Dialogue of Ecclesiastical Institutions). 

-

[AC] Beda presbiter dormit.  [CP] Venerable Bede finishes his translation of the Gospel of John before d [other has 734; WSK has d 735]. 

-

Pectwine Bishop of Whithorn d succeeded by Frithuwald. 

-

[CP] Nothelm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury [WSK has 735-739].  

-

Fáelán mac Murchado King of Leinster defeats Munster at Battle of Belach Éile [JEF has Cathal mac Finnguine King of Cashel, paramount King of Munster and High King beating Leinster]. 

-

[DOC] Cathal mac Finguinne King of Munster defeated by the Ui Neill.  

-

Cathal mac Muiredaig Muillethan King of Connacht d succeded by Áed Balb mac Indrechtaig. 

-

[DOC] Áed Róin mac Bécce Bairrche King of Ulster / Ulaid of the Dal Fiatach killed by Ui Neill High King of Áed Allán of the Cenél nEógain at Faughart / Fochairt near Dundalk, in Magh Muirtheimhne, in regionibus Murtheimne in County Louth; Louth and some Airgailla lands taken in Ui Neill hands.  This conflict had arisen as a result of a profanation of a church, Cell Conna, dear to Áed Allán by one of Áed Róin's men, for which Congus, abbot of Armagh demanded vengeance. Áed Róin's head was cut off. This victory results in the loss of Conailli Muirtheimne overlordship by the Ulaid to the Ui Neill of their influence in Louth.  His successor was Cathussach mac Ailello Kong of the Cruithne, or perhaps an interregnum. 

-

Saint Boniface to Bavaria.

 

C735 - Ednyfed King of Meirionydd d succeeded by son Brochfael / Brochwel [PCB has b 770 father of Cynan ap Brochwel, last King of Meirionydd]. 

-

Arthwyr / Arthen ap Seisyll, King of Seisylwg d succeeded by Dyfnwal / Dyfnwallon ap Arthwyr / Arthen [PCB has b 750 father of Meurig].  

-

Dixton monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters

 

736 – [WSK and TMC] Oengus I King of the Picts and his brother Talorgen / Talorcan ?King of Fortiru leading the Waerteras attack Argyll and take Dunadd, destroying it, capturing Dungal / Donngal, son of King Selbach of Dal Riada and his brother Feradach, both to disappear, but Bridei son of Oengus also d; he remains King of Dal Riata till ‘ebbing of his sovereignty’ in 750

-

At Cnoc Coirpri in Calathros, near Benderloch, in Upper Lorn, Talorgen routs Muiredach King of the Cenel Loairn and Dal Riata; Muiredach disappears [other has Dal Riata defeated by the Picts of Fortriu led by Talorgan mac Fergusa, brother of Óengus I, at Cnoc Cirpre / Cairpre in Calathros at Etarlinde; Alpin King of Dal Riata killed, followed by Eogan 736-739 then Kingdom collapses; other has an interregnum by Angus / Oengus mac Fergus King of the Picts in 739;  Dal Riata passes into Pictish control;  AC has Ougen rex pictorum obit; JEF has Onuist devastates Argyll and captures Dunadd; Muiredach defeated by Talorcan in Calathros].  

-

Aethelbald King of Mercia styled ‘King not only of all the Mercians but also of all the provinces.’

 

C736 – Aethelric King of the Hwicce.  

-

Bishop Walhstod of Hereford d succeeded by Abbot Cuthbert / Cuthbeorht of Lyminge.

 

737 – [CP and JEF] Saint Ceolwulf, son of Cuthwine, King of Northumbria voluntarily enters Lindisfarne monastery and d in 764, succeeded by his first cousin Eadberht / Eadbert / Eadberct son of Eata, younger brother of Cuthwine [WSK has king 737-758], brother of Ecgberct, Archbishop of York.  

-

[JEF] Death of Saint Acca. 

-

Composition of the Moore Memoranda [Wikipedia 734-737].   

-

[CP] Bishop Aldwine of Leicester d succeeded by Totta / Torhthelm.  

-

Abbot Coengils of Glastonbury d succeeded by Tunberht.  

-

[CP] Forthere Bishop of Sherborne goes to Rome.

-

[DOC] Cathal mac Finguinne King of Munster meets Aed Allan of the Ui Neill, High King, at Terryglass, Tipperary.  

-

Irish Annals imply for the first time Saint Patrick’s spiritual overlordship of all Ireland – Lex Patricii tenuit Hiberniam – following a conference at Terryglass in Tipperary between Aedh Allan King of Ailech, High King of Ireland and Cathal King of Munster, [JEF] showing equality of status. 

-

Saint Boniface makes 3rd [WSK implies 4th] trip to Rome and is made papal legate for Germany. 

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