THE CHURCH IN BRITAIN

 TO 737 CE/AD 

I

THE CHURCH IN BRITANNIA

 

The Church in the Roman province was modelled on, and followed, the Gallic urban diocesan model.  Rural Britain remained largely pagan. By the end of C 4, the British Church was sophisticated enough to have schools producing theologians and clerics capable of participating in the intellectual life of the western Church.  Some missionary activity had begun north of the Wall.  The separation of Britain from Rome did not alter this, but the Saxon revolt shattered the model, destroying the towns and their dioceses.  Links with Rome were sundered by the end of C 5. The Church turned to regional rulers and tied itself to royal families. Starting in south Wales, the church established monasteries and schools to produce missionaries who, in the 5th and 6th Centuries, evangelized south Wales, then Dumnonia, Armorica, Galicia, north Wales and the north.  The church initially was largely based upon monasteries owned and staffed by local potentates, being the model for the later Celtic church that flourished in Hibernia.  Simultaneously, the Church sent missions to Hibernia then Alba, which were part of the political effort to stabilize the British frontiers.  Evangelisation was carried out by members of royal families using political links, but the amount of activity and the complete coverage indicates that there was a centralized, or jointly agreed British effort involving the commitment of resources and manpower.  

 

Christianity was recent and shallow in areas conquered by Germanic invaders and did not survive (save perhaps at Verulamium).  Based as it was upon royal linkages, evangelization did not happen in hostile Germanic areas. By the end of the 6th Century, as British fortunes ebbed, the focus of learning and evangelization switched to Hibernia and Britain ceased to create saints.

 

C 1- Legends of Joseph of Arimathea and Glastonbury.

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Saint Ilid, a semi legendary saint of Wales, has at times been identified as Joseph of Arimathea.  He is said to have returned from Rome with Caratacus, Saint Cyllin and Eigen and formed a religious college of twelve named Cor Eurgain / the choir of Eurgain.

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Saint Aristobulus, sent by Saint Paul to be Bishop of Britannia, according to the Greek Menology.

 

C 208 – Saint Alban of Verulamium martyred by the Emperor Severus [WSK has under Septimius Severus C 209, Decius 254 or Diocletian C 305; JM suggests 209].

 

Pre 250? - Glastonbury founded. 

 

Post 303 – In Emperor Diocletian’s persecution of Christians, Saints Amphibalus, Aaron and Julius of Isca Augusta / Caerleon martyred and churches destroyed [AS has 283; Bede has 305; other has Aaron and Julius killed in 304; JR has possible death in Decius’s persecution 249-251 or that of Valerian 253-260].  

 

311 – British Saint Mellonius, Bishop of Rotomagus / Rouen, d.

 

314 – Bishop Restitus of Londinium / London, Bishop Eborius of Eboracum / York and Bishop Adelfius of Lindum Colonia / Colonia Lindensium / Lincoln attend Council of Arelate / Arles, which gives computation dates for Easter to British church. 

 

358-359 – Saint Hilary, Bishop of Pictavum / Poitiers writes to the British Bishops against Arianism in De Synodis.  Malleus Arianorum/ Hammer of the Arians

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Sulpicius Severus's Vita Sancti Martini led to a cult of Saint Hilary, as well as of St. Martin of Tours, which spread early to western Britain. The villages of St Hilary in Cornwall and Glamorgan and that of Llanilar in Ceredigion bear his name. 

 

361 – Martyrdom of Saint Augurius / Augulius / Augustus / Augulinus, Bishop of Augusta / Londinium; maybe one of 15 bishops exiled by Constantius after the Council of Rimini 359.

 

C 390 – fl Saint Peblig [PCB] b post 360, son of Saint Elen fech Eudaf and Macsen Wledig / Magnus Maximus.  Saint of Llanbeblig, parish church of Carnarfon.

 

C395 – [other has post 431] foundation of Cor Tewdws / Bangor Tewdws / College or Chief University of Theodosius at Llantwit Major in the region of Gorfynedd in Cernyw. 

 

C 396? - St Albans, Whithorn and Canterbury churches exist – Saint Victricius, Bishop of Rotomagus / Rouen [JM has C 308-C 408], visiting Britain, sent by continental bishops to end a dispute, summons synod of British bishops to introduce the reforms of Saint Martin of Civitas Turonum / Caesarodunum  / Tours, perhaps leads to founding of Saint Albans and Whithorn monasteries and Church of Saint Martin at Canterbury. 

 

 408-409 – Pelagian ‘Sicilian Briton’ in Rome writes Tractatus de Divitiis/ On Riches

 

 410 – Pelagius flees to Carthage after the sack of Rome by Alaric. 

C 410 - The Sicilian Briton writes De Vita Christiana, an egalitarian tract later the cause of popular disturbances in Rome. [Ellis and JM have C 411 and the author as Bishop Fastidius; other has 411 tract de Vita Christiana published in Britain written by the Sicilian Briton].

C 410 - Dioceses in towns, pagan temples destroyed, though shrine to Bacchus in Maiden Castle maintained till C 6. 

 

C 411 – Homily by British Bishop Fastidius ? Priscus [PCB says fl C 430; Stubbs says 431]c onsoling wife for loss of husband. Gennadius calls Fastidius Priscus Britannorum episcopus.  According to Gennadius Fastidius is author of two texts: De vita Christiana (ad Fatalem) and De viduitate servanda. Fastidius is the probable author of five treatises attributed to Agricola. The first of these is the Vita mentioned by Gennadius. One of the letters of the Pelagian Agricola is Epistola ad Fastidium.

412– British / Irish monk Coelestius, companion of Pelagius, whom he had met in Rome, arraigned in Carthage for heterodox Christian views. 

416 - Synod of Carthage issues decree against Pelagianism.  Pope Innocent I excommunicates Pelagius.  

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Claudius Rutilius Namatianus, on his way to Gaul, leaves at the dock (at Rome?) his charge Palladius, son of Exuperantius (theDux Tractus Armoricani and Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum), who later becomes a monk.  He is author of poem 'De Reditu Suo 'describing a voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416.  Exuperantius is killed in an army mutiny at Arelate / Arles in 424 . 

417 – Pelagius writes to Pope Innocent enclosing a copy of his Libellus Fidei Suae.  

418 – Pope Zosimus condemns Pelagius and has him expelled from Jerusalem.  Pelagius moves to Egypt.  

 

Post C 420 – death of Coelestius, monk, lawyer, principal colleague of Pelagius in Rome.

 

? 420-440 – Pelagius d.

 

420-460 – Saint Ceneu ap Coel, ruler of Eboracum / Ebrauc / York [MA has him ruling Valentia and Rheged; other has him C 458 settling Saxons in Deira; other has 375-450].

 

421 – Imperial edict banishes Pelagians from Rome.  

 

422-432 – Pope Celestine banishes Pelagians from Italy and seeks to extirpate them from Britain. 

 

C 428/ pre 429 -[JM] British Bishop Agricola, son of Bishop Severianus (the author of one of the Sicilian letters?) revives Pelagianism [other has Agricola as a foreign bishop].

 

429 – [WSK & Chronicle of Prosper Tiro of Aquitaine] At request of Palladius the Deacon, ? later Bishop of Ireland, Saint Germanus, Bishop of Autissiodorum / Auxerre and Lupus Bishop of Augustobona Tricassium / Troyes visit shrine of Saint Alban at Verulamium / Caer Mincip / Saint Albans to counter Pelagianism, which had been raised again in Britain by Bishop Agricola.  They meet opulent bishops and normal civic life, including a man tribuniciae potestatis.  They bring monastic regulations from Lerina / Lérins. While they are there, a joint Pictish-Saxon attack occurs [this is misplaced; if it occurred, it was during the second visit], which Saint Germanus defeats with an alleluia chorus [LA says at Maesgarman / Germanus’s field near Mold or in the Chilterns].  He blesses Vortigern and his sons. 

 

432 / 433 - British cleric Saint Faustus [Chadwick has ? Britu, grandson of Emperor Magnus Maximus, blessed by Saint Germanus], made Abbot of Lerina / Lérins [TMC has 433 / 434].  He is against the Augustinian doctrine of predestination.  Grandson of Vortigern b between 405 and 410 [JM has C 408-C 495; PCB has b 400; TMC has 400-410].

 

443 - Saint Erbin [PCB has b 440], father of Saint Cybi, becomes ruler of Dumnonia. Brother to Saint Digain. Venerated in Cornwall, Brittany and one of the four saints at Llangwm, Gwent [Wikipedia has C 427–C 480].  Abdicates before 480.

 

446 - Saint Germanus Bishop of Autissiodorum / Auxerre and Severus Bishop of Treveri / Trier visit Britain, finding Britain ruled by ‘Great Tyrant’ / Vortigern [Chadwick has 447, with a recrudescence of Pelagianism in Britain].  Lands at Selsey and meets Elafius regionis illius primus according to Constantius of Lyon's Life of Germanus and also in Bede's Ecclesiastical History.  He succeeds in expelling Pelagians and with all the British clergy attacks Vortigern.  Germanus leads the native Britons to a victory against Pictish and Saxon raiders, at a mountainous site near a river, of which Mold in North Wales is the traditional location. He orders his troops to shout thrice, Alleluia.  

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The College of Theodosius is reputedly burnt down, with different sources attributing the destruction to Irish pirates and Saxon war bands. 

 

Post 445 – [PCB] Saint Mordeyrn ? ab Edeyrn, prince of Edeyrnion, saint in Rhufoniog, Gwynedd.

 

Post 449- Saint Madrun / Materiana ferch Gwerthefyr b C 440, patron of two churches in Cornwall and one in Wales. Eldest of three daughters of Vortimer the Blessed, who, after her father's death, ruled over Gwent with her husband Prince Honorius / Ynyr Gwent [r 452-480].  [PCB has b 425; she and  handmaiden Annun are saints of Trawsfynydd in Ardudwy and C 470  Saint Materiana saint of Trevena and Minster, Tintagel].   

Post 450- [PCB] Saint Clether persuaded by King Brychan to go to Cornwall and founds St. Clether, Launceston. 

453-454- [JM has 440-450] Cadell Ddyrnllwg / Gleaming Hilt restored to rule of Powys with aid of Saint Garmon. Churches in Gwynedd dedicated to Saint Garmon are Capel Garmon, Llanarmon, Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog, and Llanarmon-yn-Ial.

455 / 457 / 458 [other has post 444] - British Church adopts new method of calculating Easter. Pope Leo issues a decree, an opinion and a Paschal Canon on calculating the proper time to celebrate Easter in the year 455 [Wikipedia has 84-year tables had been introduced in Rome by Augustalis near the end of C 3.  A completely distinct 84-year cycle, the Insular latercus, was used in the British Isles. These old tables were used until 664].  Until this, the British had followed the Alexandrine rules and now rejected the Paschal Book of Theophilus. After 455, during the years of struggle post the Saxon revolt and the collapse of schools, diocese and regular communication with the Gallic churches, the British received what they thought was a new rule and implemented it without further advice or correction. This argues for a good degree of disruption and separation after that time.   However, it also argues for a good deal of centralized organization in the British church which made a decision binding on all and carried that to its missionaries in Hibernia and Caledonia.  On the other hand, they did not understand the rule too well, so may have received an incomplete version or did not understand what they received.

460s - Irish Saint Beon travels to Glastonbury and becomes hermit on Saint Patrick’s advice. 

461– British cleric Faustus, Abbot of Lérins, made Bishop of Riez in Provence.  

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British / Irish Bishop Mansuetus signs the Council of Tours.

C 462 – [JM] Saint Maucennus [ie Ninian, d 485], Abbot of Whithorn / Rosnat. Maucennus may have established a monastery in Demetia. 

Pre 470 - [PCB] Saint Gastayn saint of Llangasty Tal-y-llyn in Breicheiniog.

C 470 - Saint Claudius / Glywys / Glwysson son of Solor, the brother of Protector Marius / Mor, King of Glywysing and later a hermit at Penryn. Father of Saints Gwynllyw and Pedrog; grandfather of Saint Cadog.  He is venerated as Saint Glywys who entered a martyrium in Merthyr Glywys, where he was connected with Nertat and Bishop Saint Fili who has a dedication in Cornwall. 

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[PCB] Saint Ina ferch Ceredig ap Cunedda b C 440 saint of Llanina, Ceredigion [Ceredig r 424-453].

Pre 473 – fl - [PCB] Saint Digain Frenin ap Custennin Gorneu b 450 [must be pre 443], ‘Cornish’ founder of church in Llangernyw in Rhos, Gwynnedd and one in Herefordshire.

 

C 473 – death of Saint Dochau ,brother of Saint Kew, founder of Llandochau Fach / Llandough-juxta-Cardiff monastery in territory of Pawl of Penychen in Glywyssing [other has against the opposition of Pebiau of Ercig C 610] as well as monasteries at Llandochau near Cowbridge and Docco in Cornwall [IA has British Doccus abbot of the Britons, author of first Irish Christian liturgy, d 473]. 

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[PCB] Saint Kew / Ciwa Wyry / the Virgin, sister of Saint Docco, saint of Llangiwa, Gwent and Languivoa, Brittany.

 

475 - Tintagel monastery founded.

 

478- Sidonius Apollinaris Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand visited by British Bishop and monk Riocatus, grandson of Vortigern, who was travelling for Bishop Faustus of Riez. 

 

C 480 – [PCB] Saint Gwynllyw Farchog ap Glywis b 460, father of Saints Cadog, Eigion and Cynidr, inherits Gwynllwg in Glywysing. Founder of monastery Eglwys Wynllyw, where he is buried. Lives eremitical life separated from wife. Cadog and Dubricius at his deathbed.

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Saint Brioc moves to Armorica [tradition has ].

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[Wikipedia] death of Saint Piran, saint of three Perran parishes in Cornwall and of tin miners, and of churches in Cardiff and Brittany. 

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[PCB] Saint Tegfedd ferch Tegid Foel b , wife of Cedig ap Ceredig, saint of Llandegfedd, Gwent.

 

Post 480 – Saint Cynog Camarch ap Brychan fl.  Son of prince Brychan Brycheiniog [r C 450-480], who was a hostage in court of Benlli, the usurper of Powys, whose daughter Banadlinet he violated and she bore St Cynog, Brychan’s eldest son, who founded churches in Cornwall, south Wales and Powys [PCB has b ? 420 baptised by Saint Gastayn]. 

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Saint Gastyn, eremitical saint of Tal-y-Llyn, Gwynedd.

 

Post 485 - [traditionally C 432] Saint Ninian d at Candida Casa / Mor-munntir / Hwit aern / Whithorn / Witerna / Futerna / Rosnatensis Monasterium / Rosnat / Magnum Monasterium / Alba / in Galloway, succeeded as Abbot by Saint Caranoc.

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[PCB] Saint Plebia, ‘brother’ to Ninian, with whom he went walking.

 

C 490–Saint Cyngen Glodrydd / the Renowned / the Famous ap Cadell Ddyrnllwg begins to rule Powys. Married first Saint Tudlwystl, ferch Brychanand second Saint Gwenddydd ferch Brychan. 

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Saint Adwen ferch Brychan at Camelford.

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[PCB] Saint Arthen ap Brychan, saint of Llanarfen in Gwent and of Cefn Arthen in Brycheiniog. Father of Saint Cynin of Man.

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[PCB] Saint Beilo ferch Brychan at Llanfilo, Brycheiniog.

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Saint Berwyn ap Brychan in Fowey. Teacher of Saint Ia and Saint Wymerus.  

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Saint Caian ap Brychan at Tregaian in Anglesey.  

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Saint Callwen ferch Brychan in Glyntawe, Breicheiniog.

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[PCB] Saint Clydia ferch Brychan in Emlyn, saint of Clydai in Emlyn, Dyfed. 

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[PCB] Saint Cynheiddon ferch Brychan, saint of Llangynheidddon in Mymydd Cyfor in Cedweli, Glywyssing.

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[PCB] Saint Dingad ap Brychan, saint in Glywyssing and Gwent.

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[PCB] Saint Doewan ap Brychan, saint in Mochnant, Powys.

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[PCB] Saint Dwyn ferch Brychan, saint of Llanddwyn / Llandwynwen in Mon.

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[PCB] Saint Dyfnan ap Brychan saint of Llanddyfnan, Mon.

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[PCB] Saint Endelienta ferch Brychan and sister Saint Dilic saints in north Cornubia and latter in Morbihan, Brittany, b . Legend says that Endellion was a goddaughter of King Arthur, and that she lived as a hermit at Trentinney.

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[PCB] Saint Eiliwedd ferch Brychan, saint of Saint Elwedd, martyred in Breicheiniog.

[PCB] Saint Gwen ferch Brychan, saint of Talgarth in Brycheiniog and of churches in Cornwall. 

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Saint Gwenddydd ferch Brychan, married to prince Cadell Ddyrnllwg of Powys, mother of Saint Cyngen, saint of Capel Gwenddydd in Dyfed.

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[PCB] Saint Gwenfyl ferch Brychan, saint of Capel Gwenfyl in Ceredigion and in Glyntawe, Breicheiniog.

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 [PCB] Saint Gwenrhiw ferch Brychan.

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Saint Gwladys ferch Brychan, married to  Saint Gwynllyw King of Gwynllwg, mother of Saints Cadoc and Cynidr, b .

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[PCB] Saint Gwynnen ap Brychan, saint of Llanwnnen in Ceredigion. 

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[PCB] Saint Gwynnws ap Brychan, saint of Llanwnnws in Ceredigion.

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[PCB] Saint Hawystl ferch Brychan, saint of Llanwstl in Gwent.

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[PCB] Saint Heilin ap Brychan, saint of Capel Heilin in Anglesey and perhaps Rhufoniog.

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[PCB] Saint Helie ap Brychan, saint in Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Hunydd ap Brychan, saint of the unidentified Stone of Meltheu.

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[PCB] Saint Hychan ap Brychan, saint of Llanhychan in Dyffryn Clywd, Gwynedd.

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[PCB] Saint Ide ferch Brychan, saint of Ide in Devon and Mevagissey in Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Iohannes ap Brychan, saint of Instow in Devon.

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 [PCB] Saint Juliot ferch Brychan, b who evangelized in north Cornwall; mother of Saint Paternus; saint of Llanlilid, Breicheiniog and of Saint Juliot, Cornwall. 

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Saint Keyne / Cain Wyry / Virgin ferch Brychan, d , holy woman and hermitess.  Dedications to Saint Keyne in South Wales, Anglesey, Somerset, Hertfordshire and Cornwall. Vita Sanctae Keynae, edited by John of Tynemouth and included in his Sanctilogium Angliae Walliae Scotiae et Hiberniae in C 14.  The village of St Keyne in Cornwall, is named after her, and is the site of a church and a holy well, which also take her name.  .

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[PCB] Saint Mabyn ferch Brychan, saint of Saint Mabyn, Cornwall

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[PCB] Saint Marwenna ferch Brychan [other has b ], saint of Marhamchurch in Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Menefrida ferch Brychan, saint of Minver, Cornwall and of Minwear in Dyfed.

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[PCB] Saint Morwenna ferch Brychan, saint of Morwenstow, Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Mwynwen ferch Brychan; no churches.

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[PCB] Saint Nectan ap Brychan of Hartland d . [Wikipedia has C 468-510], eldest [must be second eldest] son of Brychan. Nectan was born in Ireland but moved to Wales when he was young [Wikipedia also has this impossibly in 423]. Landed on the northern coast of Devon at Hartland, killed by robbers. Patron of churches in Cornwall and Devon. 

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[PCB] Saint Neffei ap Brychan went with Pasgen and Pabiali ap Brychan to Spain.

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[PCB] Saint Nennocha ferch Brychan, saint of Ploemeur, Lorient, Brittany. 

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[PCB] Saint Pabiali ap Brychan went to Spain with Saints Neffei and Pasgen ap Brychan.

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[PCB] Saint Papai ap Brychan, saint in Manaw; no churches. 

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[PCB] Saint Pasgen [ap Dingad] ap Brychan went to Spain with Saints Neffei and Pabiali ap Brychan.

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[PCB] Saint Rhun ap Brychan in Man.

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[PCB] Saint Rhydoch ap Brychan, saint of Lanreath in Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Tedda ferch Brychan, saint of Saint Teath, Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Tudful ferch Brychan, saint of Merthyr Tudful, Glywyssing. 

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[PCB] Saint Tudwen ferch Brychan, saint of Llandudwen, Llyn.

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[PCB] Saint Tudwystl ferch Brychan, saint of Capel Tydyst, Ystrad Tywi.

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[PCB] Saint Tybie ferch Brychan saint of Llandybie in Ystrad Tywi.

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[PCB] Saint Wencu ferch Brychan, saint of Egloshayle, Cornwall and in Brittany.

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[PCB] Saint Ewryd ap Cynyr of Caer Gwch b , brother of Non, uncle of Dewi Sant, saint of Bodewryd in Anglesey. 

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[PCB] Saint Gwithian, saint of Gwithian, Cornwall.

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[PCB] – Saint Justinian moves from Brittany to Ramsey Island, Dyfed and is welcomed into his cell by Ynyr ap Tyfriog.  He later befriends Saint Tyfanog, who gave the island its name Ynys Tyfannog.  Later chosen by Saint David as his ‘soul-friend’ / confessor and is murdered by serfs objecting to his strict rule. Saint of Llanstinan, Fishguard, Dyfed.

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Saint Ceidio ab Ynyr Gwent r 452-480 by Madrun ferch Gwrthefyr [PCB] b 570? Saint in Anglesey.

 

Post 490 - [PCB] Saint Carannog ap Corun ap Ceredig b 470. Travels to Ireland, returns to Ceredigion, then goes to Somerset and tames a serpent for Arthur.  Builds civitas Carrov on land given by King ? Cato [Cado of Dumnonia, r 508-530] at mouth of Guellit. Returns to die in Ireland.  Companions Saint Columb, saint near Newquay and at Plou-golm near Carentec in Brittany; and Saint Cubert, saint of Cubert, Cornwall and Gwbert-on-Sea, Glywyssing.

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St. Illtud Farchog / the Knight, venerated as the founder abbot [refounder] and teacher of the divinity school known as Cor Tewdws, Llanilltud Fawr / Llantwit Major in Glywyssing [other has b C 450 ?related to Ambrosius, born in Letavia / Armorica; other has b C 475. Other has b 431 . PCB has b  C 470, unlikely to have been born in Letavia, son of Bicanus prince of Lidaw, mother Rieingulid / Modest Queen, daughter of Amlawdd Wledig, ? cousin of Arthur, service under Poulentus rex Gulat Morcanensium/ Pawl Penychen with wife Trynihid].  The earliest mention of St. Illtud is in the Vita Sancti Sampsonis , written in Dol, Brittany, C 600. 

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[PCB] Saint Baglan, disciple of Saint Illtud, saint of Baglan in Morgannwg, contemporary of Saint Cadog.

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[PCB] Saint Isan Abbot of Llanilltud Fawr. With another Abbot Atoclius visited Saint Illtud on his deathbed. Preceded by Piro / Pyr and succeeded by Cennit / Cenydd then Samson. Saint of Llanisien / Llanishen, Cardiff. 

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Council of Ephesus condemns Pelagius and Coelestius. 

 

C 495 - [JM] British Faustus, Bishop of Riez in Provence d.  

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Saint Rhain Dremrydd / Red-Faced / Red-eyed, ? Rhain Hael / the Generous becomes ruler of Brycheiniog.

 

Post C 495 – Saint Dubricius / Dyfrig Bishop in Ergyng.  Tradition has Llancarfan founded in 447 Cernyw with Dubricius first Abbot. C 465-C 520/550, the evangelist of Ergyng and southeast Wales. The earliest documentation of Dubricius is from C 1133, recording the translation of his relics, and is to be found (in the form of Lectiones) in the Book of Llandaff/ Liber Landavensis

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[PCB] Saint Cynfarch of Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd and maybe of Llangynfarch, Chepstow, may have been son of Glywys prince of Glywyssing and a disciple of Saint Dyfrig; may be one of the ‘seven happy cousins’.

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Saint Cynnwr / Congur, disciple of Saint Dyfrig, founded churches in Cedweli, Glywyssing.  

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[PCB] Saint Cynwal, a disciple of Saint Dyfrig and perhaps saint of Lann Cingualon / Monasteruim Sancti Cinguali in Gwyr.

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[PCB] Merchwyn, cleric, disciple of Saint Dyfrig, signed charter by Merchwyn ap Glywys to Porth Tulon in Gwyr.

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[PCB] Saint Tysoe, disciple of Saint Dyfrig, saint of Llan-soe in Gwent.

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[PCB] Bishop Ufelfyw, disciple of Saint Dyfrig.

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[PCB] Aelhearn, disciple of Saint Dyfrig, Abbot of Llanwrfwy contemporary with Bishops Elwystl, Inabwy and Comereg, plus Kings Erb, Peibio and Cynfyn of Ergyng and Arthrwys of Gwent [these are chronologically impossible]. 

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[PCB] Gwrfan, cleric, disciple of Saint Dubricius, charter with Dubricius and King Peibo or Ergyng .

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[PCB] Ieuan / Iouan, cleric, disciple of Saint Dyfrig, contemporary of Peibio King of Ergung.

 

C 498 – Saints Abar and Ibar visit Abingdon monastery. 

 

500 - Saint Samson of Dol studies at Llantwit Major and at Caldey / Ynys Bŷr monastery under Saint Pyr who is said to have become so drunk one night that on the way back to his cell he fell into a well and d soon after being pulled out. He was replaced as abbot by Samson, who resigned in disgust when he found that the young monks had become ungovernable due to the laxity of Pyr's rule.  

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Bishopric established at Welsh Bicknor / Llangystennin Garth Brenni in Ergyng. 

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? Foundation of Amesbury monastery.  Amesbury was already a sacred place in Pagan times. The life of St Melor says the nunnery at Amesbury was founded before Melor's relics arrived.  

 

C 500 – [PCB] Saint Doged ap Cedig ap Ceredig,  saint of Llanddoged on the Conwy, Gwynedd, b 470. 

[PCB] Saint Dogfael ab Ithel ap Ceredig, founder of churches in Dyfed, b.

 [PCB] Saint Eilfyw b, cousin to Saint David, saint of Saint Elvis / Llaneilfyw in Dyfed. 

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[Wikipedia] Saint Edeyrn saint related to Vortigern and the royal house of Powys and the brother of Saint Aerdeyrn and Elldeyrn. Patron saint of Lannédern in France and Llanedeyrn in Wales, where he founded a monastery of over 300 people.  Legend holds he was a companion of King Arthur, before moving to Britanny where he became a Hermit.  Churches in Glywyssing and Brittany.

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Saint Einion Frenin ap, Owain Ddantgwyn, brother of Cuneglas, King of Rhos, and of saints Seiriol and Meirion. He r as regulus over the Llŷn Peninsula southwest of Anglesey and possibly over Anglesey itself. He granted his brother Seiriol the land for his monastery / clas at Penmon on Anglesey and, later, his hermitage on Puffin Island. He also lured the Breton saint Cadfan from Tywyn to found St Mary's Abbey, the first religious establishment on Bardsey Island. Einion himself is sometimes said to have joined Cadfan's community on the island, b 470. [PCB] saint of Lyn b 470.

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Saint Meirion ab Owain Danwyn, prince of Rhos, b , saint of Llangadwaladr, Mon.

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Saint Seiriol Wyn / the Fair ab Owain Danwyn, prince of Rhos, b , one of the ‘Seven Happy Cousins’. Saint in Anglesey and Puffin Island / Ynys Lannog / Priestholm.  [PCB] Brother of Einion Frenin and Meirion. Saint of Penmon in Anglesey.

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Saint Paulinus, founder of churches around Llandovery, teacher of Saint Teilo, . A stone found at Caeo in Carmarthenshire honours a Paulinus as "preserver of the faith, constant lover of his country, champion of righteousness". [PCB has b 470 teacher of Dewi Sant on island in Wincdi-lantquendi. Patron of Llangors in Brycheiniog].

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[PCB] Saint Tegfedd ferch Annun Ddu, sister of Saint Tydecho, carried off from Mawddwy by chieftain Cynon, who, with his men, were struck blind till they restored her unviolated. 

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[PCB] Saint Tydecho ab Annun Ddu ab Emyr Llydaw b 470 accompanied Cadfan and Padarn from Lydaw to Wales. Life of Tydecho  says ‘Relative of King Arthur’.  With Saints Dogfael and Tegfan at Llandudoch, Dyfed. Disputed with Maelgwn Gwynedd.  Sister Tegfedd carried off.  Saint of churches in Mawddwy, Dyfed.

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[PCB] Saint Tydiwg ap Corun ap Ceredig b saint of Dixton, Monmouth.

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[PCB] Saint Tysul ap Corun ap Ceredig, b , saint of Llandysul, Ceredigion.

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[PCB] Saint Pedr Llanfawr ap Corun b saint of Llanbedr Pont Steffan in Ceredigion.

 

C 505 - Saint Tathyw / Tatheus / Tathan, Irish founder of monastery at Llantathan and monastic school at Venta Silurum [other has d post 490; PCB has b 475; given land by Caradog of Gwent [r C 490-540]. King Saint Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg [r C 480-523] sends his seven-year-old son, Saint Cadog to study under Tathan. Pater totius Guentonie.  Equates to Irish hermit Meuthi in life of Cadog. Said to be brother of Saint Machu. [other has C 460 – death of Saint Tathan / Meuthi / ? Mo-ta, Irish founder of monastery at Llantathan and monastic school at Venta Silurum; PCB has Saint Meuthi, saint of Llanfeuthin, Morganwwg]. ​

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[PCB] Saint Maches, the sister of Cadog according to tradition, killed by robbers who were stealing her finest ram. Tathan, to whom the murderers confessed their crime, built a church on the spot.  Saint of Llanfaches / Merthyr Maches, Gwent.

 

C 510 - [PCB] Saint Afan Buellt ap Cedig Draws ap Ceredig b 480, a saint in Ceredigion, Anglesey and Bishop of Buellt.

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[PCB] Saint Dwywe ap Hywel, saint of Llanddwywe, Ardudwy, Gwynedd, b 480 [Wikipedia has this as female saint, daughter of Gwallog ap Llaennog of Elmet – a different saint?].  

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[PCB] Saint Maelrhys ap Gwyddno ab Emyr Llydaw, cousin of Saint Cadfan, b 480, saint of Llanfaelrhys in Lyn.

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[PCB] Saint Machu ap Guentus b 480 in Gwent, to Derwela, sister of Ammon, father of Saint Samson, sister of Umbrafel, father of Saint Maglorius, educated at Llancarfan, founder of churches in Gwent.

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[PCB] Saint Petrock ap Glywys d C 564 of Bodmin, founder of Padstow monastery.  Brother of Saint Gwynlliw King of Gwynllwg, uncle of Saint Cadog. He ministered to Wales and Cornwall, where he is is patron of the monastery at Padstow. There is a second ancient dedication to him nearby at Little Petherick or "Saint Petroc Minor".  In Devon ancient dedications total a probable seventeen (plus Timberscombe just over the border in Somerset). In Wales his name is commemorated at St Petrox near Pembroke, Ferwig near Cardigan and Llanbedrog on the Lleyn peninsula. He also became a popular saint in Brittany by the end of C 10.  The earliest Life of Petroc states that he was the son of an unnamed Welsh king: the C 12 version known as the Gotha Life, written at Bodmin, identifies that king as Glywys of Glywysing. He is said to have converted Constantine of Cornwall to Christianity by saving a deer Constantine was hunting [C 530–C 560 Saint Custennin ab Cado]. [PCB] Petroc b 480. Accompanied by Saints Credan, saint of Bodmin, Medan and Dachun.  [PCB] When Pedrog arrived at Bodmin he found Saint Guron, a hermit, who then went off further into the wilderness. 

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[PCB] Saint Tegfan ap Carcludwys b companion of saint Tydecho, saint of Llandegfan in Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Trunio ap Difwng ab Emyr Llydaw b saint of Llandrinio in Powys.

 

Post 510 - Saint Cybi; worked largely in North Wales: his biography is recorded in two slightly variant medieval lives. According to the Life of Saint Cybi, this saint was the son of Salomon, a 'warrior prince', King of Cornwall [Salom / Salomon / St Selyf ap Erbin last sub-king of Cornubia r from C 510]. [PCB has Saint Cybi b 485, related to Saint David, born in Cornwall, consecrated by Hilary of Poitiers, returned home, refused throne – thus ending the Cornubian line- went to Edeligion, then to Saint David, then to Ireland Isle of Aran – one of ‘twelve sailors’ and one of ‘seven Happy Cousins’].  

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[PCB] Saint Cynfarwy ab Awy Luyddog of Cornubia, saint of Llantrisant, Anglesey, disciple of Saint Cybi. 

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[PCB] Saint Gwyndaf, saint of Dyfed, Ceredigion and Gwynedd, disciple of Cybi, with whom he quarrelled.

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[PCB] Saint Llibio with Saint Cybi in Cornwall and Anglesey, saint of Llanllibio in Bodedern.

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[PCB] Saint Maelog, disciple of Saint Cybi, with him from Cornwall to Aran Mor then Anglesey, saint of Llanfaelog under Llanbeulan.

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[PCB] Saint Padern, disciple of Saint Cybi, ? saint of Petherwins, Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Peulan ap Paul Hen of Manaw, disciple of Saint Cybi, saint of Llanbeulan.

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[PCB] Adwarwy, disciple of Cybi.

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[PCB] Saint Caffo, disciple of Saint Cybi and martyr at Rosuir.

 

C 516 - Saint Cadfan d C 542, founder-abbot of Tywyn, founds Bardsey monastery in Gwynedd, having received lands C 516 from Einion ap Cynglas, ruler of Llyn, [ruler of Rhos in C 540, later absorbs Afflogion].  [PCB has Cadfan ab Eneas Ledewig b 470, who took monks including Padarn from Letavia. Founder of Towyn in Merioneth, 1st Abbot of Bardsey / Ynys Enlli].  Most of the information we have about Cadfan is from the awdl by Llywelyn the Bard in C 12. 

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[PCB] Saints Cynon and Dochdwy with Cadfan on Bardsey.

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[PCB] Saint Eithras, saint of Llandanwg, Ardudwy, a companion of Saint Cadfan on Bardsey and brother of Saint Tanwg.

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[PCB] Saint Hywyn ap Gwyndaf Hen of Llydaw or ap Ithel Hael of Llydaw, saint of Aberdaron in Lyn, periglor / soul-friend / confessor to Saint Cadfan on Enlli / Bardsey.

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[PCB] Saint Llewen / Llywen / Llewyn / Llywelyn with Saint Cadfan on Bardsey, saint of Aberdaron, Lyn.

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[PCB] Saint Llyfab with Saint Cadfan on Bardsey. No church.

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[PCB] Saints Mael and Sulien with Saint Cadfan to Bardsey, joint saints of Corwen in Edeirnion and Cwm in Tegeingl. 

 

[PCB] Saint Tanwg, brother of Saint Eithras, with Cadfan on Bardsey.

 

Post 517 - pre 547 – [JM] Saint Curig Llwyd of Gwynedd; attacked by King Maelgwn. [Wikipedia] "having landed at Aberystwyth, he travelled inland, and rested upon the summit of a high mountain, which still bears the name of Eisteddfa Gurig, or Curig's seat." Associated with Saints Ilid and Dona [PCB] has dedications in Dyfed, Gwynedd & Cornwall. Lived near a holy nun, Ilid / Elidan.  

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Saint Eurgain, said to have been the daughter of Maelgwn of Gwynedd and a niece of Saint Asaph. A church in Northop / Llaneurgain, Flintshire, is dedicated to her. 

 

C 518 - Saint Cyngar d C 550. Patron Saint of Llangefni, Anglesey, in Wales, founding member of St. Cybi's Monastery at Holyhead, Anglesey b C 488 he was the son of King Gerren Llyngesog of Dumnonia [r C 480-508]. Follower of his nephew, St. Cybi Felyn, whom he accompanied to Edeligion in South Wales where they built churches in Llangybi-upon-Usk and Llanddyfrwyr-yn-Edeligion before King Glywys of Glywysing forced them to leave [the dates or the monarch are wrong.  The next monarch is Saint Gwynlliw r C 480-523]. [PCB] Saint Cyngar ap Geraint ap Erbin, mother Gwyar ferch Amlawdd Wledig, saint of Llangefni in Anglesey, Trefilan in Ceredigion, Llangyngar / Hope in Powys Fadog].

 

Pre 518 - Saint Meugan ap Cyndaf, ? saint of the monastery of Maucanni / the Deposit in Rhygyfarch’s Life of Saint David; saint of chapels in Dyfed and Brycheiniog.

 

C 518-519– Saint David / Dewi Sant / Dauid aquatice vite / Devius aquilentus / Dewi Ddyfrwr / David the Waterdrinker. Bonedd y Saint has Dewi ap Sant ap Cedig ap Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig, mother Non ferch Cynyr of Caer Gawch in Mynyw, founds monastery at Mynyw / Menevia / Hosnant / Vallis Rosina / Glyn Rhosyn / Rose Vale on the banks of the River Alun [other has Saint David C 500-C 589; JM has 523-589; others have b 462-512; PCB has b485; JEL has d C 588 following Chronicon Scotorum; the Welsh Annals place his death 569 years after the birth of Christ; Phillimore revised this to 601; PCB has d ? 544].  The patron saint of Wales. [JM] Baptised by Saint Ailbe 528.  Austere rule attacked by Gildas. Many of the traditional tales about David are found in the Buchedd Dewi/ Life of David, a hagiography written by Rhygyfarch in the late C 11. [JM] Dedications and churches reached up the Fosse Way to Nottingham and the West Riding.  Ricemarchus stated that his houses included Glastonbury, Bath, Crowland (north of Peterborough), Repton & Leominster.  Ancient dedications to David include Barton, Somerset; Moreton in the Marsh; Newbold-on-Stour; Holme and Mancester.  William of Malmesbury said that David visited Glastonbury only to rededicate the Abbey and to donate a travelling altar including a great sapphire.  David made Saint Justinian / Stinan / Jestin / Iestin, a hermit who lived on Ramsey Island, near St. David's, his confessor.  [PCB] has mother Nonita heard Gildas’s sermons.  About 1/3 – ¼ of Ireland obeyed him. Synod of Brevi has 118 bishops including Saint Cybi; it and Victoria / Sinodus Luci Victoriae concerned with discipline of clergy. Studied under Saint Illltud. One of the ‘Seven Happy Cousins’.

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[PCB] David’s / cousin (father’s brother’s son) or Bishop Gestlan at Vetus Rubus, where David brought up. 

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[PCB] Saint David’s disciples Saints Aeddan and Scuthinus go to Ireland; former sent the latter back to prevent a plot to poison David.  

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[PCB] Saints Boducat and Martrun of Cedweli 'submit to Saint David' ; Rhygyfarch’s  Vita.

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Saint Domnoc of Ossory, Irish saint and missionary in Osraige, who was a disciple of St. David of Wales and a member of the O'Neill royal family, d C 550. [JM has him as British disciple of David who went to Hibernia]. 

 

C 520 - death of Saint Enodoc, Saint of Trebetherick in Cornwall.

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[PCB] Saint Selevan, saint of Saint Levan near Lands End and of churches in Brittany [Wikipedia has Prince Selevan of Dumnonia b 492 , like his brother, Saint Just, entered the church – thus equating him with Saint Selfan ap Gerain ap Erbin]. 

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[PCB] Saint Trillo ab Ithel Hael b 490, saint of Llandrillo-yn-Rhos.

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[PCB] Saint Tudur ap Hawystl Gloff by Tywanwedd ferch Amlawd Wledig, b 490, saint of Darowen in Powys.

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[PCB] Saint Tygai ab Ithel Hael b 490, saint of Llandygai, Gwynedd.

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[PCB] Saint Tyrnog ap Hawystyl Gloff by Tywanwedd ferch Amlawdd Wledig, b 490, saint of Llandyrnog in Dyffryn Clwyd, Gwynedd.

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Saint Cynfelyn ap Bleiddud ap Meirion ap Tybion ap Cunedda at Llangynfelyn [PCB has b 490].

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Saint Derfel Gadarn, saint in Glywyssing and Gwent, b 490 one of the seven who escaped Camlan.

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[PCB] Saint Tyfrydog ap Hawystl Gloff by Tywnwedd ferch Amlwadd Wledig b ,saint of Llandyfrydog, Anglesey. 

 

C 525 – 530 - Saint Pabo Post Prydein / Pillar of Britain abdicates throne in the Pennines and becomes a monk at Llanbabo in Anglesey [PCB doubts this].

 

527- Dating of Easter amended in Rome according to proposals of Dionysius Exiguus.  British church does not seem to have received any order to alter its calculus. This is odd as Britain is at peace and the British currently supreme. Perhaps the old diocesan structure had so totally evaporated that there was no one Rome recognized to write to.  Had British clergy visited Rome then they would have spotted the change and brought it back, so perhaps the stories of saints reaching Rome in this period are all untrue.

 

C 527 – Saint Cadog ap Gwynnlyw, b in Gelligaer C 497 [Chadwick has alive C 500; JM has Abbot [and maybe founder] of Llancarfan b C 545; Wikipedia has C 497].  It is thought that he was baptised as Cathmail / Cadfael. After the birth of his son, King Saint Gwynllyw Farfog [r Gwynllwg C 480-C 500/520/523] went on a wild celebratory raid and stole the cow of Saint Tathyw of Caerwent, who confronted him, demanding the return of the cow. On a sudden impulse, Gwynllyw decided Cadog would go to live under the monk's care. The valley of Cadog’s monastery was owned by his uncle, King Pawl of Penychen [r C 480], and became the great church college and monastery at Llancarvan. Studied in Lismore [only founded in 636] and was granted Neath by King ? Arthmail [non-existent; PCB has Arthfael, king in the Neath Valley].  Brought back with him Mac Moil. On his return from Hibernia he brought with him Finnian of Llancarfan and [PCB] went immediately to Brycheiniog to be taught by Bachan / Pachan, Italian rhetoretician.  Quarrelled with Maelgwn of Gwynnedd who had invaded Gwynllwg; issue mediated by Saint Mawgan.  Visited Cornubia and Vannetais, Brittany. [other has 480 - Cadog persuaded to be a monk, disciple of Saint Germanus. Helped by Dubricius, he founds Hodnant at Llaniltud Fawr / Llantwit Major given land by Merchianus Vesanus / Meirchion Wyllt].  Trains Samson, Paulinus, Gildas, Dewi, Leonorus, Baglan, possibly instructor of Maelgwn Gwynedd]. Cadog succeeds as king of Gwynllg and Penychen, 523-C 580.  He founds a monastery in Scotland at Kilmadock, northwest of Stirling. Cadog had no heirs when he is killed during an enemy raid while he is church-building in Civita Beneventana, Calchwynedd. He leaves his joint kingdom of Gwynllg & Penychen to his uncle by marriage, Meurig, king of Gwent. Gildas says Maelgwn Gwynedd was pupil of ‘the refined master of almost all Britain’, probably meaning Cadog.

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 [PCB] Saint Cynidr of Glasbury, brother of Saints Cadog and Eigion, son of Gwynllyw, and, with Dewi, Teilo, Dochau and Maeddog, judged dispute between Cadog and Arthur.  Saint of churches in Brycheiniog and Ercyng.  Welsh memory has two chief clerics of Demetia being David and Teilo; Illtud and Dochou in Morgannwg; Cynidr and Maedoc in east central Wales.   

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Saint Bugi, son of Saint Gwladys and Saint Gwynllyw. Wife was Peren / Beren daughter of Llawdden Llydog, King of Gododdin / Lothian [d 489/510].  Father of Saint Beuno.  Brother of Saints Cadog and Cynidr.

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[PCB] Saint Dunwyd in Glywyssing, friend / companion of Cadog.

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[PCB] Saint Elli sent by Cadog with Finnian and Gnawan to convert his father and left by him as Abbot of Llancarfan when he went to Civita Beneventana. The saint of Llanelli in Brycheiniog and in Ystrad Twi.  Life of Saint Cadog has him son of King in Islands of Grimbul.

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[PCB] Saint Macmoil, Irish disciple brought back by Saint Cadog to Wales.  Saint of Cefn Mamoel, Gwent.

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[PCB] Saint Cungar, founder of monastery in Glywyssing and of Cungresbyri in Somerset, b 490.  Saint of chapel in Ingonger, Bodmin and St Congard in Morbihan, and Landeda, Leon, Brittany. Perhaps a companion of Saints Cadog and Pedrog.  [Wikipedia has 470-520].

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[PCB] Saint Barrwg, disciple of Saint Cadog, of Barren / Barry Island, Cardiff.

 

529 – Council of Orange condemns Abbot Faustus of Lerina / Lerins and Bishop of Regium / Riez’s De Gratia and De Spiritu Sanctu.

 

Pre 530 – Saint Mugentius of Whithorn educates Saint Finnian of Moville.

 

C 530 – Saint Eigion at Llaneigion in Brycheiniog, brother of Saint Cynidr, b 500.

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[PCB] Saint Fflewyn ab Ithel Hael b 500 saint of Llanfflewyn, Anglesey. 

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 [PCB] Saint Gredifael ap Ithel Hael, saint of Penmynydd in Anglesey b 500.

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[PCB] Saint Anef ap Caw, b 490, saint of Coed Ane / Blenwydd in Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Eugrad / Egreas ap Caw, brother of Saint Gildas, with his sister Petrova and brother Alleccus / Gallgo build oratories on Anglesey at Llaneugrad.  Eigrad and another brother Saint Dyfnwy are saints of Llandeussant.

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[PCB] Saint Gallgo ap Caw b 500.

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Saint Gildas ap Caw. Differing versions of the Life of Saint Gildas exist, but both agree that he was born in Alt Clut, son of the royal family.  [JM] b C 495 around the time of Badon, son of Cau Pridein, brother of Cuillus who rebelled against Arthur, and of Mailoc, Alleccus, Egreas, Peteova.  Migrated to Wales, pupil of Saint Illtud.  Founder of Ruys. Directed studies at Armagh. Supporter of less strict rule than David.  Not at the Synod of Brefi. Visited Cadog when he returned. More widely honoured than any other native Saint but churches all in Brittany, d 570;  IA interpolation has 570; AC has 570/572 Gildas obiit. Ellis has C 570 Gildas d on the island of Houat, Britanny; WSK has d 570; TMC has 570; other has 567]. 

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[PCB] Saint Gwenabwy ferch Caw, saint of west Cornwall, b 500.

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[PCB] Saint Peithien ferch Caw b 500, saint of a lost church near Saints Egreas and Gallgo in Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Gwrddel ap Caw, b 500, saint of Llangwyllog in Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Gwrhai ap Caw b 500, saint of Penystrywaid, Powys.

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[PCB] Saint Gwrhydwf ? ap Caw in ? Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Meilig ap Caw, b 500, saint of the monastery Croes Feilig at Luyhes in Powys. 

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[PCB] Saint Iestyn ap Geraint ab Erbin b 500, saint of Llaniestyn in Lyn and Mon.

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[PCB] Saint Sylwein ferch Geraint ap Erbin b 500 saint of Llanfihangel Dinsylwy, Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Asa ap Sawyl Benisel b.  Founder of Llanasa and Llanelwy / Saint Asaph. Helped to build Llanelwy by Maelgwn; b C 500.

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[PCB] Saint Llechid ferch Ithel Hael, b 500, saint of Llanllechid, Gwynedd. 

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[PCB] Saint Llonio Lawhir ab Alan Fyrgan b 500, saint of Llandinamin Powys, where there was a monastery.  Given lands by Saint Gwrai ap Caw, saint of Penystrywaid and Maelgwn Hir. 

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[PCB] Saint Cadfarch ap Caradog Freichfras ap Llyr Marini in Berach / Capel Anelog in Llyn, b 500, father of Saint Cynhafal. 

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[PCB] Saint Maethlu ap Caradog Freichfras, b 500, saint of Llanfaethlu, Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Tangwn / Cawrdaf ap Caradog Freichfras, b 500 saint of Llangoed in Anglesey.

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[PCB] Saint Marchell ferch Hawystl Gloff, b 500, saint of Denbigh.  Mother was Tywnwedd ferch Amlawdd Wledig.

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[PCB] Saint Rhystud b 500, saint of Llanrhystud in Ceredigion, son of Hyel Fychan ap Hywel / ap Madog ab Emyr Lydaw.

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[PCB] Saint Teilo ap Ensych ap Hydwn ap Ceredig b 500? Life by Geoffrey Stephen, brother of Urban, Bishop of Llandaf, d 1133. Instructed by Saints Dubricius and Paulinus.  Succeeded Dubricius. Took surviors away to Brittany via Dumnonia, where met King Gerrenius / Geraint, to escape Yellow Plague.  In Brittany detained by King Budic II [r 478-544] and Saint Samson of Dol then succeeded latter. After 7 years reached Cornwall for death of King Gerrenius. In Llandaf was joined by many of Dubricius’s disciples. Died on the Tywy at or near Llandeilo Fawr.  Life of Saint Oudoceus makes Teilo Budic’s brother-in-law and sets his Brittany life in Cornuaille. Life of Saint Turiau, Bishop of Dol, late C 9, has the Dol episode. Teilo cult rooted in Cornuaille.  Life of Oudoceus has that saint returning to Wales with Teilo.  Teilo b at Eccluis Gunniau / Eglwys Wynnio in Penalun / Penally, Dyfed.  Younger contemporary of Dewi Sant.

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[PCB] Saint Teulyddog disciple of Saint Teilo, saint of Llandeulyddog, Carmarthen, one of the ‘Seven Bishop-Houses’ of Welsh Law.

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[PCB] Saint Tyfai ap Budic, disciple of Saint Teilo and saint of Lamphey / Llandyfai in Dyfed. 

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[PCB] Saint Fidelis, disciple of Saint Teilo.

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[PCB] Saint Gwrfaeth, disciple of Saint Teilo, earlier of Saint Dubricius, contemporary of Saint Oudoceus and King Awst of Ergyng, saint of Llanwrfaeth in Brycheiniog.

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[PCB] Saint Llywel, companion of Saint Teilo, saint of Llanywwl in Gwent. Maybe an ex-disciple of Saint Dubricius.  Sent by Teilo to the court of Aergol Lawhir of Dyfed [r 467-4 ]. 

 

Post 530 – Saint Asa / Asaph at Llanelwy. 

Saint Cristiolus descendant of Owain ap Emyr Llydaw in Emlyn, Dyfed [PCB b 590; others have founds Lledwigan C 610 and C 7]. 

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Saint Cyndeyrn ap Cyngar [PCB b 500] at Llangyndeyrn, Tywi, Glywyssing.

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[PCB] Saint Gwynlleu ap Cyngar ap Garthog, saint of Nancwnlle, Ceredigion, b 500.

 

Post 535 – [PCB] Saint Diheufyr ap Hawystl Gloff by Tywanwedd ferch Amlawdd Wledig, b 505, saint in Tegeingl, Gwynnedd.

 

C 537 – Saint Cynan Colledauc returns to Britannia from Armorica to mediate unsuccessfully between Arthur and Modred.  Cynan was son of Lewdwn of the Hosts / Lot, ruler of Gododdin d 510 and ? uncle of Saint Kentigern.  Had settled in Ros-Ene / ?Roseland, Falmouth, had conflict with Theodoric that was resolved, crossed to Brittany and founded Cleder. 

Pre 540 - Second church dedicated to Our Lady Saint Mary at Glastonbury by Dewi Sant, ?  Archbishop of Meneora.  

 

C 540 - [PCB] Saint Merchwyn, disciple of Saint Dyfrig, b 510, charter with Merchwyn ap Glywys and Saint Dyfrig; one of the three ‘disciples of Dubricius’ (others being Elwredd and Gwynwyn) who elected saint Oudoceus to succeed Saint Teilo.

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Saint Leonorus [JM]C 510-561 educated by Saint Illtud, confirmed  / consecrated by Saint Dubricius, emigrates to Brittany at Dinard [other haps post 490].  

 

C 540/547 - Saint Dewi Sant and Teilo pilgrimage to Rome. 

 

542 – Saint Cadfan Abbot of Bardsey dies.

 

542-568 - Saint Ciwg [PCB] saint of Llangiwg in Gwyr Uwch Coed, Gower.

 

545 – [JM] British appoint Bishop of London for last time [where is the evidence for this?].  

 

C 545 - Saint Rumon of Tavistock b C 515, brother of Saint Tudual and one of the sons of King Hoel I Mawr / the Great of Brittany. Tradition says he was educated in Britain - probably  Wales - but that he later accompanied St. Breaca on her return from Ireland to her Cornish homeland.  Lived in a hermitage on Inis Luaidhe, near Iniscathy, and was raised to the episcopacy. In Cornubia, he founded churches at Ruan Lanihorne (on the River Fal), Ruan Major & Minor (near the Lizard Peninsula), a defunct chapel in Redruth and at Romansleigh in Devon. He then moved on to Cornouaille in Brittany, with Saint Senan as his companion.

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[PCB] Saint Gwynnin ap Helig, saint of Llandygwnnin, Llyn, and with brother Saint Boda at Arllechwedd, Gwynedd [Wikipedia b 485].

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[PCB] Saint Tysilio ap Brochwel Ysgithrog by Arddun ferch Pabo Post Prydain b 515. Life of Tysilio given in Breton Life of Suliavus.  Eldest son of Brocmail, visited by Abbot Guymarcus of Meibot, fled to monastery. Made Abbot after Guymarch d.  Saint Beuno visited Tysilio at Meifod with disciples for 40 days and nights, as for foundation of abbey.  Suliau’s brother Jacob / Iago King for only two years; other brothers Mawn and Cynan Garwyn.  Childless queen Haiarme pursued Suliau who fled to Llangamarch in Buellt then Brittany where he is venerated as Saint Suliac.  

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[PCB] Saint Gwyddfarch ab Amalarus ‘Prince of Y Pwyl /Apulia’, Abbot of Meifod in Mechain, Powys, predecessor of Saint Tysilio; saint of Eglwys Gwyddfarch in Wyddfarch, Meifod.  Uncle of Saint Tegwyn.

 

Pre 547-550 - King Maelgwn of Gwynnedd makes Bangor an episcopal see [see C 560 for Daniel]. 

 

547 - Saint Dubricius loses property in Ergyng in the plague. 

 

Pre 548? - Finnian, staying with Cadoc at Llancarfan, attempts to mediate then aids Britons against Saxons. 

 

Pre 550 – Saint Brynach, of noble birth, founds churches in Dyfed and south Wales, retires to Cornubia.   A C 12 Vita tells us that some time in the early C 6, Brynach travelled to Rome and Brittany, and then to Milford Haven. He erected various oratories near the rivers Cleddau, Gwaun, and Caman and at the foot of Mynydd Carningli / Mountain of the Angels, at Nevern / Nanhyfer. Brynach was harassed by King Maelgwn of Gwynedd for a while [PCB has founder of Llanfrynach in Brycheiniog and churches in Dyfed and Glywyssing; possibly Irish by birth].

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[PCB] Saint Sadwrn, saint of Llansadwrn in Anglesey

 

C 550 - Saint Dubricius Archbishop of Ergyngd on Caldey Island.  

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Saint Teilo crosses to Brittany from Wales to escape plague and Saint Brioc returns to Cardigan from Brittany to comfort relatives. 

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[PCB] Saint Elian Geimiad ap Alltu Redegog by Tegno / Cenaf ferch Tewdr Mawr b saint of Llaneilian, Mon and Llaneilian, Rhos.

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[PCB] Saint Gwynnog ap Gildas ap Caw b saint of Llanwnnog and Aberhafesh in Powys, and others in Gwynedd with brother Noethon b 520, sons of Gildas ap Caw. Noethon also commemorated at Cambuslang, Glasgow, founded by Saint Cadog.

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[PCB] Saint Ystyffan / Stephanus / Stephen ap Mawn ap Cyngen ap Cadell Ddyrnllug b 520 saint of Llansteffan in Ystrad Tywi.

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British hermit John of Chinon persuades Frankish Queen Radegund to enter a nunnery.  

 

552 - Amesbury abbey destroyed by pagans. 

 

555 – Death of Saint Cybi at Holyhead monastery.

 

Post 556 – [JM has C510- 520] Theodoric campaigns in Cornwall against and kills Saint Fingar, King Germochus and 770 Irishmen who have invaded / evangelized the area. Fingar is son of Clito, a king in Ireland.  Went to Brittany, returned to Ireland found parents dead, went to Cornwall with sister Piala. Possibly linked with Meriadoc. Possibly Welsh, not Irish.

 

560– Saint Custennin ab Cado, King of Dumnonia enters a monastery but is later killed / martyred [other has C 520-576 who came to repentance at St David’s monastery in Wales, after a life of vice]. AC has 589 Conversio constantini ad dominum; other has 589: Saint Custennin ab Cado, King of Dumnonia, now a monk, killed. PCB says a saint of Cornwall and Devon.  Taught Christianity by Petroc.  Submitted to Dewi Sant and left to found a monastery. Commemorated in both Ireland [succeeded Mo-Chuda at Rathin] and Scotland [son of Fergus, King of the Picts, abbot in Galvedia / Galloway].  He went to Kintyre and was killed 567/576. [PCB indicates 4 saints are conflated: Constantine, son of Padernus of Cornwall, martyred in Kintyre; Saint Constantine of Cornwall / Constantine of Dumnonia; Saint Custennin / Custennin ap Cado; Custennin ap Cadwr / Costentyn / Constantine of Govan. Literary tradition indicates 537, after the Battle of Camlann from which, some sources say, "Sir Constantine" was the only survivor [This is impossible]. He is reputed to have been married to the daughter of the King of Brittany and to have led a life full of vice and greed until he was led to conversion by Saint Petroc.  After the death of his queen he resigned the crown to his son, in order to take up the religious life himself.  He moved amongst his people, founding churches at the two Constantines, near Padstow and Falmouth, and at Illogan; also at Milton Abbot and Dunsford in Devon. Later, he travelled across the Bristol Channel to join Saint David at Mynyw, where he resided as a monk for many years. He founded the church at Cosheston, near Pembroke, but eventually settled as a hermit in Costyneston / Cosmeston near Cardiff. In Ireland, he entered a religious house at St. Carthag at Rathene, where, unknown to any, he served for four years at a mill, until his name was discovered. He was then fully instructed, ordained priest, and sent as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland.  He established a religious community of men at Govan, and converted the inhabitants of Cantyre to Christianity. He preached to the people of Galloway before being martyred in Kintyre 576 [other has he was slain in 590].  Gildas mentions Constantine in chapters 28 and 29 of De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae. He is called the "tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Dumnonia". Gildas says that despite swearing an oath against deceit and tyranny, Constantine disguised himself in an abbot's robes and attacked two "royal youths" praying before a church altar, killing them and their companions. Gildas says he had committed "many adulteries" after casting off his lawfully wedded wife. Gildas encourages Constantine, whom he knows to still be alive at the time, to repent his sins lest he be damned. The Life of Saint Petroc mentions a Constantine who was converted to Christianity by that holy man at nearby Little Petherick after the deer Constantine was hunting took shelter with him.  A Constantine ‘King of the Cornishmen’ also appears in the Life of Saint David as having given up his crown in order to enter this saint's monastery at St David's in Wales.  The conversion of a Constantine in 588 is also recorded in the Annals of Ulster.  A Constantine also appears in the Breviary of Aberdeenas entering a monastery in Ireland incognito before joining Saint Mungo / Kentigern and becoming a missionary to the Picts.  

 

C 560- Dewi Sant / Saint David presides over synod against Pelagianism at Brefi.  Saint Dubricius / Dubric / Dyfrig ? Archbishop of Ergyng, ‘chief of the church in Britain’ with his seat at Weston under Penyard and sway over all of Glamorgan and Gwent, an area that was later known as the Diocese of Llandaff, attends the Synod of Llanddewi Brefi and 'resigns his see in favour of Saint David' who moves see to Saint David’s and becomes Archbishop of Wales [Saint Dyfrig d C 550]. The Synod of Brefi was held at Llanddewi Brefi in Ceredigion [other has C 545], apparently called in order to condemn the heretical teachings of Pelagius. The story goes that Saint Paulinus persuaded Saint Dubricius, the senior bishop there, to allow David, a minor abbot, to address the crowd. His words were so eloquent that Dubricius retired in David's favour. One of his first duties was to consecrate Saint Deiniol as Bishop of Bangor.It is also said that the synod was called while Saint Cadog was away in Brittany. In disgust, he refused to return for many years.​

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Saint Deiniol founds monastery at Bangor-is-y-Coed, d 584, traditionally the first Bishop of Bangor in Gwynedd.  Venerated in Brittany as Saint Denoual. According to , he was the son of Abbot Saint Dunod Fawr, son of Saint Pabo Post Prydain. The family, having lost their land in the North of England, was given land by the King of Powys, Cynan Garwyn ap Cadell. [Dynod son of Pabo b 525 d 595 when kingdom conquered by Bernicia, r Dunoting  from 580].  Deiniol is said to have studied under Saint Cadog of Llancarfan. One of the ‘seven blessed cousins’ who had spent part of his early life as a hermit "on the arm of Pembrokeshire" but was called to be a bishop despite deficiencies in his formal education. Maelgwn Gwynedd endowed Bangor with lands and privileges, later raising it to the rank of the official seat of a bishop. Deiniol attended the Synod of Llanddewi Brefi in 545/C 560. ['He was consecrated in 545 by David'].  According to the Annales Cambriae Deiniol d in 584 and was buried on Bardsey Island.  The churches of Hawarden and of Marchwiel are dedicated to Deiniol and there are also dedications at Itton in Monmouthshire and Llangarron in Herefordshire [PCB has Deiniol d 584 founder of the two great monasteries Bangor Is-coed on the Dee and Bangor Fawr in Arfon; AC calls him ‘Daniel of the Bangors’.  Father Dunod Fawr ap Pabo Post Prydyn by Dwywai ferch Lleenog.  One of the household of Saint Cybi]. In he spends time with that saint at Inis Argis in Loch Ree [founded C 545].

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Saint Cathen ap Cawrdraf ap Caradog Freichfras [PCB] b 530 saint of Llangathen in Ystrad Tywi.

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[PCB] Saint Iddew Corn Brydain ap Cawrdaf b 530.

 

563 - Saint Teilo d at Llandeilo Fawr. [PCB] he had created martyrium of Saint Dyfan at Merthyr Dyfan in Glywyssing. 

 

565-566 - Saint Gildas in Ireland to settle the Irish church after the expulsion of Saint Columba.  ? Dedicated his De Excidio to Vennianus / Saint Finnian of Moville.

 

567 - Saint Gildas d. 

 

568 - Dewi Sant / Saint David presides over synod against Pelagianism at Caerleon (the Synod of Victory). 

 

C 570 - [PCB] fl Saint Cadell ab Urien Rheged b 540. 

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[PCB] Saint Ysfael ap Budic II, nephew and disciple of Saint Teilo, earlier disciple of Saint Dubricius, present with Aeddan and Teilo at foundation of Menevia by Saint David; saint of churches in Dyfed.  

Pre 572 – Saint Maedoc / Aidan of Ferns in Connacht studies with Dewi Sant at Menevia. He is supposed in 577 to assist King Mauric / Meurig II of Gwent defeat Saxons. Saint Máedóc was Irish, founder and first bishop of Ferns. [PCB] Aeddan / Maeddog, founder of Ferns in Vita Beati Dauidis and in the Lives of Aedan / Maedoc d 626. Unlikely that this is the same man.  Life of Saint Cadog and Life of Saint Teiloboth have Maidoc. Aeddan is saint of Llawhaden in Dyfed.

 

572 - Saint Mungo / Kentigern exiled from Strathclyde (to go to Saint David and later founds Saint Asaph at Llanelwy in Gwynedd).

 

575 - Welsh Bicknor monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters. 

 

C 575 - [PCB] fl Bishop Arwystl, ‘disciple’ of Dubricius in Llandaff Charters, making foundation at Llangoed in Brycheiniog.

 

C 575-620 - Inabwy ap Rhun, Bishop in Ergyng, son of the sister of Peibio King of Ergyng, or cousin to the King or to Saint Dubricius of whom he was a disciple. Contemporary with Bishop Elwystl and Gwrgan Fawr King of Ergyng.

 

577 - King Theodoric of Vannes retires to monastery in Tintern.

 

580 - Saint Cadog Abbot of Llancarfan dies [JM] leaving kingdom to Meurig II of Gwent and Llancarfan to Saint Elli [JM has earlier when Cadog went to Benevento].

 

C 580 fl - Saint Beuno founder and first Abbot of Clynnog Fawr on the Llŷn Peninsula d 640, prince of Powys. After education and ordination in the monastery at Bangor in northern Wales, he became an active missionary with the support of Cadfan, king of Gwynedd [r616-624].  Next King Cadwallon's cousin Gwyddaint "gave to God and Beuno forever" his land at Clynnog Fawr on the Llŷn peninsula. [JEL] records story that Beuno settled by the Severn but hearing a Saxon on the other side of the river egging on his dogs chasing a hair, he left the place with all his goods immediately. [PCB] has Beuno / Bennonus / Beunonus / Benonus b 550 in Hystoria o Uuched Beuno / Buchedd Beuno written 1346. Also in the Life of Saint Winifred / Gwenfrewy, his neice, her mother Gwenlo being his sister.  Son of Bugi.    One of the ‘Seven Happy Cousins’. Chief monastery was Clynnog, 15 foundations in Gwynedd and Powys. Started in Gwent under Ynyr Gwent and later restored to life a person killed by his son Iddon [impossible chronologies] contemporary of Saint Teilo, then to Powys under Cynan ap Brochwel r 570-615 and cursed his grandsons.

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[PCB] Rithwlint, disciple of Saint Beuno, left by the Saint to face the Saxons on the River Severn.

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[PCB] Saint Edern ap Beli b 550 saint of Bodedern in Anglesey and Edern in Llyn, also in Brittany.

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[PCB] Saint Elaeth Frenin ap Meurig ab Idno by Onnengreg ferch Gwallog Lleenog b 550, saint of Amlwch in Anglesey.

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[PCB] Elwystl / Elgistil, Bishop in Ergyng, Book of Llandaf contemporary with Inabwy and Kings Peibio and Cynfyn.

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[PCB] Saint Idloes ap Gwyddnabi b 550 ?saint of Llanidloes in Powys, daughter Meddwid.

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[PCB] Saint Tangusius the saint, maybe Abbot, of Caerwent with whom Beuno studied.

 

584 - [AC] Bellum contra euboniam et dispositio danielis bancorum [JM Daniel d at Bangor succeeded by Beuno].

 

585 - Llandinabo, Herefordshire monastery first mentioned in Llandaff charters.

 

585-625 - Idno / Abbot of Bolgros, Herefordshire, disciple of Saint Dubricius, contemporary of Bishops Arwystl and Inabwy and King Peibio of Ergyng, Bishop Comereg and King Arthwrys of Gwent.

 

589 - Saint David d, buried in Saint David’s Cathedral, Dyfed [Chadwick has C 601; Harleian Annals have 601; GA says or at Glastonbury; AC has David episcopus Moni Iudeorum / Moniu Desorum – Menevia of the Dessi; JR has C 590].  David designated Maedoc of Ferns as his successor but Saint Isfael, later Bishop of Rhos, chosen by Synod convened by Saint Teilo to stand in. In Rhygyfarch's hagiography, Isfael was said to have been one of the three principal disciples of Dewi Sant; in the Book of Llandaf, he is also included among the students of Dubricius and Teilo and said to have succeeded David as the bishop of Menevia / St David's.

[PCB] Bishop Cinauc d ; AC has burial of Cinauc ; Bishop of Llanbadarn Fawr and Mynyw, successor to David [other has – death of Bishop Cinauc, successor to Saint Dubricius in Hentland Abbey in Ercyng].

 

590 - Bishopric established at Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire.

 

C 590 - [PCB] Saint Cynhafal ab Argud ab Cadfarch by Tubrawst b 560, saint of Llangynhafal, Dyffryn Clwyd, Powys, ‘Spear-thruster of Ynys Prydain and one of the ‘Three Bull Chieftains’.  

 

C 595 -Valley Dore monastery, Golden Valley Herefordshire referred to as property of Saint Dyfrig.

 

600- Llan-arth monastery, Ceredigion, first mentioned in Llandaff charters as property of Saint Dyfrig. 

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[PCB] Saint Tygwy ap Dingad ap Nudd Hael by Tenoi ferch Lleuddun Luyddog b 570, saint of Llandygwydd / Llandygwy in Ceredigion

 

C 600 - Saint Baglan ap Dingad ap Nudd Hael, saint of Llanfaglan in Arfon.

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[PCB] Saint Dyfnog ap Medrod ap Cawrdaf b 570, saint of Llanrhaedr yNghinmeirch / Llanddyfnog in Dyffryn Clwyd. 

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[PCB] Saint Lleuddad ap Dingad b 570, saint of Enlli / Bardsey 

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[PCB] Saint Melangell ferch Rhicwlff ap Tudwal Tudclud by Ethni Wyddeles / the Irish woman b 570, saint of Pennant Melangell in Powys.  Settled there in time of Brochwel Ysgithrog [C 530-560].

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[PCB] Saint Padrig ab Alfryd ab Gronwy of Gwaredog in Arfon b ,saint of Llanbadrig in Anglesey. His sister Ethni ferch Alfryd was mother of Saint Nidan.

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[PCB] Saint Tyfriog ap Dingad ap Nudd Hael b 570, saint of Llandyfriog in Ceredigion.  

 

C 600 – C 625 - [PCB] Gwrddogwy Abbot of Llanddewi in Ergyng; Book of Llandaf contemporary of Dubricius (as disciple), Bishop Inabwy, Gwrgan King of Ergyng, Bishop Comereg and King Arthryws ap Meurig of Gwent.

 

Early 600s - Saint Collen, son of Pedrwn ap Coleddog ap Gwyn / or ap Cawrdaf ap Caradog Freichfras, a contemporary of Arthur, Abbot of Glastonbury and founder of Llangollen, d.  Saint Collen gave his name to Llangollen, Denbighshire, also Colan, Cornwall and Langolen, Brittany. 

 

601- Charter of indecipherable King of Dumnonia [presumably Bledric ap Custennin] to Glastonbury Abbey giving five hides at Ineswitrin to Abbot Worgret [William of Malmesbury quoted by PCB] signed by Bishop Mauuron.  Later British Abbot is Lademund. 

 

603 - [JM] death of Dunawt Abbot of Bangor [PCB has Abbot of Bangor Is-coed / Bancornaburg, present at meeting with Saint Augustine].

 

C 605 - [PCB] Saint Eleri ap Dingad ap Nudd Hael b 575, saint of Gwytherin in Rhufoniog; Life of Saint Winifred / Gwenfrewy by Robert of Shrewsbury C 12: Abbot of Gwytherin, with mother Tenoi Abbess there.

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[PCB] b 575 Saint Winifred [other has C 660], daughter of a chieftain of Tegeingl. Her mother was Wenlo, a sister of Saint Beuno. Her suitor, Caradoc, was enraged when she decided to become a nun, .  She later became abbess at Gwytherin in Denbighshire.  She succeeded the Abbess, Saint Tenoi of Glasgow, mother of Saint Kentigern, who is believed to be her maternal grand-aunt [PCB Life C 12 - C 13.  Also by Robert Prior of Shrewsbury 1140-1167, followed by Buchedd Gwenvrewy.   Time of Cadfan of Gwynedd r 616-625.  Called Candida Wenefroeda / White Winifred due to the radiance of her wisdom.  Daughter of Tyfid by Gwenlo ferch Insi / Bugi father of Beuno, so she was niece to Saint Beuno].

 

C 610 - [PCB] Saint Aelhearn ap Cerfael ap Cynrwyn b 580 of Caereinion, Powys, saint of Llanaelhearn in Edeirnion, Llanaelhearn in Arfon and  Cegdidfa in Powys; raised from the dead by Saint Beuno. 

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Glastonbury Abbey ? commenced [rebuilding of].  [GA] Irish saints enshrined there were Indracht, Patrick and Bridget.  

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Bellimoor monastery, Herefordshire first mentioned in Llandaff charters. 

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[PCB] Saint Buan ab Ysgwn ab Llywarch Hen, b 580, saint of Bodfuan in Llyn.

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Saint Cynhearn ap Cerfael ap Cyndrwyn [PCB] b 580, saint of Ynyscynhaearn, Criccieth, Gwynedd.

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[PCB] Saint Dona ap Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn b 580, saint of Llandona, Anglesey. 

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[PCB] Saint Llwchaearn  ap Cerfael / Kynfael b 580, saint of Llanllwchaearn etc in Ceredigion and of churches in Powys. ? cousin to Saint Beuno.

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[PCB] Saint Meddwid ferch Idloes ap Gwyddnabi b 580?, saint of Clocaenog in Dyffryn Clywyd. 

 

615 - Garway monastery, Herefordshire, first mentioned in Llandaff charters.

 

C 615 - [PCB] Gwrfwy, priest, placed by Bishop Ufelfyw in charge of Lann Guorbe church at Garway, Ergyng, granted by Gwrfoddw King of Ergyng; Book of Llandaf. 

 

615-616 - King Aethelthryth of Northumbria kills 1,200 / 2000 priests / monks of Bangor–is-y-Coed monastery, which is destroyed [IA has 611/616/617 Bangor burnt; also 632 interpolation Combustio Bennchoir Moer/ Great Bangor in Britannia]. 

 

619 - 'Saint Paulinus covers wattle of Glastonbury with planks'.

 

620 - Llandaff Charters mention abbots of Bellimoor, Caerwent, Dewchurch, Garway, Llancarfan, Llandogo, Llandough, Llantwit, Moccas, Saint Michael’s, Welsh Bicknor, Lancaut, Dixton, Foy, Doward and Sellack.  Ballingham, Llanloudy and Llancillo monasteries first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.  

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Bishop Saint Cedd born.

 

C 620 - [PCB] Saint Nidan ap Gwrfyw, great-grandson of  Urien Rheged b 590 saint of Llanidan in Mon. Went to Scotland with Saint Kentigern; saint of Midmar. 

 

C 620-625 - Comereg, Abbot and Bishop of Mochros in time of King Gwrgan ap Cynfyn of Ergyng r C 615-645/650 and King Arthwrys ap Meurig of Gwent.

 

625- Llandogo, Llanddowror, Llandeilo Fawr, and Penally monasteries first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.

 

C 630 – Saint Cedwyn ap Gwgon Gwron [PCB] b 600, saint in Powys.  One of the seven who escaped from Camlan [not chronologically possible].

 

Pre 634 – [JEF] Melrose  Abbey, down the Tweed from the Roman fort at Newstead, likely to have been a pre-Bernician foundation as it bears a British name.  Inscribed Christian stones of the C 6 are nearby.  Was Lindisfarne too a British foundation on Inis Medcaut, a gift of Coledauc / Coludae, son of Morcant, donor of Coludaesburg?

 

640 - Saint Tysilio d. 

 

C 650 - Llandough, Llantwit, Rhosli and Bishopston monasteries first mentioned in Llandaff Charters. 

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Bishop Saint Gudwal fl in Cornwall, of noble parentage and a native of Wales. He led a party of 188 monks across the sea to Cornwall, where they were hospitably received by Mevor, a prince of the country, and Gudwal founded a monastery in Devon. After his death his monks carried his body to Monstreuil in Picardy. [JM] has Gulway, Bishop in Britain.

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Biwonwy Abbot of Llaniltud;  charter. Succeeded by Catgen.

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[PCB] Eudeyrn Abbot of Llandochau in chartercontemporary with Iacob Abbot of Llancarfan and King Meurig ap Tewdwr [to C 660].

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[PCB] Saint Egryn ap Gwydr Drwm / the Heavy ap Gwedrog b 620, saint of Llanegryn in Meirionydd, mother Efeilian / Eneilian ferch Cadfan ap Iago. 

 

C 650-660 - [PCB] Iacob Abbot of Llancarfan, abbot of the altar / cathedral of Saint Cadog, contemporary with Saint Oudoceus and King Meurig ap Tewdrig of Gwent.  Succeeded by Cyngen.

 

C 650 - C700 - Saint Oudoceus, Bishop at Llandeilo Fawr. Saint Oudoceus is generally known as the 'third Bishop of Llandaff in South Wales'. [Wendy Davies puts his episcopal reign between about 650 and 700]. Land grants in the Book of Llandaf show Oudoceus as a contemporary of late C 7 kings of South Wales. However his associations with Llandaff are very strong and it seems he was an early patron of the church there, where he is said to have placed relics of Saint Teilo. In the Life of Saint Oudoceus it is related that Einion, King of Glewyssig [the only Einion around that time was King of Rhos 650-680/690], was hunting a stag amongst the rocks and woods of the river Wye, when the stag reaching the cloak of Oudoceus lay down on it, the hounds being then unable to touch it. Oudoceus's C 12 hagiographic 'life' in the Book of Llandaf tells how he was the son of King Budic of Brittany [C 478-557] born in that country shortly after his father's return there from exile in Dyfed. Oudoceus came to Wales and eventually succeeded Teilo as Bishop. His brothers were said to be the saints Ismael Bishop of Rhos and Tyfei the martyr. [PCB b ? 630.  Son of Budic, son of Cybrdan, prince of Cornuaille 478-494. In yellow plague, his uncle Teilo came to Cornuaille C 550 and found Oudoceus, took him back to Llandaf].

 

C 655-665 - [PCB] Cargen Abbot of Llaniltud Fawr, preceded by Biwonwy, succeeded by Congen, one who in the Book of Llandaf ‘elected’ Saint Oudoceus to succeed Saint Teilo.

 

C 658 - Abbey of Glastonbury now in Wessex hands but remains a British style monastery at first with Abbot Bregored left in post.

 

C 660 - [PCB] Cethig / Catthig, Abbot of Llandochau in Llancarfan Charters in Life of Saint Cadog, in time of Abbot Iacob; succeeds Eudeyrn, succeeded by Sulien.

 

663– Lademund Abbot of Glastonbury. 

 

665 - Bishop Wini at Winchester the only consecrated Bishop in England at the time, with two British bishops, consecrates Saint Chad as Bishop of the Northumbrians at York. 

C 665-675 - [PCB] Sulien Abbot of Llancarfan with Bishop Berthwyn, Terchan and Sadwrn princepsof Llandochau, Saint Oudoceus and Kings Morgan ap Arthwrys and Ithel ap Morgan in Life of Saint Cadog and Book of Llandaf.  Succeeded Cyngen, succeeded by Dagan.

 

C 665-685 - [PCB] Cyngen Abbot of Llancarfan, preceded by Iacob, succeeded by Sulien, Book of Llandaf, contemporary of Saint Oudoceus, one of those who chose that saint to succeed Saint Teilo, and Kings Muerig ap Tewdr and Morgan ab Arthrwys.  

 

667 – Lademund abbot of Glastonbury dies, succeeded by ? Bregored II [more likely by Beorhtwald]. [Other has C 669 – Abbot Bregored of Glastonbury dies, succeeded by Beorhtwald, who builds a cross in the precinct]. 

 

C 670-675 - Congen Abbot of Llanilltud Fawr, successor to Catgen, predecessor of Colbrit, Book of Llandaf charters, contemporary of Saint Oudoceus, Cyngen Abbot of Llancarfan, Sulien Abbot of Llandochau and King Morgan ab Arthwrys King of Gwent.

 

671 - King Cenwalh of Wessex grants Abbot Beorhtwald of Glastonbury charter with land at Meare. Bede claims that Cenwalh, King of Wessex appointed Berhtwald as the first Anglo-Saxon Abbot of Glastonbury in 667, on the advice of Benedict Biscop. 

 

C 675-688 – Colbrit Abbot of Llanilltud Fawr, successor to Congen, succeeded by Gwrhafal, Book of Llandaf, witness with Kings Morgan ab Arthrwys and Ithel ab Arthrwys.  

 

678 - [Wikipedia] Saint Bodo d [PCB has ap helig ap Glannog; with brother Gwynnin saint of Dwyggyfylchi in Gwynedd and Capel Odo in Llyn]. 

 

C 680 - Llandaff and Llowes monasteries and abbey of Penally first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.

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[PCB] Bishop Berthwyn successor to Saint Oudoceus as Bishop of Teilo. Book of Llandaf charters of King Morgan ap Arthrwys r 715/725-735/ or d 665 and son Ithel r 735-755.

 

C 680-685 – [PCB] Iudhubr Abbot of Llandochau; Book of Llandaf contemporary with Kings Morgan and Ithel ab Arthryws; succeeded Sulien, succeeded by Sadwrn.

 

C 680-733 - [PCB] Sadwrn Abbot of Llandochau / Saturn princeps altaris Docgwinni; Life of St Cadog and Book of Llandaf with Bishop Berthwyn and Abbot Sulien of Nantcarfan and with King Morgan ap Arthwrys.  Previously Abbot of Taui / Cardiff.

 

C 695-705 - Gwrhafal Abbot of Llaniltud Fawr, successor to Colbrit, succeeded by Ffomre or Elwoedd; Book of Llandaf contemporary of Bishop Terchan.

 

? 706 – martyrdom of Dyfed Saint Decuman of Dunster, who travelled to north Somerset to Castrum Dorostrorum.

 

C 710-760 - [PCB] Terchan Bishop of Glywysing. Book of Llandaf and Life of Saint Cadog. Contemporary of Bishop Oudoceus, King Ithel ap Arthwrys; Bishop Berthwyn and King Morgan ap Athrwys. Later Kings Ithel ap Morgan, Brochwel, Meurig ap Ithel and Ffernfael ap Ithel.

 

718 - [PCB quoting AC] First Welsh church dedicated in customary manner of the West, to Saint Michael in Wales in Brycheiniog.

 

C 720 - Llan-gors monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.  

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[PCB] Ffomre Abbot of Llanilltud Fawr Book of Llandaf, contemporary with Bishop Berthwyn, King Ithel ap Morgan and his sons Meurig and Ffernfael.

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[PCB] Gnawan Abbot of Llancarfan Book of Llandaf contemporary with Bishop Berthwyn, King Ithel ap Morgan and his sons Meurig and Ffernfael.

 

C 722 - [PCB] Dagan Abbot of Llancarfan, successor to Sulien, predecessor of Paul, Life of Saint Cadog and Book of Llandaf.

 

C722-740 - Elwoedd Abbot of Llanilltud Fawr, Book of Llandaf contemporary with Dagan Abbot of Llancarfan, Sadwrn Abbot of Llanddochau, Ithel ap Morgan King of Gwent and Bishop Berthwyn.  

 

C 725 - Llansoy monastery first mentioned in Llandaf Charters as property of Saint Dyfrig.  

 

C 733 – Monmouth monastery first mentioned in Llandaf Charters.

 

C 735 - Dixton monastery first mentioned in Llandaff Charters.

Summary

 

The Bonedd y Saint / Seint / Descent of the Saints is a Welsh genealogical tract detailing the lineages of the early British saints. There are a number of different manuscripts in existence dating from the early C 13 to the late C 17, although the material is much older in origin.  The Bonedd y Saint was compiled of material closely related to that of the royal genealogies, at some period during C 12, though the Old Welsh form of some names proves that the material is much older in origin. 

 

A large number (perhaps about half) of named British saints with dedications cannot be dated and are not listed here.

 

The recorded missions to convert Wales, Dumnonia, Ireland, Alba and Armorica begin in the middle of C 5 and go on until the end of C 6.  Clearly, the rural areas of Roman Britain were pagan until then.  It is probable that conversion also went on in the British kingdoms of lowland Britain lost to the Saxons from mid C 6 to mid C7 but the record is mostly lost (only a very few indications of Christian activity remain; Saint Cadog d while on a mission into Cynwydion). This was probably because Christianity was, by the local Saxon invasions, not very well established; because Christian hierarchies linked to local royalty perished or fled; because the invaders destroyed the churches; and because of racial enmity.  The period of greatest missionary activity lies in the period of the resurgence of the British state, C 490-560, and the peace following Badon.  The fact that this missionary activity went to all parts of the British Isles, some earlier external enemies of the British, new colonies and many internal areas, indicates that the activity was coordinated or jointly agreed at a national / provincial level. Whilst no trace remains of any British state that existed in the period of peace, the record of the major activity undertaken during that period is an achievement that can be credited to it.

 

South Wales is earliest area of evangelization, spreading to Dumnonia and north Wales, then in C 6 to Alt Clut and Alba.  Links with Hibernia start with the metropolitan mission there in C 5 and continue throughout.

 

The saints of the British church peter out in C 7.  Saint Oudoceus 650-700 is the last major example; 640 Tysilio and Beuno are the next before that.  The great age of saints is C 6, when clergy from Hibernia travel to Wales for learning.  Hibernia overtakes Britain as a source of education and holiness by the end of C 6. Yet the number of monasteries in Wales increases through C 7.

British clergy are scarcely mentioned in the east of Britain. All records at ,and memories of, places like Abingdon and Amesbury have vanished.  

 

British clergy seem to have treated the west as one area, from Dumnonia to Alt Clut, and to have travelled much to Ireland and Armorica.  

 

Many British saints were related to royal houses in Alt Clut, Brycheiniog, Ceredigion, Powys, Glywyssing, Dumnonia, Dunoting and Cornuaille.   Major religious figures in later periods were often members of royal families, if not royalty themselves, making the territorial connection even firmer.  At the turn of C 5-6, some monarchs were also clerics and a large number were regarded as saints [see the separate list of these]. 

 

The familial and territorial nature of the Irish monasteries and so church grew from that developed in British territories after the collapse of the urban dioceses. It was the British church which evolved into what is seen as the Celtic church.

 

The source of missionaries to Armorica, Alba and Hibernia seems to have been the monasteries that acted as centres of learning, so principalities that lacked major schools, eg Powys, early Gwynedd, Dumnonia, Cornubia and Ceredigion produced fewer missionaries.  The large numbers of monks mentioned in Llantwit Major, Llancarfan & Bangor indicate teaching establishments rather than monasteries.

 

The standard seems to have been one main religious centre / college per British principality with at least one clerical major figure each. 

 

Ergyng - Saint Dubricius C 465-550, followed by Saints Teilo then Oudoceus.

 

Gwent - Saint Tathan at Llantathan and monastic school at Venta Silurum, by 460.  Caerleon the site of one of the very few known Romano-British martyrs’ shrines: ‘Amphibalus’ and Aaron and Julius of Isca Augusta. 

 

Cernyw / Glywyssing - Saint Illtud at Llantwit Major post 480; Saint Cadog r 523-571/580 – King of Gwynllg and Penychen in Glwyssying, founder of Llancarfan.

Brycheiniog - it would appear from the number of the ‘sons’ and ‘daughters’ of Brychan (far too many to have been actual children of a single prince) whose names are recorded as saints who founded churches, that prince Brychan Brycheiniog, ruler C 450-495, founded an important missionary school.  Saint Cadog went there to study under an Italian teacher of rhetoric.

 

Dyfed - Saint David at Menevia - C 500-589. 

 

Dumnonia, Cornubia & Glastenning - Glastonbury ? the oldest British shrine; Amesbury a daughter house or commemoration / foundation of Ambrosius;  Saint Custennin ab Cado C 530 – 567 (The only school mentioned in Dumnonia was the monastery ruled in Wessex days by Abbot Wulfhard in Escancastre post 675).

 

Alt Clut – it would appear from the number of the ‘sons of Caw’ (almost certainly too many to have been actual children of a single prince) whose names are recorded as saints who founded churches, that at least by the time of Caw, ruler of Alt Clut C 495-501, Alt Clut was sponsoring missionaries or perhaps eventraining them in a school.  Saint Kentigern, first bishop at Glasgow, member of the royal family of Rheged - C 540 - 603/614.

 

Cynwydion / Calchwynedd – the shrine of Saint Alban at Verulamium falls to Mercia only C 630.

 

The conversion of Hibernia and Man, and the evangelization of Armorica, Dumnonia and Alba, are very unlikely to have been the result of the efforts of individual, isolated and unsupported missionaries, which implies that they were state policies and so, at least in part, politically driven.  Evangelism depended on royal patronage for grants of land, money and income to build and maintain churches, monasteries and schools.  Almost all of the major religious figures were royal and the paths they took were often dependent upon their royal linkages.  The persons involved indicate clearly the political connection of religion and conversion.  Missions would have needed diplomatic clearance. Once in the field, missionaries would have needed support and reinforcement or replacement.  They worked in groups, often of related members, and evengelised neighbouring areas. Their techniques were similar; smll church, well, bell and staff are found everywhere.  They would have needed expensive texts from which to preach.

 

The personal religious involvement of so much of the British political establishment, many of whom forfeited positions and even thrones, sometimes to the disadvantage of their dynasties, argues either for some unclear material advantage to be thus gained, or to religious fervour.  The latter idea is supported by the very large and permanent commitment of manpower (each mission needed more than one missionary and involved more people in its new location) and material support.  Religious establishments needed land, buildings and building material, livestock and crops, and in many cases involved the permanent alienation from the local ruler and populace of rights of service, fishing, livestock and produce. This must have been particularly onerous in a society that was not economically rich.

 

There seems to have been little distinction between male and female missionaries.  There were, however, only male bishops.

 

One side effect of the fact that British missionary work conversion was political and by royal sanction was that it could not thus include Germanic areas ruled by hostile, pagan foreign royal families. When Irish missionaries in C 7 had royal Saxon connections, they converted all but Kent. 

© 2014 Nigel Collett All Rights Reserved